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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e078, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1278596


Abstract This study aimed to assess the discriminant validity of the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) at different thresholds, compared with the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth Index (dmf) instrument, to discriminate caries risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted including children aged 2-5 years from preschools in Southern Brazil. Parents answered a questionnaire, and children were clinically examined using the CAST instrument and, in the following weeks, using the dmf index. Two caries thresholds were adopted for CAST: caries in dentin (CAST4-7/CAST2,4-8) and enamel caries (CAST3-7/CAST2-8). Poisson regression was used in the analysis (p < 0.05). A total of 200 children were included. The prevalence of caries was 47.0% with dmf, 42.5% with CAST4-7, and 77.5% with CAST3-7. When the outcome was caries prevalence, CAST4-7 discriminated between sexes, household crowding, and dental pain, and CAST3-7 discriminated age and family income, while the dmf was associated with dental pain. When experience of caries was the outcome, all the criteria discriminated between sexes, age, family income, household overcrowding, visible dental plaque, and dental pain, while dmf and CAST2-8 also discriminated maternal schooling. The CAST discriminated caries risk factors similar to the dmf index when caries experience was the outcome. When prevalence was considered, CAST was able to discriminate for more individual characteristics than dmf.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Crowding , Dental Caries/epidemiology , Tooth, Deciduous , Brazil/epidemiology , DMF Index , Family Characteristics , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08212020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155529


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Household crowding deserves attention when evaluating the transmission intensity of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil. We aimed to evaluate the association between household crowding and COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: Linear and Poisson regression analyses were used to assess the associations between indices of household crowding (high, average, low) and COVID-19 incidence estimates. RESULTS: Cities with a high index of household crowding were linked with a significantly higher COVID-19 incidence estimate (excess of 461 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval: 371-558 per 100,000). CONCLUSIONS: Crowding typically promotes virus transmission. Considering urban and housing structures is essential in designing mitigation strategies during a pandemic.

Humans , Crowding , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Brazil , Family Characteristics , Cities , Pandemics
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 347-352, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126171


Resumen: Introducción: La infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) podría estar ocurriendo a edades más tempranas, debido a fenómenos sociales como concurrencia a centros de cuidado diurno en forma más frecuente y precoz. Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn en niños de 0-12 años, y explorar si la edad, asistencia a centro de cuidados diurnos/escuela, hacinamiento o convivencia con niños incrementan el riesgo de seropositividad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal incluyendo niños de 0-12 años de edad que requirieron extracciones de sangre para control, por lo demás sanos. En todos los casos se consignaron las variables mencionadas y se determinó IgG anti-Mypn mediante enzimoinmunoanálisis. Se evaluó la asociación entre predictores y seropositividad en un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 232 pacientes (edad promedio 56,4 ± 40,0 meses). El 56,9% concurría a centro de cuidado diurno/escuela, 63,8% convivían con menores de 12 años y 15,9% presentaban hacinamiento. El 14,6% presentaba anticuerpos anti-Mypn. Los niños seroposi- tivos no mostraron diferencias significativas con aquellos seronegativos en relación a edad (63,1 ± 40,7 vs. 55,4 ± 41,3 meses), escolaridad (64,7% vs 55,5%), hacinamiento (14,7% vs 14,9%), ni con vivencia con menores (64,7% vs 63,6%). La edad tampoco se mostró como predictor independiente de seropositividad en el modelo multivariado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn fue 14,6%. La edad no fue predictor de seropositividad.

Abstract: Introduction: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) infection could be occurring at an earlier age due to social pheno mena such as attending daycare centers more frequently and earlier than decades ago. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children aged 0-12 years, and to explore whether age, attendance to daycare center/school, overcrowding or the presence of children aged below 12 years in the households increase the risk of seropositivity. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional stu dy including healthy children aged 0-12 years which required blood draws for routine laboratory tests. In all cases, the aforementioned variables were recorded and anti-Mypn IgG was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The association between predictors and seropositivity was assessed in a logistic regression model. Results: We included 232 patients (average age 56.4 ± 40.0 months). 56.9% attended a daycare center/school, 63.8% co-habited with children under 12 years old, and 15.9% lived in overcrowded households. The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies was 14.6%. There were no significant differences between seropositive and seronegative children regarding age (63.1 ± 40.7 vs. 55.4 ± 41.3 months), school/day-care attendance (64.7% vs. 55.5%), overcrowding (14.7% vs. 14.9%), or co-habiting with children (64.7% vs. 63.6%). Age was not an independent predictor of seropositivity in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children was 14.6% and age was not a predictor of seropositivity.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/blood , Schools , Biomarkers/blood , Crowding , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child Day Care Centers , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880302


