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1.
REVISA (Online) ; 9(4): 823-833, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146145

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Investigar a presença de fungos patogênicos isolados a partir de amostras de fezes de pombos, em locais de atenção a pacientes imunocomprometidos no DF. Método: As amostras foram coletadas em hospitais onde se oferta atendimento a pacientes HIV/AIDS e que tenha uma presença massiva de pombos. Colônias de leveduras foram previamente selecionados em meio Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol, seguindo-se com análise microscópica das estruturas leveduriformes. Colônias de leveduras com suspeita de pertencerem ao gênero Candida spp. ou Cryptococcus sp., foram inoculadas no meio Ágar Cromogênico para identificação das espécies de Candida e em meio Ágar quimicamente definido para indução dos fenótipos de virulência característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: 100% das amostras analisadas apresentaram crescimento de leveduras do gênero Candida spp. e Rhodotorula sp. No meio Ágar Cromogênico foram identificadas nas amostras C. krusei em 75%; C. tropicalis em 50% e C. glabrata em 15%. Em 15% das amostras foi identificado leveduras do gênero Cryptococcus sp. Conclusão: Dados deste estudo sugerem que fezes de pombo podem estar dispersando leveduras patogênicas e contribuindo com a incidência de infecções fúngicas no DF.


Objective: To investigate the presence of pathogenic fungi isolated from pigeon stool samples, in places of care for immunocompromised patients in the Federal District. Method: The samples were collected in hospitals where care is offered to HIV / AIDS patients and which has a massive presence of pigeons. Yeast colonies were previously selected on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plus chloramphenicol, followed by microscopic analysis of the yeast structures. Yeast colonies suspected of belonging to the genus Candida spp. or Cryptococcus sp., were inoculated in the Chromogenic Agar medium to identify Candida species and in chemically defined Agar medium to induce the virulence phenotypes characteristic of Cryptococcus sp. Results: 100% of the analyzed samples showed growth of yeasts of the genus Candida spp. and Rhodotorula sp. In the chromogenic agar medium, 75% were identified in C. krusei samples; C. tropicalis in 50% and C. glabrata in 15%. In 15% of the samples, yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus sp. Conclusion: Data from this study suggest that pigeon feces may be dispersing pathogenic yeasts and contributing to the incidence of fungal infections in DF


Objetivo: Investigar la presencia de hongos patógenos aislados de muestras de heces de palomas, en los lugares de atención a pacientes inmunodeprimidos del Distrito Federal. Método: Las muestras se recolectaron en hospitales donde se brinda atención a pacientes con VIH / SIDA y que tiene una presencia masiva de palomas. Las colonias de levadura se seleccionaron previamente en Sabouraud Dextrose Agar más cloranfenicol, seguido de un análisis microscópico de las estructuras de la levadura. Las colonias de levaduras sospechosas de pertenecer al género Candida spp. o Cryptococcus sp., se inocularon en medio de agar cromogénico para identificar especies de Candida y en medio de agar químicamente definido para inducir los fenotipos de virulencia característicos de Cryptococcus sp. Resultados: el 100% de las muestras analizadas presentó crecimiento de levaduras del género Candida spp. y Rhodotorula sp. En el medio agar cromogénico, el 75% se identificó en muestras de C. krusei; C. tropicalis en 50% y C. glabrata en 15%. En el 15% de las muestras, levaduras del género Cryptococcus sp. Conclusión: Los datos de este estudio sugieren que las heces de las palomas pueden estar dispersando levaduras patógenas y contribuyendo a la incidencia de infecciones fúngicas en el DF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Hospitals , Mycoses/transmission
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 451-461, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Papiliotrema laurentii is one of several non-neoformans cryptococci that have rarely been associated with human infection, since it was previously considered saprophyte and thought to be non-pathogenic to humans. Nevertheless, increasing number of reports of human infection have emerged in recent years, mostly in oncologic patients. Aim: To report a case of a female patient with pyloric obstructive cancer with a catheter-related Papiliotrema laurentii blood stream infection and systematically review the available evidence on P. laurentii infection in humans. Methods: Retrieval of studies was based on Medical Subject Headings and Health Sciences Descriptors, which were combined using Boolean operators. Searches were run on the electronic databases Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE (PubMed), BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews and Opengray.eu. There was no language or date of publication restrictions. The reference lists of the studies retrieved were searched manually. Results: The search strategy retrieved 1703 references. In the final analysis, 31 references were included, with the description of 35 cases. Every patient but one had a previous co-morbidity - 48.4 % of patients had a neoplasm. Amphotericin B was the most used treatment and only a single case of resistance to it was reported. Most patients were cured of the infection. Conclusion: P. laurentii infection in humans is usually associated to neoplasia and multiple co-morbidities, and amphotericin B seems to be a reliable agent for treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Catheter-Related Infections/diagnostic imaging , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Biopsy , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Catheter-Related Infections/drug therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 656-662, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058092

