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1.
Acta méd. costarric ; 64(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1402992

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue aislar levaduras pertenecientes al complejo de especies Cryptococcus neoformans de los excrementos de paloma de Castilla (Columba livia) recolectados de plazas y parques públicos de El Salvador. Métodos: Las muestras se sembraron en medios de cultivos convencionales y a las colonias confirmadas se les efectuó una tipificación mediante la técnica de restricción enzimática del gen URA5. Resultados: De un total de 66 muestras analizadas, tres estaban positivas por levaduras pertenecientes al complejo de especies Cryptococcus neoformans. El estudio molecular agrupó los aislamientos en los tipos moleculares VNI y VNII; ambos corresponden a la especie Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto. Conclusión: En los sitios estudiados, la presencia de esta levadura es muy reducida, probablemente debido a factores ambientales. Se presenta el primer reporte de Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto, genotipos VNI y VNII en El Salvador, esta especie es de relevancia en salud pública por el ser el responsable de más del 90% de los casos de criptococosis a nivel mundial.


Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to isolate yeast that belonged to the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from the feces of the Feral Pigeon (Columba livia), from public places in El Salvador. Methods: Samples were seeded in conventional culture media and confirmed colonies were typed using the enzyme restriction technique of the URA5 gene. Results: Of a total of 66 samples analyzed, three were positive for yeasts that belonged to the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex. The molecular study grouped the isolates in the molecular types VNI and VNII; both belonging to the species Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto. Conclusions: In the studied sites the presence of this yeast is very low, probably due to environmental factors. We present the first report of Cryptococcus neoformans sensu stricto genotypes VNI and VNII in El Salvador. This specie is relevant in public health for being responsible for more than 90% of cases of cryptococcosis worldwide.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae , Cryptococcus neoformans , Genotype , Zoonoses , Public Health
2.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210124, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1386128

ABSTRACT

Triatomines are blood-feeding arthropods belonging to the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera; Reduviidae), capable of producing immunomodulatory and water-soluble molecules in their hemolymph, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In this work, we evaluated the antifungal and immunomodulatory activity of the hemolymph of Meccus pallidipennis (MPH) and Rhodnius prolixus (RPH) against Cryptococcus neoformans. Methods: We assessed the activity of the hemolymph of both insects on fungal growth by a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Further, RAW 264.7 macrophages were cultivated with hemolymph and challenged with C. neoformans. Then, their phagocytic and killing activities were assessed. The cytokines MCP-1, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-6 were measured in culture supernatants 4- and 48-hours post-infection. Results: Both hemolymph samples directly affected the growth rate of the fungus in a dose-dependent manner. Either MPH or RPH was capable of inhibiting fungal growth by at least 70%, using the lowest dilution (1:20). Treatment of RAW 264.7 macrophages with hemolymph of both insects was capable of increasing the production of MCP-I and TNF-α. In addition, when these cells were stimulated with hemolymph in the presence of C. neoformans, a 2- and a 4-fold increase in phagocytic rate was observed with MPH and RPH, respectively, when compared to untreated cells. For the macrophage killing activity, MPH decreased in approximately 30% the number of viable yeasts inside the cells compared to untreated control; however, treatment with RPH could not reduce the total number of viable yeasts. MPH was also capable of increasing MHC-II expression on macrophages. Regarding the cytokine production, MCP-I and TNF-α, were increased in the supernatant of macrophages treated with both hemolymphs, 4 and 48 hours after stimulation. Conclusion: These results suggested that hemolymph of triatomines may represent a source of molecules capable of presenting antifungal and immunomodulatory activity in macrophages during fungal infection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolymph/chemistry , Triatominae/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/immunology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation/physiology
3.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 81-89, 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370963