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a new zoonotic agent that emerged in December 2019, causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This infection can be spread by asymptomatic, presymptomatic, and symptomatic carriers. SARS-CoV-2 spreads primarily via respiratory droplets during close person-to-person contact in a closed space, especially a building. This article summarizes the environmental factors involved in SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including a strategy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a building environment. SARS-CoV-2 can persist on surfaces of fomites for at least 3 days depending on the conditions. If SARS-CoV-2 is aerosolized intentionally, it is stable for at least several hours. SARS-CoV-2 is inactivated rapidly on surfaces with sunlight. Close-contact aerosol transmission through smaller aerosolized particles is likely to be combined with respiratory droplets and contact transmission in a confined, crowded, and poorly ventilated indoor environment, as suggested by some cluster cases. Although evidence of the effect of aerosol transmission is limited and uncertainty remains, adequate preventive measures to control indoor environmental quality are required, based on a precautionary approach, because COVID-19 has caused serious global damages to public health, community, and the social economy. The expert panel for COVID-19 in Japan has focused on the "3 Cs," namely, "closed spaces with poor ventilation," "crowded spaces with many people," and "close contact." In addition, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has been recommending adequate ventilation in all closed spaces in accordance with the existing standards of the Law for Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings as one of the initial political actions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, specific standards for indoor environmental quality control have not been recommended and many scientific uncertainties remain regarding the infection dynamics and mode of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in closed indoor spaces. Further research and evaluation are required regarding the effect and role of indoor environmental quality control, especially ventilation.

Aerosols , Air Pollution, Indoor/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Crowding , Environment, Controlled , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 346-350, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879652


PURPOSE@#Boarding is a common problem in the emergency department (ED) and is associated with poor health care and outcome. Imam Khomeini Hospital is the main healthcare center in Urmia, a metropolis in the northwest of Iran. Due to the overcrowding and high patient load, we aim to characterize the rate, cause and consequence of boarding in the ED of this center.@*METHODS@#All medical records of patients who presented to the ED of Imam Khomeini Hospital from August 1, 2017 to August 1, 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with uncompleted records were excluded. Boarding was defined as the inability to transfer the admitted ED patients to a downstream ward in ≥2 h after the admission order. Demographic data, boarding rate, mortality and triage levels (1-5) assessed by emergency severity index were collected and analyzed. The first present time of patients was classified into 4 ranges as 0:00-5:59, 6:00-11:59, 12:00-17:59 and 18:00-23:59. Descriptive, parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were performed and the risk of boarding was determined by Pearson Chi-square test.@*RESULTS@#Demographic data analysis showed that 941 (58.5%) male and 667 (41.5%) female, altogether 1608 patients were included in this study. Five patients (0.3%) died. The distribution of patients with the triage levels 1-5 was respectively 79 (4.9%), 1150 (71.5%), 374 (23.3%), 4 (0.2%) and 0 (0%). Most patients were of level 2. Only 75 (4.7%) patients required intensive care. The majority of patients (84.2%) were presented at weekdays. The maximum patient load was observed between 12:00-17:59. Of the 1608 patients, 340 (21.1%) experienced boarding within a mean admission time of 13.70 h. Among the 340-boarded patients, 20.1% belonged to surgery, 12.1% to orthopedics, 10.9% to neurosurgery and 10.3% to neurology. The boarding rate was higher in females, patients requiring intensive care and those with low triage levels. Compared with the non-boarded, the boarded patients had a higher mean age.@*CONCLUSION@#The boarding rate is higher in the older and female patients. Moreover, boarding is dependent on the downstream ward sections: patients requiring surgical management experience the maximum boarding rate.