ABSTRACT

Resumen La criptococosis es una micosis sistémica producida por un hongo levaduriforme encapsulado denominado Cryptococcus neoformans. Es una enfermedad universal, que ocurre con mayor frecuencia en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, manifestándose principalmente como una enfermedad diseminada con compromiso meníngeo o pulmonar. Sin embargo, la osteomielitis ocurre solo en 5-10% de los casos, siendo el compromiso vertebral el más frecuente. Presentamos un caso de criptococosis vertebral aislada y una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre el tema. Se recomienda realizar una terapia antifúngica de inducción intravenosa y continuar con una fase de consolidación, vía oral, de duración variable. La indicación quirúrgica se considera en lesiones que comprometen la estabilidad vertebral y aquellas que presentan un compromiso neurológico, producen deformidad y para reducir el inóculo infeccioso.


Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by a ubiquitous encapsulated yeast called Cryptococcus neoformans, it is usually associated with immunosuppressed patients. Osteomyelitis occurs in 5-10%, the spine involvement is one of the most reported. The purpose of this work is to present a case of isolated vertebral cryptococcosis and detail the results of a literature review. The treatment protocol is not yet established but it is recommended to start with aggressive intravenous therapy and continue with a suppressive treatment orally during a variable time. Surgical indication is considered in lesions that affect the spinal stability, deformity or neurological compromise and for local infectious control.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Osteomyelitis/microbiology , Osteomyelitis/pathology , Spinal Diseases/microbiology , Spinal Diseases/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Osteomyelitis/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180419, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990432

ABSTRACT

Abstract We report the first case of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus decagattii in an immunocompetent pediatric patient from an indigenous community in Argentina with a successful outcome. Two isolates (blood, cerebrospinal fluid) were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the orotidine monophosphate pyrophosphorylase (URA5) gene as VGIV and identified by multi-locus sequence typing as C. decagattii. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry identification indicated genotype VGIII. The minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole was determined (cerebrospinal fluid: 0.25, 16, 0.12, and 0.12, blood: 0.25, 4, 0.12, and 0.06, respectively, all in mg/L).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus/genetics , Argentina , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/classification , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Genotype
5.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(1): 11-15, Jan.-feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Fluconazole is extensively used for the treatment of candidiasis and cryptococcosis. Among other factors, successful treatment is related to appropriate fluconazole levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. In the present study, fluconazole levels were determined in 15 patients, 14 of whom had AIDS and 13 had neurocryptococcosis. The only selection criterion was treatment with fluconazole, which was performed with a generic or similar form of the drug. Fluconazole level was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility profile of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from the patients was assessed by broth microdilution. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid fluconazole levels were found to be related to the fluconazole daily dose, and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of this antifungal for the Cryptococcus spp. isolates. A good correlation was observed between serum and cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration. In conclusion, treatment with non-original fluconazole under usual medical practice conditions results in appropriate blood and cerebrospinal fluid levels of the drug for inhibiting Cryptococcus spp. susceptible to this antifungal drug. The relatively common failures of neurocryptococcosis treatment appear not to be due to insufficient fluconazole levels in the cerebrospinal fluid, especially with the use of daily doses of 400-800 mg.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Fluconazole/cerebrospinal fluid , Fluconazole/blood , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/cerebrospinal fluid , Antifungal Agents/blood , Reference Values , Candidiasis/cerebrospinal fluid , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis/blood , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Treatment Outcome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cryptococcosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Cryptococcosis/blood , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Histoplasmosis/blood , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2017. 106 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878847

