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2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(3): e2020180, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131840

ABSTRACT

Hepatic cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus and iron overload can each independently predispose to cryptococcosis. Hereditary hemochromatosis leads to all three of these predispositions. This report is the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and cirrhosis, who had markedly elevated serum ferritin and 99% transferrin saturation, and developed a leukemoid reaction. Autopsy revealed disseminated cryptococcosis for which the leukemoid reaction was a clue and possible hereditary hemochromatosis of which elevated ferritin and transferrin saturation can be clues. Hereditary hemochromatosis is an important diagnosis clinicians should never miss because early treatment with phlebotomy can be life-saving. Disseminated cryptococcosis can be rapidly diagnosed with serum cryptococcal antigen test and is treatable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Hemochromatosis/pathology , Autopsy , Transferrin , Fatal Outcome , Iron Overload , Ferritins , Hepatitis , Liver Cirrhosis
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 94(6): 744-746, Nov.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054899

ABSTRACT

Abstract This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Skin Ulcer/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompetence , Skin Ulcer/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/microbiology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 656-662, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058092

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis es una micosis sistémica producida por un hongo levaduriforme encapsulado denominado Cryptococcus neoformans. Es una enfermedad universal, que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, manifestándose principalmente como una enfermedad diseminada con compromiso meníngeo o pulmonar. Sin embargo, la osteomielitis ocurre solo en 5-10% de los casos, siendo el compromiso vertebral el más frecuente. Presentamos un caso de criptococosis vertebral aislada y una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema. Se recomienda realizar una terapia antifúngica de inducción intravenosa y continuar con una fase de consolidación, vía oral, de duración variable. La indicación quirúrgica se considera en lesiones que comprometen la estabilidad vertebral y aquellas que presentan un compromiso neurológico, producen deformidad y para reducir el inóculo infeccioso.


Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by a ubiquitous encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans, it is usually associated with immunosuppressed patients. Osteomyelitis occurs in 5-10%, the spine involvement is one of the most reported. The purpose of this work is to present a case of isolated vertebral cryptococcosis and detail the results of a literature review. The treatment protocol is not yet established but it is recommended to start with aggressive intravenous therapy and continue with a suppressive treatment orally during a variable time. Surgical indication is considered in lesions that affect the spinal stability, deformity or neurological compromise and for local infectious control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification
5.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 492-496, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979372

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Mass-effect lesions are uncommon: they are described as cryptococcomas and their prevalence is even lower among immunocompetent patients. The aim here was to report an extremely rare case of cryptococcoma causing a mass effect and mimicking a brain tumor in an immunocompetent patient. The literature on CNS cryptococcal infections was reviewed with emphasis on cryptococcomas. Clinical, surgical and radiological data on a female patient with this rare presentation of cryptococcoma mimicking a brain tumor are described. Case Report: A 54-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with a rapid-onset progressive history of confusion and completely dependency for basic activities. Neuroimaging showed a left occipital lesion and neurosurgical treatment was proposed. From histopathological evaluation, a diagnosis of cryptococcoma was established. She received clinical support with antifungals, but despite optimal clinical treatment, her condition evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal infections have several forms of presentation and, in immunocompetent patients, their manifestation may be even more different. Cryptococcoma is an extremely rare presentation in which proper surgical and clinical treatment should be instituted as quickly as possible, but even so, there is a high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Immunocompromised Host , Fatal Outcome , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Rare Diseases/pathology , Rare Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(5,supl.1): 69-72, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887091

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, caused by genus Cryptococcus, presenting with meningitis, pneumonia, and skin lesions. Cutaneous presentation can be varied, but specifically in solid organ transplant recipients (iatrogenically immunocompromised), cryptococcosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of cellulitis-like lesions, since the delay in diagnosis leads to worse prognosis and fatal outcome. We report four cases of cryptococcosis with cutaneous manifestation not only for its rarity, but also to emphasize the important role of the dermatologist in the diagnosis of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Immunocompetence , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(6): 832-834, Nov.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837990

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Lymphocytosis/complications , Lung/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(5,supl.1): 29-31, Sept.-Oct. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837926