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de pulmón es la principal causa de muerte en el mundo por cáncer, y en Colombia es la segunda. Su pronóstico es pobre cuando se ha documentado enfermedad metastásica en el sistema nervioso central. El diagnóstico se basa en el resultado definitivo de patología. Aunque los hallazgos imagenológicos pueden ser muy sugestivos de malignidad, hay reportes de otras enfermedades que pueden imitar cáncer, tales como infecciones o tumores benignos, los cuales pueden llevar a adoptar conductas terapéuticas inapropiadas. Las infecciones fúngicas como las producidas por Criptococcus neoformans, son capaces de generar lesiones que pueden imitar neoplasias. El objetivo de esta publicación es reportar el caso de un hombre a quien inicialmente se le sospechó un carcinoma pulmonar metastásico al sistema nervioso central, y finalmente se le diagnosticó una criptococosis diseminada posterior a su fallecimiento


Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer in the world and the second in Colombia, its prognosis is bad when the diagnosis of metastatic disease in the central nervous system is documented. The diagnosis is based on the definitive pathologic result. Although the imaging findings can be highly suggestive of malignancy, there are reports of other conditions that can mimic lung cancer, such as infections or benign tumors, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. Fungal infections such as those caused by Criptococcus neoformans are capable of generating lesions that can mimic neoplasms. The objective of this article is to report the case of a man who was initially diagnosed with metastatic lung carcinoma to the central nervous system, and was finally diagnosed with disseminated cryptococcosis after his death


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Biopsy , Bronchoscopy , Central Nervous System , Cryptococcus neoformans , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms
4.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 20(2): 245-252, set 29, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cryptococcus neoformans es una levadura encapsulada, que se encuentra en fuentes ambientales, incluyendo excrementos de palomas. Tiene una gran relevancia clínica porque es el agente etiológico de la criptococosis, considerada una causa importante de mortalidad en personas inmunocomprometidas en todo el mundo. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia y susceptibilidad de C. neoformans aislados del suelo y excremento de palomas en la ciudad de Maceió ­ Alagoas, Brasil. Metodología: Se recolectaron 150 muestras (50 de excretas secas, 50 de excretas frescas y 50 del suelo) y cultivaron en Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud. Las colonias aisladas sugestivas de C. neoformans se sometieron a identificación y caracterización mediante análisis morfológicos, actividad de la enzima fenol-oxidasa, sensibilidad a la cicloheximida, desarrollo a 37°C, hidrólisis de urea, asimilación de carbono y nitrógeno y fenotipificación en medio canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol. La prueba de susceptibilidad antifúngica se realizó utilizando la técnica de difusión en agar. Resultados: se obtuvieron 36 (24%) muestras positivas para C. neoformans, de las cuales 33 fueron de excretas secas y 3 del suelo cercano al excremento. El perfil de susceptibilidad fue de 100.0% para anfotericina B y 87.4% para ketoconazol, no obstante, hubo un alto porcentaje de resistencia a fluconazol (91.5%) e itraconazol (80.0%). Conclusión: estos hallazgos confirman que las excretas de palomas secas son reservorios de C. neoformans en el medio ambiente, caracterizando un problema de salud única. Además, la anfotericina B exhibió una alta actividad in vitro, representando buena alternativa en el tratamiento de la criptococosis.