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Nas últimas décadas, as infeções fúngicas invasivas por leveduras tornou-se um importante problema de saúde pública, dado sua incidência crescente relacionada ao aumento da população suscetível. O reconhecimento destes patógenos em aspectos como, distribuicão ambiental e caraterísticas fenotípicas, são pilares essenciais para sua vigilância e controle. Objetivo: Descrever a frequência dos agentes de criptococose e outras leveduras com potencial patogênico e comparar essa frequência em excretas de aves silvestres em três municípios do estado de São Paulo, com vistas a melhor conhecimento da distribuição desses agentes no ambiente, além de determinar o perfil de suscetibilidade in vitro a antifúngicos de uso clínico. Método: No período de 2 anos, aves silvestres foram identificadas em áreas de circulação de 3 municípios de São Paulo (Praia Grande, Santos e Rio Claro) e submetidas à coleta de excretas para isolamento de leveduras com potencial patogênico. Análise microscópica e macroscópica para classificação presuntiva de gênero foram realizados em todas as colônias de leveduras obtidas das amostras de excretas. A suscetibilidade dos isolados de leveduras aos antífúngicos: fluconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B foi determinada segundo método de referência europeu (AFST-EUCAST). Análise de dados: Foi utilizada a regressão de Poisson com a opção robusta para estimar razões de prevalência e identificar variáveis associadas com os principais isolados identificados, com opção de cluster para agrupar os isolados por excreta. Foi avaliado o nível de concordância entre os dois métodos de identificação (fenotípico e MALDI-TOF), utilizando o coeficiente Kappa. Adicionalmente, foi estimada a correlação entre os MIC´s dos fármacos estudados no total de espécies identificadas, utilizando o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman. Resultados: Das 294 excretas coletadas, 42,2 por cento continham leveduras, incluindo espécies de Candida 62 por cento , seguido por Rhodotorula 16,4 por cento , Cryptococcus 10,4 por cento , Trichosporon 6,6 por cento e Pichia 2,7 por cento . Muitas espécies, verificadas em alta frequência, tem forte potêncial de causar infecção invasiva, como: C. parapsilosis stricto sensu, C. tropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, C. krusei, C. orthopsilosis, C. glabrata, C. laurenti, C. albicans, C. metapsilosis, C. nivariensis e Meyerozyma guilliermondii. A resistência ao fluconazol, voriconazol e anfotericina B ocorreu nesses isolados, sendo documentada uma forte correlação entre a susceptibilidade, principalmente entre os azois (fluconazol e voriconazol), no entanto, a correlação mesmo sendo menor também foi significativa entre esses fármacos e a anfotericina. De 13 espécies de aves silvestres dispersoras de leveduras, as de maior frequência foram: Sula leucogaster 26,2 por cento , Turdus leucomelas 17 por cento , Larus dominicanus 15 por cento , Thalasseus maximus 11,2 por cento , Thalasseus acuflavidus 5,4 por cento , Tangara sayaca 4,4 por cento , Turdus amaurochalinus 3,7 por cento , Sterna hirundinacea e Pitangus sulphuratus 2,7 por cento . Os gêneros identificados apresentaram associações entre local, estação do ano e espécies de aves. Conclusões: Dentre as principais espécies de aves estudadas, 3 eram de hábitos migratórios (Thalasseus maximus, Thalasseus acuflavidus e Sterna hirundinacea) o que permite inferir dispersão interamericana de leveduras patogênicas. Diversas espécies resistentes a antifúngicos foram descritas, pela primeira vez, em excretas de aves silvestres conferindo a este estudo o valor de contribuir para o conhecimento da epidemiologia das infecções fúngicas por leveduras