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that tends to affect immunocompromised individuals. The fungi are mostly acquired by inhalation, which leads to an initial pulmonary infection. Later, other organs - such as the central nervous system and the skin - can be affected by hematogenous spread. In addition, cutaneous contamination can occur by primary inoculation after injuries (primary cutaneous cryptococcosis), whose diagnosis is defined based on the absence of systemic involvement. The clinical presentation of cutaneous forms typically vary according to the infection mode. We report an unusual case of disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient with cutaneous lesions similar to those caused by primary inoculation. This clinical picture leads us to question the definition of primary cutaneous cryptococcosis established in the literature.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Immunocompromised Host , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/microbiology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Dermatomycoses/immunology , Dermatomycoses/microbiology
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 243-244, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781368

ABSTRACT

Abstract Distinct cases of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Cryptococcosis with atypical and localized skin manifestation on the upper limbs of two elderly patients are reported. In the 2nd one, he presented asymptomatic pulmonary cancer; the blood tests for fungal infection were negative, and the etiologic agents were seen in skin biopsy samples. This report emphasizes the importance of the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Paracoccidioidomycosis/pathology , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Skin/pathology , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 365-367, July-Aug. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761161

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYIntroduction: We present a fatal case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a young man whose diagnosis of HIV infection was made at the time of admission to the emergency room.Case report: The patient was a twenty-three-year-old man, with a history of daily fever during one month associated with diarrhea, weight loss, headache, vomiting and generalized seizures. He also had a history of diabetes mellitus, alcoholism and drug addiction. Upon physical examination the patient was pale, disoriented and had periods of agitation. White blood cells count was 3,440/mm3 (5% lymphocytes), hemoglobin was 10g/dL, platelets were 83,000/ mm3. Creatinine was 0.7 mg/dL; urea 19 mg/dL; Na, K, and liver enzymes were within normal limits. Lactic dehydrogenase was 494 IU/L. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed 10 white blood cells/mm3 (58% neutrophils, 31% lymphocytes, 11% monocytes) and 2 red blood cells/mm3. India ink test revealed six Cryptococcusyeasts/mm3. CSF glucose was 122 mg/dL and protein was 36 mg/ dL. VDRL test was negative and anti-HIV test was positive. Intravenous hydration, insulin, phenytoin, fluconazole, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, folinic acid, and amphotericin B were started. The patient did not improve and became obtunded and hypotensive. He was intubated and put on mechanical respiration. He received vasoactive drugs and died less than 24 hours after admission. A postmortem examination was performed and revealed disseminated cryptococcosis, with severe involvement of the kidneys.Conclusion:Cryptococcosis, as a rule, is a systemic disease that affects mostly immunocompromised individuals, especially patients with AIDS. When diagnosed late in its course it has a very high mortality.


RESUMOIntrodução: Apresentamos um caso fatal de criptococose disseminada em homem jovem cujo diagnóstico de HIV foi feito no momento da admissão na emergência.Relato de caso: O paciente, de 23 anos, sexo masculino, tinha história de febre diária de um mês de duração, associada à diarreia, perda de peso, cefaleia, vômitos e convulsões generalizadas. Tinha ainda história de diabetes mellitus, alcoolismo e drogadição. Ao exame físico havia palidez, desorientação e períodos de agitação. Os exames laboratoriais mostraram 3.440 leucócitos/mm3(5% linfócitos), hemoglobina de 10 g/dL, 83,000 plaquetas/mm3, creatinina de 0,7mg/dL, ureia de 19 mg/dL, Na, K e enzimas hepáticas dentro dos limites da normalidade. A lactato desidrogenase era 494 UI/L. Análise do líquor revelou 10 leucócitos/mm3 (58% neutrófilos, 31% linfócitos, 11% monócitos) e 2 hemácias/mm3, glicose de 122 mg/dL e proteína de 36 mg/dL. A análise com tinta da Índia revelou seis blastoconídeos de Cryptococcus/mm³. O VDRL foi negativo e o anti-HIV positivo. Foi iniciado tratamento com hidratação venosa, insulina, fenitoína, fluconazol, pirimetamina, sulfadiazina, ácido folínico e anfotericina B. O paciente não apresentou melhora e evoluiu com obnubilação e hipotensão, sendo intubado e iniciada ventilação mecânica. Foram administradas drogas vasoativas, e o paciente evoluiu a óbito menos de 24h após a admissão. A autópsia revelou criptococose disseminada, com grave envolvimento renal.Conclusão:A criptococose é via-de-regra, doença sistêmica que afeta principalmente indivíduos imunocomprometidos, especialmente com AIDS, e quando diagnosticada tardiamente apresenta alta mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Cryptococcosis/complications , Kidney Diseases/microbiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Kidney Diseases/pathology
11.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(5): 620-626, Sep-Oct/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695176