Age Factors , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran , Length of Stay , Male , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Triage
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 66, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1127247


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present an overview of systematic reviews on throughput interventions to solve the overcrowding of emergency departments. METHODS Electronic searches for reviews published between 2007 and 2018 were made on PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Health Systems Evidence, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and the CAPES periodicals portal. Data of the included studies was extracted into a pre-formatted sheet and their methodological quality was assessed using AMSTAR 2 tool. Eventually, 15 systematic reviews were included for the narrative synthesis. RESULTS The interventions were grouped into four categories: (1) strengthening of the triage service; (2) strengthening of the ED's team; (3) creation of new care zones; (4) change in ED's work processes. All studies observed positive effect on patient's length of stay, expect for one, which had positive effect on other indicators. According to AMSTAR 2 criteria, eight revisions were considered of high or moderate methodological quality and seven, low or critically low quality. There was a clear improvement in the quality of the studies, with an improvement in focus and methodology after two decades of systematic studies on the subject. CONCLUSIONS Despite some limitations, the evidence presented on this overview can be considered the cutting edge of current scientific knowledge on the topic.

Humans , Crowding , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Health Services Accessibility , Brazil
Niger. J. Dent. Res ; 5(2): 108-117, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266994


Objective: Crowding of the dentition results in distortion of the arch form and orthodontic treatment unravels the crowding based on the shape of the wire of arch form utilized. Alteration of an existing arch form with the wrong arch wire and biomechanics may result in unstable results. Selection of the appropriate arch wire shape based on the patient's original arch form results in a finished orthodontic treatment which is aesthetically pleasing, preserves the shape and function, with long term stability of the finished case. The objective of the study was to analyze the dental arch shape in untreated orthodontic patients with anterior arch crowding. Methods: Dental casts of 100 untreated orthodontic patients with anterior arch crowding of both the maxilla and mandible were selected and classified using Angles method. Crowding was described as mild, moderate, severe and very severe using the index described by Little. The Occlusal plane was outlined for both jaws using brass wire adapted with sticky wax along the buccal cusps of the posterior teeth on one side of the arch through the incisal edges of the anterior teeth to the buccal cusps of the posterior teeth on the other side of the arch. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS version 22.0 software. All data was expressed as frequencies, percentages and means. The results were presented using frequency tables. Results: Upper arch shapes were identified as square in 58(58%), tapered in 18(18%) and ovoid in 24 (24%). Lower arch shapes were square in 60(60%), tapered in 36 (36%) and ovoid in 4(4%). Anterior arch crowding was seen in both arches as mild in 68(68%), moderate in 17(17%), severe in 9(9%) and very severe in 6(6%). The highest prevalence of anterior crowding was seen in the mild variant and in the square shape in both the upper and lower arch forms in 43 (63.2%), respectively. The tapered arch form was not demonstrated in the very severely crowded upper arch, while the ovoid arch form in the lower arch was not evident in the severe and very severe variant of crowding. This was however not statistically significant. Conclusion: The square arch form is most prevalent in cases of upper and lower crowding

Crowding , Dental Arch , Malocclusion , Nigeria , Patients
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(12): 1476-1481, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057086