Background: In recent decades, invasive yeast fungal infections have become an important public health problem, due to their increasing incidence related to the increase in the susceptible population. The recognition of these pathogens in aspects such as environmental distribution and phenotypic characteristics are essential pillars for their surveillance and control. Objective: To describe the frequency of cryptococcosis agents and other yeasts with pathogenic potential and to compare this frequency in excreta of wild birds in three municipalities of the state of São Paulo, with a view to a better knowledge of the distribution of these agents in the environment, in addition to determining the profile of in vitro susceptibility to antifungals for clinical use. Method: During two years, wild birds were identified in circulation areas of three municipalities of São Paulo (Praia Grande, Santos and Rio Claro) and were screened for yeasts with pathogenic potential. Microscopic and macroscopic analysis for presumptive genus classification were performed in all yeast colonies obtained from excreta samples. Susceptibility of yeast isolates to antifungals: fluconazole, amphotericin B and voriconazole was determined according to the European reference method (AFST-EUCAST). Data analysis: Poisson regression was used with the robust option to estimate prevalence ratios and to identify variables associated with the main isolates identified, with option of cluster to group the isolates by excreta. The level of agreement between the two identification methods (phenotype and MALDI-TOF) was evaluated using the Kappa coefficient. Additionally, the correlation was estimated between MICs of the drugs studied in total of species identified, using Spearman\'s correlation coefficients. Results: Of the 294 excreta collected, half contained yeasts, including Candida species (62 per cent ), followed by Rhodotorula (16.4 per cent ), Cryptococcus (10.4 per cent ), Trichosporon (6.3 per cent ) and Pichia (2.7 per cent ). Many species, verified at high frequency, have a strong potential to cause invasive infection, such as: C. parapsilosis stricto sensu, C. tropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, C. krusei, C. orthopsilosis, C. glabrata, C. laurentii, C. albicans, C. metapsilosis, C. nivariensis and Meyerozyma guilliermondii. Resistance to fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B occurred in these isolates and a strong correlation was reported between susceptibility, mainly between azole (fluconazole and voriconazole), however, the correlation, even though it was lower, was also significant between these drugs and amphotericin. From 13 species of wild birds dispersing yeasts, the ones with the highest frequency were: Sula leucogaster 26,2 per cent , Turdus leucomelas 17 per cent , Larus dominicanus 15 per cent , Thalasseus maximus 11,2 per cent , Thalasseus acuflavidus 5,4 per cent , Tangara sayaca 4,4 per cent , Turdus amaurochalinus 3,7 per cent , Sterna hirundinacea e Pitangus sulphuratus 2,7 per cent . The identified genera presented associations between site, season of the year and species of birds. Conclusion: Among the main species of birds studied, 3 were of migratory habits (Thalasseus maximus, Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sterna hirundinacea), which allows inferring the inter - American dispersion of pathogenic yeasts. Several species resistant to antifungal were described for the first time in excreta of wild birds, conferring to this study the value of contributing to the knowledge of the epidemiology of fungal infections by yeasts


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Colimetry , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Intestinal Elimination , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Amphotericin B , Antibodies, Fungal , Fluconazole , Voriconazole
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1639-1645, nov.-dez. 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768142

ABSTRACT

Os pombos possuem uma rica diversidade de microrganismo, entre eles fungos sapróbios, como do gênero Cryptococcus, que podem atuar como agentes patogênicos para o homem e animais. Objetivou-se o isolamento, a caracterização bioquímica e a molecular de amostras de Cryptococcus spp. de excretas ambientas de pombos. Foram colhidas 100 amostras ambientais de pontos equidistantes e representativos da área da cidade de Araçatuba, São Paulo. As amostras foram rasteladas do solo de vias públicas, armazenadas em frasco coletor e encaminhadas para o Laboratório de Bacteriologia e Micologia da FMVA, onde foram processadas e cultivadas em duplicata, em placas de Petri contendo ágar Sabouraud dextrose a 4% e Niger. Em seguida, foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente e a 30ºC, respectivamente, por um período não inferior a 15 dias. Após a observação diária, as colônias sugestivas para levedura foram reisoladas em ágar Niger e submetidas a testes bioquímicos para posterior caracterização molecular pela técnica da PCR. Como resultado, a caracterização bioquímica e a molecular isolaram 32 colônias leveduriformes, sendo 8% dos cultivos positivos para Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, 17% para Rhodotorula rubidae e 7% Candida albicans. Pelo exposto, concluiu-se que excretas ambientais de pombos constituem um microfoco para Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans e outras leveduras com potencial patogênico, representando um risco à saúde pública, sendo necessárias medidas preventivas, como a higienização com a correta remoção das excretas, a fim de minimizar os riscos de exposição ambiental.


