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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089323


ABSTRACT Background: This study aims to explore the epidemiology, clinical profile and strain characteristics of cryptococcosis from 2013 to 2017 in a major teaching hospital in China. Methods: Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of 217 consecutive non-repetitive cryptococcal isolates collected from patients of an university hospital in China were analyzed between 2013 and 2017. Of those, 98 isolates were conserved for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to designate molecular types. Clinical characteristics of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis during the period of 2013-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: There was a trend for gradual increase in the MIC range of fluconazole was from 2013 to 2017. The conserved 98 clinical cryptococcal isolates included 97 C. neoformans and one C. gattii, and 90 (91.8%) isolates belonged to ST5 genotype VNI. Out of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis, 28 (28.6%) were HIV-infected and 32 (32.7%) had no underlying diseases. HIV-infected patients had higher mortality than HIV-uninfected patients (28.6% vs 14.3%, p = 0.147). Conclusions: Most of the patients with cryptococcosis were not HIV-infected in this study, while patients with HIV had a higher mortality. Reduced susceptibility to fluconazole was observed among C. neoformans isolates, most of them belonged to ST5 genotype VNI having an impact on the effective dose of fluconazole.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1125-1133, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769665


In this study, we present antifungal susceptibility data of clinical and environmental isolates of Central Indian Cryptococcus neoformans (Serotype A, n = 8 and n = 50 respectively) and Cryptococcus gattii (Serotype B, n = 01 and n = 04 respectively). Susceptibilities to fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined by using NCCLS broth micro-dilution methodology. The total number of resistant strains for fluconazole in case of C. neoformans and C. gattii showed a significant difference by using chi-square test (p < 0.05*), while considering fisher's exact p value was nonsignificant (p > 0.05). However, the total number of resistant strains for itraconazole and ketoconazole was not found statistically significant. A comparison of geometric means of clinical and environmental strains of C. gattii and C. neoformans was not found statistically significant using student ‘t’ test (p value > 0.05 NS). Though less, the antifungal data obtained in this study suggests that primary resistance among environmental and clinical isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii against tested antifungal was present and C. gattii comparatively was less susceptible than C. neoformans var. grubii isolates to fluconazole than to itraconazole and ketoconazole. A continuous surveillance of antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii is desirable to monitor the emergence of any resistant strains for better management of cryptococcosis patients.

Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Environmental Microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , India/epidemiology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(3): 342-351, maio 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-676971


Lapachol was chemically modified to obtain its thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives. These compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against several bacteria and fungi by the broth microdilution method. The thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives of lapachol exhibited antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.05 and 0.10 µmol/mL, respectively. The thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives were also active against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii (MICs of 0.10 and 0.20 µmol/mL, respectively). In addition, the lapachol thiosemicarbazone derivative was active against 11 clinical isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, with MICs ranging from 0.01-0.10 µmol/mL. The lapachol-derived thiosemicarbazone was not cytotoxic to normal cells at the concentrations that were active against fungi and bacteria. We synthesised, for the first time, thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone derivatives of lapachol. The MICs for the lapachol-derived thiosemicarbazone against S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. gattii and several isolates of P. brasiliensis indicated that this compound has the potential to be developed into novel drugs to treat infections caused these microbes.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Semicarbazones/pharmacology , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(2): 175-179, May-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622740


Cryptococcus spp. are common causes of mycoses in immunocompromised patients. To determine the drug susceptibilities of clinical Cryptococcus spp. isolates, the characteristics of 61 clinical Cryptococcus spp. complex isolates and their antifungal susceptibilities were investigated, including 52 C. neoformans and 9 C. gattii isolates collected at Shanghai between 1993 and 2009. Antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine were determined by the microdilution method M27-A2 and the ATB FUNGUS 3 kit. The 90% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) and susceptibility ranges were as follows: 1 (0.0625-1) µg/mL for amphotericin B, 4 (0.125-16) µg/ mL for fluconazole, 0.25 (0.0313-4) µg/mL for itraconazole, and 4 (0.125-8) µg/mL for flucytosine. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and flucytosine have excellent in vitro activity against all tested clinical Cryptococcus spp., and we also found a high rate of tolerance to amphotericin B (MICs ranging from 0.55-1 µg/mL). Furthermore, C. neoformans isolates from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients were less susceptible to fluconazole and flucytosine than those from non-AIDS patients. These data suggest that use of amphotericin B may lead to tolerance or resistance of the pathogen over time. There were also no significant associations between species, genotypes, and in vitro susceptibilities of these clinical isolates.

Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , China , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Genotype , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Invest. clín ; 52(4): 312-322, dic. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659221


El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la susceptibilidad in vitro de aislados de Cryptocococus spp con una nueva clase de antifúngicos, hidrazonas esteroidales y comparar su actividad antifúngica en combinación con ajoeno y posaconazol contra aislados de Cryptococcus spp. Se utilizaron tres aislados del género Cryptococcus 42794, 4050 y 44192 y se evaluaron su sensibilidad y efectos sinérgicos con las hidrazonas esteroidales, ajoeno y posaconazol, según el documento M27-A2 del CLSI. Se incluyeron las cepas Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) y Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) como controles. Se observó con las hidrazonas (H1, H2, H3, H4) un efecto plateau a partir de 10 µM (CMI). Sin embargo, con la H4 se obtuvo bajo porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento. Con el ajoeno, se obtuvieron valores de CMI de 25 y 50 µM. El posaconazol mostró altos valores de inhibición y un valor de CMI de 6 µM para 42794 y 44192 y un CMI de 20 µM para el aislado 4050. Se obtuvieron efectos sinérgicos al combinar posaconazol con ajoeno, ajoeno con hidrazona 3 y posaconazol con hidrazona 3. Los valores de concentración inhibitoria fraccional fueron de 0,24; 0,16 y 0,09 respectivamente, indicando un marcado efecto sinérgico. Se obtuvieron efectos sinérgicos importantes entre el posaconazol con ajoeno, ajoeno con hidrazona 3 y posaconazol con hidrazona 3, lo cual sería muy útil para futuros estudios clínicos.