Introdução: Cryptococcus neoformans é um fungo leveduriforme encapsulado, encontrado em fontes ambientais, incluindo excretas de pombos. Apresenta grande relevância clínica por ser agente etiológico da criptococose, considerada importante causa de mortalidade em indivíduos imunocomprometidos em todo o mundo. Objetivo: determinar a prevalência e suscetibilidade de C. neoformans isolados do solo e de excretas de pombos na cidade de Maceió, Alagoas. Metodologia: foram coletadas 150 amostras (50 de excretas secas, 50 de excretas frescas e 50 do solo) e cultivadas em Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. As colônias isoladas sugestivas de C. neoformans foram submetidas à identificação e caracterização por meio de análises morfológicas, atividade da enzima fenoloxidase, sensibilidade à cicloheximida, termotolerância à 37ºC, hidrólise da ureia, assimilação de carbono e nitrogênio e quimiotipagem em ágar L-canavanina-glicina-azul de bromotimol. O teste de suscetibilidade antifúngica foi realizado por meio da técnica de difusão em ágar. Resultados: foram obtidas 36 (24%) amostras positivas para C. neoformans, das quais 33 (91,6%) foram provenientes de excretas secas e 3 (8,3%) do solo próximo a excrementos. O perfil de suscetibilidade foi de 100,0% para a anfotericina B e 87,4% para o cetoconazol, não obstante, verificou-se alto percentual de resistência ao fluconazol (91,8%) e itraconazol (80%). Conclusão: estes achados confirmam que excretas de pombos secas são reservatórios de C. neoformans no ambiente, caracterizando um problema de saúde única. Além disso, a anfotericina B apresentou elevada atividade, in vitro, representando boa alternativa no tratamento da criptococose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Columbidae , Yeasts , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 482-484, July-Aug. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285084

ABSTRACT

Abstract The species of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex show different epidemiological patterns in the infection of immunosuppressed or immunocompetent individuals, and a common tropism peculiarity for the central nervous system. Primary cutaneous cryptococcosis is a rare clinical entity, with manifestations that are initially restricted to the skin through fungal inoculation, and the absence of systemic disease. The authors report in the present study the case of a 61-year-old immunocompetent man, with a rapidly evolving mucoid tumor on abrasions in contact with bird droppings on the forearm. The early identification of the polymorphic skin manifestations and treatment are crucial for the favorable prognosis of the infection, which can be life-threatening.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Dermatomycoses/diagnosis , Dermatomycoses/drug therapy , Skin , Immunocompromised Host , Early Diagnosis , Middle Aged
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880679

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis has become the largest cause for the death of infectious diseases in the central nervous system infectious disease worldwide. Most patients with cryptococcal meningitis have AIDS, autoimmune diseases, hematologic malignancies, and some other relevant diseases. It is mainly caused by infection with


Subject(s)
Antiphospholipid Syndrome/complications , Cryptococcus neoformans , Female , HIV Infections , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Middle Aged , Stroke
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01692021, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340829

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The clinical manifestations of cryptococcosis are usually associated with the infecting agents Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) and C. gattii (CG) species complexes and the host. In this study, non-HIV-infected patients, at a university hospital in southeastern Brazil, had epidemiological and clinical data associated with cryptococcal disease and isolated Cryptococcus species: CN - 24 patients and CG - 12 patients. METHODS: The comparison was comprised of demographic data, predisposing factors, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and outcomes of cryptococcosis patients treated between 2000 and 2016. Immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients were also compared, irrespective of the infecting species. Cryptococcus spp. were genotyped by PCR-RFLP analysis of the URA5 gene. RESULTS: Infections by the CN species complex (100% VNI genotype) were associated with drug immunosuppression and fungemia, and patients infected with the CG species complex (83% VG II and 17% VGI genotypes) had more evident environmental exposure and higher humoral response. CN and CG affected patients with or without comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes mellitus, other chronic non-infectious diseases, and alcoholism were likely predisposing factors for infection by both CN and CG species. Immunocompetent patients, independent of the infecting Cryptococcus species complexes, showed a higher occurrence of meningitis and a trend toward less fungal dissemination and longer survival than immunosuppressed hosts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Brazil/epidemiology , Genotype
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cryptococcus neoformans , COVID-19 , Malaria/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
9.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 4(3): 354-359, jul.set.2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382010