Pigeons have a rich diversity of microrganisms, including fungi saprobes such as the genus Cryptococcus that can act as a pathogen for humans and animals. The aim of this was their isolation, biochemical and molecular characterization of samples of Cryptococcus from ambientas avian excreta. One hundred environmental samples,representative of the area equidistant from Araçatuba, São Paulo points were collected. The samples were removed and stored in collection bottles, sent to the Laboratory of Bacteriology and Mycology of FMVA, where they were processed and cultivated in duplicate on Petri dishes containing Sabouraud dextrose 4% and Niger and incubated at room temperature 30° C, respectively, for a period of no less than 15 days. Colonies after daily observation which were suggestive for yeast growth were re-isolated in Niger agar and subjected to biochemical analisis for further molecular characterization by PCR tests. As results, the biochemical and molecular characterization of 32 yeast colonies revealed 8% of cultures positive for Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, 17% Rhodotorula rubidae and 7% Candida albicans. It was concluded that environmental avian excreta are active sites for replication of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and other yeasts with pathogenic potential. These constitute a public health risk, and preventive measures are necessary, such as cleaning and complete removal of excreta in order to minimize the risk of environmental exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Columbidae/microbiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/ultrastructure , Public Health , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Zoonoses/diagnosis
8.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 19(6): 660-663, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769617

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Infections caused by emerging Cryptococcus non-neoformans species are being reported with increasingly frequency. Here, we present a case of fungaemia byCryptococcus laurentii in a woman receiving aggressive immunosuppressive therapy for cervical neoplasia. Three venous blood samples were aseptically collected on consecutive days and C. laurentiiwas isolated and identified through phenotypic and molecular methods. After central venous catheter removal and appropriate antifungal therapy, the patient showed significant improvement and blood culture became negative. Thus, patients following immunosuppressive therapies and using invasive medical devices are at risk of C. laurentii blood infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/complications , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Fungemia/microbiology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/complications , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/immunology , Cryptococcus/genetics , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Fungemia/diagnosis , Fungemia/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/microbiology
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 815-823, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755801

ABSTRACT

Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking.

.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota/enzymology , Cryptococcus/enzymology , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Rhodotorula/enzymology , Vitis/microbiology , Wine/microbiology , Argentina , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Fermentation/physiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pectins/metabolism , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 797-804, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723985

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is reported in adults and is often acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated; however, its frequency in children is low. Based on the National Survey on Cryptococcosis conducted in Colombia, an epidemiological and clinical analysis was performed on cases of the disease observed in children less than 16 years old between 1993-2010. We found 41 affected children (2.6% prevalence) from the 1,578 surveys received. The country mean annual incidence rate was 0.017 cases/100,000 children under 16 years, while in Norte de Santander the incidence rate was 0.122 cases/100,000 (p < 0.0001). The average age of infected children was 8.4 and 58.5% were male. In 46.3% of cases, a risk factor was not identified, while 24.4% had AIDS. The most frequent clinical manifestations were headache (78.1%), fever (68.8%), nausea and vomiting (65.6%), confusion (50%) and meningeal signs (37.5%). Meningitis was the most frequent clinical presentation (87.8%). Amphotericin B was given to 93.5% of patients as an initial treatment. Positive microbiological identification was accomplished by India ink (94.7%), latex in cerebrospinal fluid (100%) and culture (89.5%). Out of 34 isolates studied, Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI 85.3%, VNII 8.8%) was isolated in 94.1% of cases and Cryptococcus gattii (VGII) was isolated in 5.9% of cases. These data are complemented by a literature review, which overall suggests that cryptococcosis in children is an unusual event worldwide.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection , Colombia/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Cryptococcus/classification , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(3): 261-269, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-709876

ABSTRACT

Seven cases of cryptococosis (six cats and one dog) were studied to establish the determining histomorphological and histochemical characteristics in the histopathological diagnosis of this condition. Additional data related to the epidemiology, clinical aspects, sites of the lesions, and gross findings were obtained from the necropsy and biopsy protocols. Histologically, yeasts were observed inside macrophages or free in the parenchyma, associated with scarse to severe lymphohistioplasmacytic inflammatory reaction. In the hematoxylin-eosin (HE) sections, the yeasts were round, with a central cell containing a nucleus, surrounded by a clear halo (usually non-stained capsule). The techniques of periodic Schiff acid (PAS), Groccot (GMS), and Fontana-Masson (FM) were utilized and demonstrated the wall of the yeast cells. The FM stain showed the melanin present in these cells. The Alcian blue and Mayer's mucicarmin stains showed mainly the yeast polysaccharide capsule. The diameter of the cells ranged from 1.67 to 10.00µm and the full diameter of the encapsulated yeasts varied between 4.17 e 34.16µm. Yeast buddings were better observed through the PAS stain and were narrow based, simple or multiple, mainly in the opposite poles of the cells or forming chains. The definitive diagnosis of cryptococosis was established through the histopathological exam, based on the specific morphology of the agent (encapsulated yeast) and on histochemical proprieties, mostly in the cases without fungal culture.