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis and cryptococcosis are infectious diseases that can result in the formation of single or multiple nodules in immunocompetent patients. Exposure to silica is known to raise the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We report the case of an elderly man with no history of opportunistic infections and no clinical evidence of immunodeficiency but with a six-month history of dry cough and nocturnal wheezing. A chest X-ray revealed a mass measuring 5.0 × 3.5 cm in the right upper lobe. The diagnostic approach of the mass revealed tuberculosis. The histopathological analysis of the surrounding parenchyma reveled silicosis and cryptococcosis. Cryptococcosis was also found in masses identified in the mediastinal lymph nodes. The surgical approach was indicated because of the degree of pleuropulmonary involvement, the inconclusive results obtained with the invasive and noninvasive methods applied, and the possibility of malignancy. This case illustrates the difficulty inherent to the assessment of infectious or inflammatory pulmonary pseudotumors, the differential diagnosis of which occasionally requires a radical surgical approach. Despite the presence of respiratory symptoms for six months, the first chest X-ray was performed only at the end of that period. We discuss the possible pathogenic mechanisms that might have led to the combination of three types of granulomatous lesions in the same lobe, and we emphasize the need for greater awareness of atypical presentations of pulmonary tuberculosis.


A tuberculose e a criptococose são infecções que podem cursar com a formação de nódulos isolados ou múltiplos em pacientes imunocompetentes. A exposição à sílica reconhecidamente eleva o risco de doença pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente idoso sem antecedentes de infecções oportunistas, sem evidência clínica atual de imunodeficiência, com história de tosse seca e sibilos, principalmente noturnos, com duração de seis meses, cuja radiografia de tórax evidenciava uma imagem tumoral medindo 5,0 × 3,5 cm em lobo superior do pulmão direito. A abordagem diagnóstica da massa evidenciou tratar-se de tuberculose, e a análise histopatológica do parênquima circunvizinho revelou a presença de criptococose e de silicose. Criptococose foi diagnosticada também em massas linfonodais mediastinais. A conduta cirúrgica foi imposta pelo grau de comprometimento pleuropulmonar localizado, pelo caráter inconclusivo das abordagens diagnósticas invasivas e não invasivas realizadas, assim como pela possibilidade de tratar-se de neoplasia. Este caso ilustra a dificuldade inerente ao diagnóstico diferencial de massas pulmonares de natureza infecciosa ou inflamatória simulando neoplasia, o que ocasionalmente impõe uma conduta cirúrgica radical. Apesar da presença de sintomas respiratórios por seis meses, a primeira radiografia do tórax só foi realizada tardiamente. São discutidos os possíveis mecanismos patogenéticos que possam ter levado a associação de três tipos de granulomatose no mesmo lobo pulmonar e é enfatizada a necessidade de uma maior divulgação das apresentações atípicas da tuberculose pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Silicosis/pathology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/pathology , Lung/pathology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
12.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Jul-Sept; 30(3): 367-370
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143990

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare disorder which is often diagnosed as HIV-negative AIDS in the light of poor immunity and AIDS-defining illnesses. We present a case of a 50-year-old male who presented with a midline posterior fossa tumour with ICL diagnosed as cerebellar cryptococcoma.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/microbiology , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Humans , Lymphopenia/complications , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2012 Apr-June; 30(2): 245-248
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143958

ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 30-year-old immunocompetent man with disseminated cryptococcosis who was initially treated with antitubercular therapy due to clinical and radiological diagnosis of vertebro-cerebral tuberculosis. The diagnosis of Cryptococcus infection was made due to incidental isolation of this fungus from blood culture with negative cerebrospinal fluid culture results. Though disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system, skeletal, and skin involvement is an uncommon manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection, a high clinical suspicion and early initiation of therapy is needed to recognise and treat such patients efficiently.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood/microbiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/immunology , Fungemia/microbiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
14.
An. bras. dermatol ; 86(6): 1178-1180, nov.-dez. 2011. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610424

ABSTRACT

Os autores relatam caso de Criptococcose cutânea primária, causada pelo Cryptococcus neoformans, em paciente imunocompetente, fazendeiro que desenvolveu extensivas lesões, no antebraço, após injúria provocada por galináceo, quando fazia limpeza de seu celeiro. Tratamento oral com fluconazol resultou em cura total. A literatura relata raridade de criptococcose cutânea primária em imunocompetentes e sua relativa frequência em imunodeprimidos.