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Exploring the use of forecasting models and simulation tools to estimate demand and reduce the waiting time of patients in Emergency Departments (EDs). METHODS The analysis was based on data collected in May 2013 in the ED of Recanto das Emas, Federal District, Brasil, which uses a Manchester Triage System. A total of 100 consecutive patients were included: 70 yellow (70%) and 30 green (30%). Flow patterns, observed waiting time, and inter-arrival times of patients were collected. Process maps, demand, and capacity data were used to build a simulation, which was calibrated against the observed flow times. What-if analysis was conducted to reduce waiting times. RESULTS Green and yellow patient arrival-time patterns were similar, but inter-arrival times were 5 and 38 minutes, respectively. Wait-time was 14 minutes for yellow patients, and 4 hours for green patients. The physician staff comprised four doctors per shift. A simulation predicted that allocating one more doctor per shift would reduce wait-time to 2.5 hours for green patients, with a small impact in yellow patients' wait-time. Maintaining four doctors and allocating one doctor exclusively for green patients would reduce the waiting time to 1.5 hours for green patients and increase it in 15 minutes for yellow patients. The best simulation scenario employed five doctors per shift, with two doctors exclusively for green patients. CONCLUSION Waiting times can be reduced by balancing the allocation of doctors to green and yellow patients and matching the availability of doctors to forecasted demand patterns. Simulations of EDs' can be used to generate and test solutions to decrease overcrowding.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Explorar o uso de modelos de previsão e ferramentas de simulação para estimar a demanda e reduzir o tempo de espera dos pacientes em Departamentos de Emergência (DE). METODOLOGIA A análise foi baseada em dados coletados em maio de 2013, no DE do Recanto das Emas, Distrito Federal, Brasil, que utiliza o Protocolo de Manchester como sistema de triagem. Um total de 100 pacientes consecutivos foram incluídos: 70 amarelos (70%) e 30 verdes (30%). Padrões de fluxo, tempo de espera observado e tempos entre as chegadas dos pacientes foram registrados. Mapas de processo, demanda e dados de capacidade foram utilizados na construção de uma simulação que foi calibrada de acordo com o fluxo observado. Uma análise do tipo "e se..." foi conduzida para reduzir os tempos de espera. RESULTADOS Os padrões de tempo de chegada para pacientes verdes e amarelos foram semelhantes, mas os tempos entre chegadas foram 5 e 38 minutos, respectivamente. O tempo de espera foi de 14 minutos para pacientes amarelos e 4 horas para pacientes verdes. A equipe médica era composta por quatro médicos por turno. Uma simulação previu que a inclusão de mais um médico por turno reduziria o tempo de espera para 2,5 horas para pacientes verdes, com um impacto pequeno no tempo de espera dos pacientes amarelos. A manutenção de quatro médicos e a inclusão de um médico exclusivamente para pacientes verdes reduziria o tempo de espera para 1,5 horas para pacientes verdes e aumentaria em 15 minutos para os pacientes amarelos. O melhor cenário simulado utilizou cinco médicos por plantão, com dois médicos exclusivos para pacientes verdes. CONCLUSÃO Os tempos de espera podem ser reduzidos equilibrando a distribuição de médicos para pacientes verdes e amarelos e relacionando a disponibilidade dos médicos aos padrões de demanda previstos. Simulações de DE podem ser utilizadas para gerar e testar soluções para diminuir a superlotação.

Humans , Computer Simulation , Crowding , Waiting Lists , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Time Factors , Algorithms , Brazil , Pilot Projects , Reproducibility of Results , Forecasting , Nursing Assessment/methods
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787347


Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces dysfunction of the orofacial muscles, leading to morphologic alteration of the face and dental malalignment. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB is required in pediatric patients to ensure normal facial growth. Myofunctional therapy (MFT) is a modality for the treatment of SDB and prefabricated appliances can be used. Herein 2 cases of malocclusion with SDB, in which MFT with a prefabricated appliance was used for orthodontic treatment, have been described. SDB was diagnosed based on clinical symptoms taken by interview and home respiratory polygraphy. In both cases, SDB was improved using prefabricated appliance for MFT. However, resolution of crowding depended on the degree of crowding.

Child , Crowding , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Malocclusion , Muscles , Myofunctional Therapy , Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 40: e20180076, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1004087


Resumo OBJETIVO Analisar dificuldades encontradas pelos enfermeiros no cuidado à pessoa com comorbidade psiquiátrica em uma emergência geral e suas sugestões para melhoria do cuidado à estas neste serviço. MÉTODO Estudo qualitativo, descritivo e exploratório, realizado com doze enfermeiros em hospital geral do sul do Brasil em 2016. Para a coleta de informações utilizou-se entrevista e os resultados foram avaliados por Análise de Conteúdo. RESULTADOS Emergiram duas categorias: Dificuldades encontradas pelos enfermeiros no cuidado à pessoa com comorbidade psiquiátrica e Sugestões dos enfermeiros para qualificar o cuidado à pessoa com comorbidade psiquiátrica. A primeira relacionada à estrutura física e recursos materiais; superlotação; falta de preparo da equipe e de consultoria psiquiátrica e a segunda indicou fluxograma de atendimento; consultoria psiquiátrica e capacitação para a equipe. CONCLUSÕES Deve-se transcender a fragmentação do cuidado desde a formação dos profissionais de saúde, trazendo a necessidade de capacitações e de maior investimento na formação acadêmica.