Sete casos de criptococose (seis gatos e um cão) foram estudados para estabelecer as características histomorfológicas e histoquímicas determinantes no diagnóstico histopatológico dessa condição. Os dados complementares relacionados à epidemiologia, aos aspectos clínicos, à localização das lesões e às alterações macroscópicas foram obtidos dos protocolos de necropsias e biópsias. Na histologia, as leveduras foram observadas no interior de macrófagos ou livres no parênquima, associadas à reação inflamatória linfo-histioplasmocítica que variou de escassa a acentuada. Pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (HE) as leveduras eram arredondadas, com célula central contendo um núcleo, circundada por um halo claro (cápsula geralmente não corada). As técnicas histoquímicas do ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS), Grocott e Fontana-Masson (FM) foram utilizadas e evidenciaram a parede das células das leveduras. Pelo FM observou-se a melanina presente nessas células. As técnicas do azul Alciano e da mucicarmina de Mayer evidenciaram principalmente a cápsula polissacarídica das leveduras. O diâmetro das células das leveduras variou de 1,67 a 10,00µm e o diâmetro total das leveduras encapsuladas variou entre 4,17 e 34,16µm. Os brotamentos foram melhor visualizados através do PAS e ocorreram em base estreita, de forma única ou múltipla, principalmente em polos opostos das células das leveduras ou formando uma cadeia. O diagnóstico definitivo de criptococose foi estabelecido através do exame histopatológico, baseando-se na morfologia característica do agente (levedura encapsulada) e em suas propriedades tintoriais (histoquímicas), principalmente nos casos em que a cultura micológica não foi realizada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Dogs/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/veterinary , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Cats/microbiology , Mycoses , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus/pathogenicity
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190505

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans, an encapsulated fungus, is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Since patients with cryptococcemia have high mortality, it is essential to make an early diagnosis and promptly initiate antifungal therapy. However, it is often very difficult to differentiate between cryptococcal meningitis and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver cirrhosis, and there is delay in making the diagnosis. Therefore, these patients have a particularly grave prognosis and consequently many patients die before culture results become available. In one study, starting antifungal therapy within 48 hours of the blood culture was associated with improved survival, but patients with liver cirrhosis were significantly less likely to receive antifungal therapy within 48 hours compared to those without liver cirrhosis. Recently, the authors experience a case of a 68-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis who presented with fever and a drowsy mental status. She had a previous history of having been admitted for infection-associated hepatic encephlopathy. Cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcemia were diagnosed by spinal puncture and culture of cerebrospinal fluid. In spite of adequate treatment, the patient developed multi-system organ failure and eventually expired. Herein, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis mimicking hepatic encephalopathy in a patient with liver cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Female , Hepatic Encephalopathy/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(6): 759-764, Nov-Dec/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698067

ABSTRACT

Introduction The incidence of opportunistic fungal infections has increased in recent years and is considered an important public health problem. Among systemic and opportunistic mycoses, cryptococcosis is distinguished by its clinical importance due to the increased risk of infection in individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus. Methods To determine the occurrence of pathogenic Cryptococcus in pigeon excrement in the City of Araraquara, samples were collected from nine environments, including state and municipal schools, abandoned buildings, parks, and a hospital. The isolates were identified using classical tests, and susceptibility testing for the antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B) independently was also performed. After collection, the excrement samples were plated on Niger agar and incubated at room temperature. Results A total of 87 bird dropping samples were collected, and 66.6% were positive for the genus Cryptococcus. The following species were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans (17.2%), Cryptococcus gattii (5.2%), Cryptococcus ater (3.5%), Cryptococcus laurentti (1.7%), and Cryptococcus luteolus (1.7%). A total of 70.7% of the isolates were not identified to the species level and are referred to as Cryptococcus spp. throughout the manuscript. Conclusions Although none of the isolates demonstrated resistance to antifungal drugs, the identification of infested areas, the proper control of birds, and the disinfection of these environments are essential for the epidemiological control of cryptococcosis. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Cryptococcus/drug effects , Feces/microbiology , Brazil , Columbidae , Cryptococcus/classification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
14.
Rev. patol. trop ; 42(1): 42-48, jan.-mar. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-673020