ABSTRACT

Mutações no gene STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) têm sido identificadas como responsáveis pela maioria dos casos sindrômicos da candidíase mucocutânea crônica com herança autossômica dominante (AD). Nesse artigo, descrevemos uma menina de 7 anos que apresentou candidíase da mucosa oral e unhas, além de infecção disseminada da pele e couro cabeludo por Microspora gipseum. Recentemente, a paciente foi diagnosticada e tratada de meningite por Cryptococcus neoformans. Na família não existem outros casos de candidíase. A avaliação imunológica incluiu a detecção de subpopulações de linfócitos (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 e células NK), assim como a dosagem de IgG, IgA, IgM e IgE, subclasses de IgG e autoanticorpos. Excluindo-se discreta diminuição de CD3, CD4, CD8, NK e leve aumento de IgG1, os demais exames estiveram dentro da normalidade. O sequenciamento do exoma detectou uma rara mutação em heterozigose no exon 14 do domínio de ligação do DNA (DNA-binding domain) do gene STAT1, ocasionando um provável ganho de função (GOF) responsável pela doença (Gly384Asp). Essa variação foi também identificada pelo sequenciamento de Sanger, não estando reportada nos bancos de dados públicos e apresentando elevado potencial de dano (índice CADD=32). Será interessante contarmos com informações clínicas e estudos com outros pacientes para conhecermos mais essa mutação patológica. Além da apresentação do caso, discutiremos as formas de tratamento existentes.


STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1) gene mutations have been identified as responsible for most syndromic cases of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis with autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance. In this article, we described a 7-year-old girl who presented with candidiasis of the oral mucosa and nails, as well as disseminated infection of the skin and scalp caused by Microsporum gypseum. Recently, the patient was diagnosed and treated for Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. There are no other cases of candidiasis in the family. The immunological evaluation consisted of detection of subpopulations of lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and NK cells), as well as measurement of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE, IgG subclasses, and autoantibodies. Excluding a slight decrease in CD3, CD4, CD8, NK and a minimal increase in IgG1, the others were within normal limits. Exome sequencing detected a rare heterozygous variation in exon 14 of the DNA-binding domain of the STAT1 gene, causing a probable gain of function (GOF) responsible for the disease (Gly384Asp). This variation was also identified by Sanger sequencing, but it was not reported in public databases and had a high potential for damage (Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion [CADD] score = 32). Having clinical information and conducting studies of other patients will be helpful to learn more about this pathological mutation. In addition to the presentation of the case, we will discuss the existing forms of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous , Cryptococcus neoformans , STAT1 Transcription Factor , Patients , Autoantibodies , Therapeutics , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Lymphocytes , CD4 Antigens , Exons , CD8 Antigens , Exome , Meningitis , Microsporum
10.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(2): 124-128, abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126098

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones por levaduras del género Cryptococcus afectan principalmente a pacientes con déficit de la inmunidad mediada por células. Han sido escasos los estudios de sensibilidad realizados para este género en Chile. Objetivos: Determinar la sensibilidad in vitro de Cryptococcus sp a antifúngicos de uso habitual y evaluar la concordancia esencial entre sensibilidad determinada por microdilución en caldo y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales. Materiales y Método: Estudio descriptivo de 21 cepas aisladas desde liquido céfalo-raquídeo y sangre. Las CIM50 y CIM90 para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B se determinaron por microdilución en caldo (Sensititre Yeast One®) y por difusión en agar con tiras comerciales (MIC Test Strips). Resultados: Todas las cepas correspondieron a C. neoformans. Los rangos de CIM50 y CIM90 para cada antifúngico estudiado fueron amplios por ambos métodos. La concordancia esencial entre microdilución y difusión en agar con tiras comerciales fue de 24, 62 y 29% para fluconazol, voriconazol y anfotericina B, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La prueba de Sensititre Yeast One® y la de difusión en agar con tiras comerciales, MIC Test Strips, tienen una pobre concordancia esencial para fluconazol y anfotericina B.