The authors report a primary cutaneous cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in immunocompetent patient, a farmer who developed extensive lesions at the site of an injury caused by one of the chickens on his right forearm, while he was cleaning out his barn. Oral treatment with fluconazole was totally successful. A review of the literature showed the rarity of cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients and in contrast, that skin lesions frequently occur in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Lung Diseases, Fungal/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/growth & development , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Fungal/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Fungal/pathology
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(4): 394-396, July-Aug. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595685

ABSTRACT

Recently, there has been an increase in the incidence of cryptococcosis even among immunocompetent patients. We present a case of multiple subcutaneous swellings later developing into a non-healing ulcer caused by Cryptococcus in a 60 year-old immunocompetent male along with a brief review of clinical presentations of cutaneous cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. A high index of suspicion is desired in view of possible dissemination and variable non-specific clinical presentations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Dermatomycoses/pathology , Immunocompromised Host , Dermatomycoses/microbiology
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(12): 1535-1538, dic. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-583051

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is an invasive mycotic infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated, yeast-like fungus. It is considered an opportunist infection, since it mainly affects immunocompromised subjects. However there are isolated reports of the infection in immunocompetent subjects. Cryptococcal infection of intra-abdominal organs or tissues is extremely rare. We report a 21-year-old HIV positive male that, during the treatment of a meningeal cryptococcosis, presented a clinical picture of an acute abdomen suggesting acute appendicitis. The patient was operated, finding enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes forming conglomerates and a macroscopically normal appendix. The conglomerated lymph nodes and the appendix were excised. The pathological study of the surgical piece revealed an intra abdominal cryptococcal lymphadenitis and a normal appendix.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Abdomen, Acute/microbiology , Appendicitis/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Mesenteric Lymphadenitis/pathology , Appendicitis/microbiology
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(3): 145-149, May-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550345

ABSTRACT

Ten cases of cryptococcosis due to unusual microscopic forms of Cryptococcus sp. observed over a twenty-eight year period (1981-2009) are presented. The most important clinicopathological and laboratory data are tabulated. The uncommon forms of cryptococcal cells given are: structures resembling germ tube (one case), chains of budding yeasts (one case), pseudohyphae (two cases) and nonencapsulated yeast-like organisms (eight cases). The diagnosis was based on the histopathological findings. The causative organism was isolated and identified in seven cases; five were due to C. neoformans, and two to C. gattii. In addition, the importance of using staining histochemical techniques - Grocott's silver stain (GMS), Mayer's mucicarmine stain (MM) and Fontana-Masson stain (FM) - in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis is argued.


A criptococose é a mais comum infecção fúngica oportunística observada em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS). Relatamos 13 casos da infecção baseados no diagnóstico histopatológico, sorológico e cultivo. Foram analisadas: a epidemiologia, as técnicas histoquímicas básicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e coloração pela prata (GMS), bem como as técnicas histoquímicas especiais de mucicarmim de Mayer (MM) e Fontana-Masson (FM), o teste do antígeno criptocóccico (CrAg) e o isolamento em cultivos em ágar-Sabouraud (SAB), ágar infusão de cérebro-coração (BHI) e meio com canavanina azul de bromotimol (CGB). Em quatro casos, resultados tintoriais insatisfatórios pela coloração de MM associados a títulos negativos pelo teste do CrAg, a coloração de FM confirmou a infecção pelo Cryptococcus deficiente de cápsula. Oito isolados foram identificados: seis casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans e dois casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus gattii.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus/classification , Retrospective Studies
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(5): 255-259, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-530130

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 13 cases of cryptococcal infection based on histopathology, serology and cultures. Epidemiological analysis, histochemical techniques of hematoxilin and eosin (HE) and Grocot's silver (GMS), as well special histochemical techniques such as Mayer's mucicarmine (MM) and Fontana-Masson (FM), cryptococcal antigen test (CrAg) and isolation on fungal media: Sabouraud's (SAB), brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar were analyzed. Unsatisfactory staining results by MM stain associated to negative titers by CrAg test, which FM stain confirmed that capsule-deficient Cryptococcus infections were observed in four cases. Eight isolated cases were identified as follows: six cases were infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and two cases were Cryptococcus gattii.