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro susceptibility to novel antifungal compounds, the steroidal hydrazones, and to compare their antifungal activity and synergistic effects with other compounds, such as ajoeno and posaconazole on Cryptocococus spp isolates. Three Cryptococcus strains were used for this study (42794, 4050 and 44192) and their antifungal sensitivity and synergistic effects with ajoeno and posaconazole were evaluated according to the CLSI protocol number M27-A2. Candida albicans (ATCC 90028) and Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) were used as controls. A plateau effect with hydrazones (H1, H2, H3, H4) was observed after 10 µM (CMI). However, with H4 only a mild inhibition on the growth was obtained. Combining hydrazone and ajoeno, CMI values between 25 and 50 µM were obtained. The highest inhibitions values were obtained with posaconazole and a CMI value of 6 µM for the strains 42794 and 44192, and a CMI value of 20 µM for the strain 4050. Synergy was observed combining posaconazole with ajoeno, ajoeno with hydrazone 3 and posaconazole with hydrazone 3. Fractional inhibitory concentrations were 0.24, 0.16 and 0.09 respectively, which might indicate a synergistic effect. Important synergistic effects were obtained with posaconazole and ajoeno, ajoeno and hydrazone 3 and posaconazole with hydrazone 3, which would be very useful for clinical trials in the future.

Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Disulfides/pharmacology , Hydrazones/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Triazoles/pharmacology , Candida/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Drug Synergism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 777-780, Nov.-Dec. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611762


INTRODUCTION: Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. METHODS: Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. RESULTS: In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. CONCLUSIONS: FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

INTRODUÇÃO: Os ácidos graxos são abundantes em óleos vegetais. Eles são conhecidos por suas propriedades antibacterianas e antifúngicas. MÉTODOS: A suscetibilidade a antifúngicos foi avaliada pelo ensaio de microdiluição em caldo de acordo com CLSI (anteriormente NCCLS) sobre 16 isolados de interesse clínico. RESULTADOS: Nesse trabalho, os ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME) inibiram doze isolados clínicos do fungo patogênico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, e também foi muito ativo no ensaio de bioautografia sobre o fungo Cladosporium sphaerospermum. CONCLUSÕES: FAME foi um antifúngico mais potente do que sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim contra P. brasiliensis, nas condições utilizadas no presente trabalho.

Annona/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Acids/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Paracoccidioides/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Fatty Acids/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/isolation & purification , Seeds/chemistry
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 661-665, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539514


Foram avaliados 37 isolados de 10 pacientes HIV negativos e 26 positivos, em Mato Grosso. Exame direto, cultura e quimiotipagem de espécies foram realizados. Cetoconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, fluconazol e anfotericina B foram avaliados. Foram identificadas 37 leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus spp sendo 26 de pacientes HIV- positivos (25 Cryptococcus neoformans e um Cryptococcus gattii) e 10 de HIV- negativos (cinco Cryptococcus neoformans e cinco Cryptococcus gattii). Considerando isolados clínicos (Cryptococcus neoformans) de HIV positivos observou-se resistência (8 por cento e 8,7 por cento) e susceptibilidade dose-dependência (20 por cento e 17,4 por cento) para fluconazol e itraconazol respectivamente. Para isolados de Cryptococcus neoformans oriundos de pacientes HIV negativos, observou-se susceptibilidade dose-dependência (40 por cento) ao fluconazol. Os isolados de Cryptococcus gattii provenientes de pacientes HIV- negativos mostraram-se susceptíveis a todos os antifúngicos, exceto um isolado de Cryptococcus gattii que foi susceptível dose-dependente ao fluconazol (20 por cento). O isolado proveniente do paciente HIV- positivo demonstrou resistência ao fluconazol (CIM > 256µg/mL) e itraconazol (CIM=3µg/mL).

Thirty-seven isolates from 10 HIV-negative and 26 HIV-positive patients in Mato Grosso were evaluated. Direct examination, culturing and chemotyping of species were performed. Ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B were evaluated. Thirty-seven yeasts of Cryptococcus spp were identified, of which 26 were from HIV-positive patients (25 Cryptococcus neoformans and one Cryptococcus gattii) and 10 from HIV-negative patients (five Cryptococcus neoformans and five Cryptococcus gattii). The Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from HIV-positive patients showed resistance (8 percent and 8.7 percent) and dose-dependent susceptibility (20 percent and 17.4 percent) to fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. Among the Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from HIV-negative patients, there was dose-dependent susceptibility (40 percent) to fluconazole. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from HIV-negative patients were shown to be susceptible to all antifungal agents, except for one isolate of Cryptococcus gattii that showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole (20 percent). The Cryptococcus gattii isolate from an HIV-positive patient showed resistance to fluconazole (MIC > 256 »g/ml) and itraconazole (MIC = 3 »g/ml).

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Prospective Studies