Resumen OBJETIVO Analizar dificultades encontradas por los enfermeros en el cuidado a la persona con comorbilidad psiquiátrica en una emergencia general y sus sugerencias para mejorar el cuidado a éstas en este servicio. MÉTODO Estudio cualitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, realizado con doce enfermeros en hospital general del sur de Brasil en 2016. Para la recolección de informaciones se utilizó entrevista y los resultados fueron evaluados por Análisis de Contenido. RESULTADOS Emergieron dos categorías: Dificultades encontradas por los enfermeros en el cuidado a la persona con comorbilidad psiquiátrica y Sugerencias de los enfermeros para calificar el cuidado a la persona con comorbilidad psiquiátrica. La primera relacionada con la estructura física y los recursos materiales; hacinamiento; falta de preparación del equipo y de consultoría psiquiátrica y la segunda indicó diagrama de atención; consultoría psiquiátrica y capacitación para el equipo. CONCLUSIONES Se debe trascender la fragmentación del cuidado desde la formación de los profesionales de salud, trayendo la necesidad de capacitaciones y de mayor inversión en la formación académica.

Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the difficulties encountered by nurses when providing care to people with psychiatric comorbidity in the general emergency unit and their suggestions for improving the care of these patients. METHOD This is a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory study conducted with twelve nurses at a general hospital in southern Brazil, in 2016. Information was collected during an interview and the results were evaluated using content analysis. RESULTS Data interpretation led to two categories: Difficulties of nurses when providing care to people with psychiatric comorbidity and Nurses' suggestions to improve care for people with psychiatric comorbidity. The first category is related to the physical structure and material resources of the service, overcrowding, and lack of preparation of the team and professionals who provide psychiatric consultations. In the second category, the workers suggested a care flow chart, psychiatric consultations, and team training. CONCLUSIONS We must transcend the fragmentation of care from the education years of health professionals, emphasize the need for training, and make greater investments in health education.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Emergency Service, Hospital , Mental Disorders/nursing , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Brazil , Crowding , Comorbidity , Emergency Nursing/education , Qualitative Research , Health Resources
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785622


Overcrowding with associated delays in patient care is a problem faced by emergency departments (EDs) worldwide. ED overcrowding can be the result of poor ED department design and prolonged throughput due to staffing, ancillary service performance, and flow processes. As such, the problem may be addressed by process improvements within the ED. A broad body of literature demonstrates that ED overcrowding can be a function of hospital capacity rather than an ED specific issue. Lack of institutional capacity leads to boarding in the ED with resultant ED crowding. This is a problem not solvable by the ED and must be addressed as an institution-wide problem. This paper discusses the causes of ED overcrowding, provides a brief overview of the drastic consequences, and discusses possible cures that have been successfully implemented.

Crowding , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Patient Care , Patient Safety
Rev. clín. periodoncia implantol. rehabil. oral (Impr.) ; 11(3): 173-176, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978202


RESUMEN: Introducción: La relación entre terceros molares y el desarrollo o reincidencia de maloclusión y apiñamiento dental tras el tratamiento de ortodoncia, especialmente en el segmento anterior del arco dental, es un tema que ha sido discutido y presentado en la literatura, el cual aún permanece sin resolver. Métodos: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, preparamos tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Resultados: Identificamos 7 revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 31 estudios primarios, de los cuales, 2 son ensayos aleatorizados. Conclusiones: El limitado desarrollo de estudios que relacionan los terceros molares con apiñamiento dental y el bajo nivel de evidencia de éstos no permiten tener claridad respecto a la posible asociación. Son necesarios nuevos estudios sobre el tema.

ABSTRACT: Introduction: The relationship between third molars and the development or recurrence of malocclusion and dental crowding after orthodontic treatment, especially in the anterior segment of the dental arch, is a subject that has been discussed and presented in the literature, which still remains unsolved. Methods: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic health reviews, which combines searches in multiple sources of information, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted the data from the identified reviews, reanalyzed them from the primary studies and prepared summary tables of the results using the GRADE method. Results: We identified 7 systematic reviews that together included 31 primary studies, 2 of which were randomized trials. Conclusion: The limited development of studies that relate third molars to dental crowding and their low level of evidence does not allow us to be certain about the possible association. New studies are necessary.