Abstract Background: Cryptococcus yeast infections primarily affect immunocompromised patients. There have been few susceptibility studies conducted for this genus in Chile. Aims: To determine the in vitro susceptibility to commonly used antifungals and evaluate the concordance between susceptibility determined by microdilution in broth and commercially available strips. Methods: Descriptive study of 21 Cryptococcus strains, isolated from cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The MIC50 and MIC90 for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by broth microdilution (Sensititre Yeast One®) and by commercial drug sensitivity strips (MIC Test Strips). Results: All strains corresponded to C. neoformans. The ranges of MIC50 and MIC90 for each antifungal studied were wide by both methods. The essential agreement between Sensititre Yeast One test and strips was 24, 62 and 29% for fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: The Sensititre Yeast One test and MIC Test Strips exhibited poor essential concordance, especially for fluconazole and amphotericin B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Chile , Antifungal Agents
12.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 20(1): 89-91, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1178766

ABSTRACT

La coinfección pulmonar por Cryptococcus neoformans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis es poco frecuente en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. El primer reporte de infección concomitante entre tuberculosis y criptococosis fue descripto en el año 19661. La criptococosis es la infección causada por un hongo del género Cryptococcus neoformans, que se divide en variedad gatti y neoformans. Existe evidencia de que la variedad neoformans está asociada a enfermedades debilitantes (enfermedad de Hodgkin, leucemias, linfomas, sarcoidosis, diabetes mellitus), inmunosupresión inducida por drogas (esteroides y citostáticos) y síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida. Los sitios anatómicos más afectados son el pulmón y el sistema nervioso central. Luego de la inhalación del hongo (asociado a deyecciones de aves), el mismo se anida en los sitios blanco con o sin diseminación hematógena posterior. La tuberculosis es una enfermedad proteiforme. Las manifestaciones clínicas y radiológicas pueden ser atípicas en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Por lo tanto, su diagnóstico puede resultar incierto aún en áreas con alta prevalencia de infección. Presentamos un paciente con diagnóstico de linfoma en tratamiento citostático que desarrolla infección pulmonar concomitante por Cryptococcus neoformans y Mycobacterium tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Tuberculosis , Immunosuppression Therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis
13.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 7-12, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089323

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: This study aims to explore the epidemiology, clinical profile and strain characteristics of cryptococcosis from 2013 to 2017 in a major teaching hospital in China. Methods: Trends in antifungal drug susceptibility of 217 consecutive non-repetitive cryptococcal isolates collected from patients of an university hospital in China were analyzed between 2013 and 2017. Of those, 98 isolates were conserved for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to designate molecular types. Clinical characteristics of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis during the period of 2013-2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: There was a trend for gradual increase in the MIC range of fluconazole was from 2013 to 2017. The conserved 98 clinical cryptococcal isolates included 97 C. neoformans and one C. gattii, and 90 (91.8%) isolates belonged to ST5 genotype VNI. Out of the 98 patients with cryptococcosis, 28 (28.6%) were HIV-infected and 32 (32.7%) had no underlying diseases. HIV-infected patients had higher mortality than HIV-uninfected patients (28.6% vs 14.3%, p = 0.147). Conclusions: Most of the patients with cryptococcosis were not HIV-infected in this study, while patients with HIV had a higher mortality. Reduced susceptibility to fluconazole was observed among C. neoformans isolates, most of them belonged to ST5 genotype VNI having an impact on the effective dose of fluconazole.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Cryptococcus gattii/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus gattii/drug effects , Cryptococcus gattii/genetics , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 40-46, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs and may also have direct antimicrobial effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate synergic interactions between simvastatin and both amphotericin B and fluconazole, against environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds' droppings. DESIGNAND SETTING: Experimental study conducted at Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, in collaboration with Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Statin susceptibility tests of Cryptococcus neoformans samples were performed as prescribed in standards. Interactions of simvastatin with amphotericin and fluconazole were evaluated using the checkerboard microdilution method. Presence of these interactions was quantitatively detected through determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). RESULTS: Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were obtained from 30 of the 206 samples of dry bird excreta (14.5%) that were collected from pet shops and houses. Ten isolates were selected for susceptibility tests. All of them were susceptible to amphotericin and fluconazole. All presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 128 µg/ml and, thus, were resistant in vitro to simvastatin. An in vitro synergic effect was shown through combined testing of amphotericin B and simvastatin, such that six isolates (60%) presented FICI < 0.500. Two isolates showed considerable reductions in MIC, from 1 µg/ml to 0.250 µg/ml. No synergic effect was observed through combining fluconazole and simvastatin. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that simvastatin should be considered to be a therapeutic alternative, capable of potentiating the action of amphotericin B. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the real effect of simvastatin as an antifungal agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190422, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136889