A criptococose é a mais comum infecção fúngica oportunística observada em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS). Relatamos 13 casos da infecção baseados no diagnóstico histopatológico, sorológico e cultivo. Foram analisadas: a epidemiologia, as técnicas histoquímicas básicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e coloração pela prata (GMS), bem como as técnicas histoquímicas especiais de mucicarmim de Mayer (MM) e Fontana-Masson (FM), o teste do antígeno criptocóccico (CrAg) e o isolamento em cultivos em ágar-Sabouraud (SAB), ágar infusão de cérebro-coração (BHI) e meio com canavanina azul de bromotimol (CGB). Em quatro casos, resultados tintoriais insatisfatórios pela coloração de MM associados a títulos negativos pelo teste do CrAg, a coloração de FM confirmou a infecção pelo Cryptococcus deficiente de cápsula. Oito isolados foram identificados: seis casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans e dois casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus gattii.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Coloring Agents , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus/classification , Histocytochemistry , Immunocompromised Host , Retrospective Studies , Staining and Labeling , Young Adult
20.
Invest. clín ; 50(2): 231-239, jun. 2009. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-564805

ABSTRACT

La meningoencefalitis por Cryptococcus neoformans, es la infección fúngica mas frecuente del sistema nervioso central, en personas afectadas por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Es rara en niños inmunocompetentes y a menudo es fatal; predomina en el sexo masculino en una proporción de 3 a 1. Se describen los casos de dos escolares, uno masculino y otro femenino con antecedentes de contacto con palomas (Columba livia), cuyas manifestaciones clínicas fueron fiebre, cefalea, fotofobia, diplopía, ataxia y signos meníngeos con afectación unilateral del VI nervio craneal. El diagnóstico se estableció con el aislamiento del criptococo en cultivo, la tinción con tinta china y las pruebas de aglutinación en látex en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. La determinación de anticuerpos para virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y la cuantificación de linfocitos T CD4 y CD8 fueron normales. En el primer caso, la radiografía de tórax mostró una masa redondeada circunscrita en la mitad inferior del pulmón izquierdo y la resonancia magnética cerebral (RNM) reveló una imagen nodular compatible con un criptococoma en la región parietal derecha; se estableció un cuadro de hipertensión endocraneana, con edema de papila y amaurosis bilateral con evolución no satisfactoria y posterior fallecimiento. El segundo caso tuvo una evolución favorable. Ambos recibieron tratamiento con anfotericina B (1 mg/kg/día) y fluconazol (6 mg/kg/día). El Cryptococcus neoformans no es un hongo usual en niños inmunocompetentes. La detección precoz de la enfermedad y el tratamiento adecuado es fundamental para lograr un mejor pronóstico de la enfermedad.


Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis is the most common fungal central nervous system infection, in people affected by the human immunodeficiency virus. It is rare in inmunocompetent children and it is often fatal. It predominates in males at a ratio of 3 to 1. We describe the cases of two school children, one male and one female, with history of contact with pigeons (Columba livea), whose clinical symptoms were fever, headache, photophobia, diplopia, ataxia and meningeal signs, with unilateral involvement of cranial nerve VI. The diagnosis was established by the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans in culture, staining with India ink and evidence of latex antigen agglutination in the cerebrospinal fluid. The determination of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and quantification of CD4, CD8 and T lymphocyte cells, were normal. In the first case, a chest X-ray showed a round mass, circumscribed in the bottom half of the left lung. A brain MRI revealed an image compatible with a nodular cryptococcoma in the parietal region. A pattern of intracranial hypertension was established, with papilledema and bilateral amaurosis, that evolved unsatisfactorily, with the subsequent death of the patient. Both were treated with amphotericin B (1 mg/Kg/day) or fluconazole (6 mg/Kg/day). The second case had a favorable evolution. The Crypotococcus neoformans is not a common fungus in inmunocompetent children. Early detection of the disease and appropriate treatment is essential to achieve a better prognosis ot the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Amphotericin B , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus neoformans/pathogenicity , Meningoencephalitis/diagnosis , Neurology , Pediatrics
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