Humans , Orthodontics , Dental Arch , Malocclusion , Molar , Molar, Third , Crowding
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787303


Osteopetrosis is characterized by impaired osteoclast function and increased bone density. Infantile osteopetrosis is a severe form of the disease and has characteristics such as diffusely sclerotic skeleton, pancytopenia, cranial nerve entrapment, infection susceptibility, and abnormal craniofacial appearance. Patients with infantile osteopetrosis often experience developmental delay, and may have a short life span.A 14-month-old girl with osteopetrosis presented to the department of pediatric dentistry. Incipient caries on deciduous incisors were observed. The patient revisited 4 years of age. Besides medical problems, oral complications such as growth retardation, narrow upper arch, crowding, dental caries, and abnormal tooth development were observed. After consultation with her pediatrician, dental treatments were performed on the deciduous molars under sedation after a prophylactic antibiotic injection. At a periodic follow-up, multiple deciduous teeth were treated and extracted, and oral-rehabilitation with a removable partial denture was initiated.Patient with osteopetrosis are highly susceptible to infection because of their compromised immune system and problems associated with wound healing that lead to osteomyelitis or sepsis development.Active participation in dental care for sugar intake management and proper oral hygiene are obligatory.

Bone Density , Cranial Nerves , Crowding , Dental Care , Dental Caries , Denture, Partial, Removable , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immune System , Incisor , Infant , Molar , Oral Hygiene , Osteoclasts , Osteomyelitis , Osteopetrosis , Pancytopenia , Pediatric Dentistry , Sepsis , Skeleton , Tooth , Tooth, Deciduous , Wound Healing
Asian Nursing Research ; : 62-68, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713600


PURPOSE: This study aims to gain in-depth understanding of nurses' perspectives of working in an overcrowded emergency. METHODS: Symbolic interactionism and Charmaz's construction of grounded theory were used. Purposive sampling at the start of the study and a further theoretical sampling by snowball technique were used to recruit 40 registered nurses (RN) to participate in in-depth, semi-structured interviews betweenMay and November, 2014. Data analysis included analytic techniques of initial, focused and theoretical coding. RESULTS: Study findings showed searching for work role is derived by the themes of Finding the role of positioning in Emergency Department (ED), Recognizing causes of ED overcrowding, and Confined working environment. Nurses' work experience which represents the RNs not gained control over their work, as care actions influenced by the problematic overcrowded circumstance of the ED environment. CONCLUSION: The findings fill a gap in knowledge about how RNs experience their work role in the context of an overcrowded Emergency Department in Taiwan. Arising from the study result include taking account of nurses' perspectives when planning staff/patient ratios, strategies to reduce waiting time and ensure that clients receive appropriate care.

Clinical Coding , Crowding , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Grounded Theory , Humans , Nurses , Statistics as Topic , Taiwan
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714551


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to compare the alignment efficiency and intermaxillary arch dimension changes of nickel-titanium (NiTi) or copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) round archwires with increasing diameters applied sequentially to the mandibular arch. METHODS: The initial alignment phase of fixed orthodontic treatment with NiTi or CuNiTi round archwires was studied in a randomly allocated sample of 66 patients. The NiTi group comprised 26 women, 10 men, and the CuNiTi (27℃) group comprised 20 women, 10 men. The eligibility criteria were as follows: anterior mandibular crowding of minimum 6 mm according to Little's Irregularity Index (LII), treatment requiring no extraction of premolars, 12 to 18 years of age, permanent dentition, skeletal and dental Class I malocclusion. The main outcome measure was the alignment of the mandibular anterior dentition; the secondary outcome measure was the change in mandibular dental arch dimensions during 12 weeks. Simple randomization (allocation ratio 1:1) was used in this single-blind study. LII and mandibular arch dimensions were measured on three-dimensional digital dental models at 2-week intervals. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was observed between NiTi and CuNiTi according to LII (p > 0.05). Intercanine and intermolar arch perimeters increased in the CuNiTi group (p < 0.001). Inter-first premolar width showed a statistically significant interaction in week × diameter × application (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The effects of NiTi and CuNiTi round archwires were similar in terms of their alignment efficiency. However, the intercanine and intermolar arch perimeters, and the inter-first premolar width changes differed between groups.