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The average annual incidence of cryptococcosis in Colombia is 0.23 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in the general population, and 1.1 cases per 1000 in inhabitants with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In addition, the causal fungus has been isolated from the environment, with serotypes A-B and C in different regions. This study aims to determine the genetic association between clinical and environmental isolates of C. neoformans/C. gattii in Colombia. METHODS: Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to identify possible clones, providing information about the epidemiology, ecology, and etiology of this pathogen in Colombia. RESULTS: A total of 110 strains, both clinical (n=61) and environmental (n=49), with 21 MLST sequence types (ST) of C. neoformans (n=14STs) and C. gattii (n=7STs) were identified. The STs which shared clinical and environmental isolate sources were grouped in different geographical categories; for C. neoformans, ST93 was identified in six departments, ST77 in five departments; and for C. gattii, ST25 was identified in three departments and ST79 in two. CONCLUSIONS: High genetic diversity was found in isolates of C. neoformans/gattii by MLST, suggesting the presence of environmental sources harboring strains which may be sources of infection for humans, especially in immunocompromised patients; these data contribute to the information available in the country on the distribution and molecular variability of C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates recovered in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus gattii , Genetic Variation , Mycological Typing Techniques , Colombia , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(11): e9056, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132484

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis affects normal hosts and immunocompromised patients exhibiting high mortality rates. The objective of this study was to design two molecular assays, visible microarray platforms and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify Cryptococcus spp. and the species neoformans and gattii from the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). To identify Cryptococcus and the two species, we designed two microarrays DNA platforms based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and CAP59 gene and LAMP assays specific for Cryptococcus species. The assays were tested using CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF from patients with cryptococcal meningitis was cultured in Sabouraud culture medium, and the Cryptococcus spp. grown in the culture medium were also tested for LAMP and microarray platforms. The results were compared to DNA sequencing of the same genetic regions. A total of 133 CSF samples were studied. Eleven CSFs were positive for Cryptococcus (9 C. neoformans and 2 C. gattii), 15 were positive for bacteria, and 107 were negative. The CAP59 platform correctly identified 73% of the CSF samples, while the ITS platform identified 45.5%. CAP59 platform correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates, and ITS platform identified 70%. The two sets of LAMP primers correctly identified 100% of the Cryptococcus isolates. However, for CSF samples, the amplification occurred only in 55.5% of C. neoformans. The methodologies were reliable in the identification of Cryptococcus species, mainly for isolates from culture medium, and they might be applied as adjunctive tests to identify Cryptococcus species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200023, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135136

ABSTRACT

Endemic systemic mycoses remain a health challenge, since these opportunistic diseases are increasingly infecting immunosuppressed patients. The simultaneous use of antifungal compounds and other drugs to treat infectious or non-infectious diseases has led to several interactions and undesirable effects. Thus, new antifungal compounds should be investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of liriodenine extracted from Annona macroprophyllata on agents of systemic mycoses, with emphasis on the genus Paracoccidioides. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined by the microdilution method. The cellular alterations caused by liriodenine on a standard P. brasiliensis (Pb18) strain were evaluated by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Liriodenine was effective only in 3 of the 8 strains of the genus Paracoccidioides and in the Histoplasma capsulatum strain, in a very low concentration (MIC of 1.95 µg.mL-1); on yeasts of Candida spp. (MIC of 125 to 250 µg.mL-1), including C. krusei (250 µg.mL-1), which has intrinsic resistance to fluconazole; and in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii (MIC of 62.5 µg.mL-1). However, liriodenine was not effective against Aspergillus fumigatus at the studied concentrations. Liriodenine exhibited fungicidal activity against all standard strains and clinical isolates that showed to be susceptible by in vitro tests. Electron microscopy revealed cytoplasmic alterations and damage to the cell wall of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). Conclusion: Our results indicate that liriodenine is a promising fungicidal compound that should undergo further investigation with some chemical modifications.(AU)