Bicuspid , Crowding , Dental Arch , Dental Models , Dentition , Dentition, Permanent , Female , Humans , Male , Malocclusion , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Random Allocation , Single-Blind Method
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714044


OBJECTIVE: Many studies have reported the effectiveness of the ‘time target’ on reducing emergency department (ED) overcrowding and improving clinical quality. This study examined the effects of introducing the time target on ED overcrowding and clinical quality using meta-analysis. METHODS: The electronic databases including PubMed (Medline), Cochrane Library, and Embase until June 2017 were searched. The search keywords were ‘time target,’‘national emergency access target,’‘four-hour rule,’ and ‘shorter stays in ED’. Two investigators selected and reviewed articles according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of the articles was evaluated using the RoBANS checklist. The data were abstracted by predetermined criteria and meta-analysis was performed using RevMan software. RESULTS: Of 721 articles, 16 studies were included in the final analysis. A meta-analysis of four studies on the ED length of stay (LOS) showed that the mean EDLOS was reduced by 0.64 hours (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.94) since the introduction of the time target. Other studies also showed that the EDLOS was reduced. There was no definite trend in the hospital admission rate. Meta-analysis of nine studies on the clinical quality revealed a total odds ratio of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.74–1.32). Time taken until the visitation of a doctor and the initiation of treatment were both reduced. The rate of “left without being seen” was decreased. CONCLUSION: EDLOS was reduced and no significant association was observed between mortality and the application of a time target since the introduction of time target. ‘Rate of revisiting,’‘time to clinician,’‘time to treatment,’ and ‘rate of left without being seen’ was reduced.

Checklist , Crowding , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Mortality , Odds Ratio , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Research Personnel
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719093


OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether emergency department (ED) crowding influences the timing of the initial assessment and treatment in severe trauma patients, as well as their mortality rates. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study was conducted between January 2015 and October 2016, and included adult severe trauma patients who presented to the ED. The emergency department occupancy rate (EDOR) was used to measure ED crowding. The patients were divided into four groups using the EDOR quartile. The timeliness of the initial assessment and treatment in the four groups as well as the mortality rates were compared. RESULTS: This study investigated 307 patients. The timing of the first computed tomography (CT) and laboratory test order, CT and laboratory test result acquisition, first transfusion, and patient transfer from the ED to the operating room were similar in the four groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show a significant difference in mortality between the groups. CONCLUSION: ED crowding was not associated with delays in the initial assessment and treatment of severe trauma patients, or in their mortality rates.

Adult , Blood Transfusion , Crowding , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Logistic Models , Mortality , Observational Study , Operating Rooms , Patient Transfer , Retrospective Studies , Weights and Measures , Wounds and Injuries
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740864


PURPOSE: This study was conducted to identify the effect of crowding and nurse staffing on time to antibiotic administration for pneumonia patients in an emergency department (ED). METHODS: The sample included pneumonia patients visiting an ED from November 1, 2014 to February 28, 2015. Crowding was measured using ED occupancy rate, nurse staffing was measured as total length of stay per nurse and number of patients per nurse and the time duration was measured for the following processes: from patient arrival to prescription, from prescription to blood culture and antibiotic administration, and from blood culture to antibiotic administration. Data collected from the electronic medical records were analyzed using multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The mean times from arrival to antibiotics administration, from prescription to antibiotic administration, and from blood culture to antibiotic administration were 128.31, 47.29, and 15.60 minutes, respectively. Crowding, nurse staffing, work experience of the nurse and severity of the patient influenced the time duration of each process from patient arrival to antibiotic administration. CONCLUSION: The results reveal that crowding and nurse staffing affect length of time to antibiotic administration in pneumonia patients. Guidelines for safe nurse staffing in ED are required to improve patient outcomes.

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Crowding , Electronic Health Records , Emergencies , Emergency Nursing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Length of Stay , Multivariate Analysis , Pneumonia , Prescriptions