Subject(s)
Paracoccidioides , Microscopy, Electron , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cryptococcus neoformans , Cryptococcus gattii , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18599, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132042

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the association of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen with itraconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found according to M27-A3 protocol and in vitro interactions were evaluated using checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism was demonstrated between azoles and ibuprofen for most isolates. However, no synergistic effects were seen when amphotericin B was combined with ibuprofen. Therefore, our results suggest that ibuprofen presents clinical potential when combined with azole drugs in the treatment of cryptococcosis.


Subject(s)
Fluconazole/antagonists & inhibitors , Ibuprofen/agonists , Itraconazole/antagonists & inhibitors , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Amphotericin B/analogs & derivatives
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2020. 90 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178117

ABSTRACT

As espécies Cryptococcus neoformans e Cryptococcus gatti representam patógenos fúngicos ambientais encapsulados que afetam não apenas indivíduos imunocomprometidos, mas também indivíduos aparentemente imunocompetentes. No Brasil, a criptococose permanece sendo uma das infecções fúngicas sistêmicas mais importantes. Em humanos, a fagocitose de Cryptococcus hipocapsular por macrófagos foi associada com longo prazo de sobrevida do paciente. Com base no papel fundamental da cápsula criptocócica na doença, analisamos a diversidade de estruturas capsulares em 23 isolados de excretas de pombos, coletados nos municípios de Boa Vista, Bonfim e Pacaraima, no estado de Roraima (Norte do Brasil). Todos os isolados foram identificados como C. neoformans (genótipo VNI) por espectrometria de massa MALDI-TOF. Através de uma combinação de microscopia de fluorescência, citometria de fluxo, ELISA e métodos espectrofotométricos, cada isolado foi fenotipicamente caracterizado, o que incluiu medidas de taxas de crescimento a 30 e 37ºC, pigmentação, tamanho do corpo celular, dimensões capsulares, reatividade sorológica, produção de urease e capacidade de secreção de glucuronoxilomanana (GXM), o principal componente capsular de C. neoformans. Foi também avaliada a sensibilidade aos antifúngicos fluconazol e AmB. Com exceção da melanização, uma grande diversidade foi observada considerando todos os parâmetros testados em nosso estudo. Vale ressaltar que isolados hiper e hipo produtores de GXM foram identificados, além de isolados com perfis de hiper e hiporreatividade com o anticorpo monoclonal reconhecedor do polissacarídeo.


As dimensões capsulares também foram altamente variáveis nos isolados analisados. A produção de GXM extracelular foi correlacionada positivamente com dimensões capsulares, atividade da urease e tamanho da célula. Inesperadamente, as concentrações de GXM não se correlacionaram com a reatividade sorológica com a cápsula criptocócica. Os testes de sensibilidade aos antifúngicos revelaram alta sensibilidade dos isolados frente a AmB. Foram observados valores de susceptibilidade superiores para o fluconazol (8.0 µg/mL) em dois isolados (151A1 e 176A1) em comparação com a cepa padrão H99 / ATCC 208821 (2.0 µg/mL). Estes resultados revelam uma alta diversidade na capacidade de C. neoformans ambientais em produzir componentes capsulares, o que pode afetar o curso da criptococose humana. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Drug Collateral Sensitivity
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