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus laurentii é um patógeno humano raro, ubíquo na natureza. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a aplicação do método de difusão do disco para determinar a sensibilidade ao fluconazol de isolados de C. laurentii e determinar a concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) do fluconazol. Foi determinada a sensibilidade ao fluconazol pelos métodos de difusão do disco e microdiluição em caldo de 11 isolados de C. laurentii, de acordo com CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory StandardsInstitute), e a CFM pelo método de microdiluição em caldo. O método de difusão do disco mostrou quatro isolados sensíveis, três sensíveis dose-dependentes e quatro resistentes, enquanto que pelo método de microdiluição, 10 isolados foram sensíveis e um sensível dose-dependente. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 36,4por cento. Um isolado apresentou CFM de 8 mi g/mL e dois de 64 mi g/mL. Embora o número de isolados estudados seja pequeno, os resultados sugeremque o método de difusão do disco não deve ser usado na determinação da sensibilidade in vitro dos isolados de C. laurentii ao fluconazol, e apesar de ser uma droga fungistática, o fluconazol pode apresentar atividade fungicida in vitro para alguns isolados do complexo C. laurentii.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Fluconazole/pharmacology
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(3): 951-958, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656658

ABSTRACT

Various organisms have been characterized by molecular methods, including fungi of the genus Cryptococcus. The purposes of this study were: to determine the discriminatory potential of the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers, the pattern of similarity of the Cryptococcus species, and discuss their useful application in epidemiological studies. We analyzed 10 isolates of each specie/group: C. albidus, C. laurentii complex, C. neoformans var. grubii, all from environmental source, and two ATCC strains, C. neoformans var. grubii ATCC 90112, and C. neoformans var. neoformans ATCC 28957 by RAPD-PCR using the primers CAV1, CAV2, ZAP19, ZAP20, OPB11 and SEQ6. The primers showed a good discriminatory power, revealing important differences between them and between species; the SEQ6 primer discriminated a larger number of isolates of three species. Isolates of C. laurentii showed greater genetic diversity than other species revealed by all six primers. Isolates of C. neoformans were more homogeneous. Only the primer CAV2 showed no amplification of DNA bands for C. albidus. It was concluded that the use of limited number of carefully selected primers allowed the discrimination of different isolates, and some primers (e.g., CAV2 for C. albidus) may not to be applied to some species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Columbidae , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus/genetics , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Disease Susceptibility , Genetic Variation , In Vitro Techniques , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Genetic Markers , Methods , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157333

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic fungal infection among HIV infected patients and important risk factors for the morbidity and mortality of these patients. A total of 8 specimens of CSF out of 45 from known HIV positive patients samples yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of one year. The prevalence of cryptococcal meningitis among HIV seropositive patients in this region is 17.78%.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus/epidemiology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , HIV Seropositivity/complications , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Humans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/epidemiology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/etiology , Prevalence
17.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(3): 145-149, May-June 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-550345

ABSTRACT

Ten cases of cryptococcosis due to unusual microscopic forms of Cryptococcus sp. observed over a twenty-eight year period (1981-2009) are presented. The most important clinicopathological and laboratory data are tabulated. The uncommon forms of cryptococcal cells given are: structures resembling germ tube (one case), chains of budding yeasts (one case), pseudohyphae (two cases) and nonencapsulated yeast-like organisms (eight cases). The diagnosis was based on the histopathological findings. The causative organism was isolated and identified in seven cases; five were due to C. neoformans, and two to C. gattii. In addition, the importance of using staining histochemical techniques - Grocott's silver stain (GMS), Mayer's mucicarmine stain (MM) and Fontana-Masson stain (FM) - in the diagnosis of cryptococcosis is argued.


A criptococose é a mais comum infecção fúngica oportunística observada em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS). Relatamos 13 casos da infecção baseados no diagnóstico histopatológico, sorológico e cultivo. Foram analisadas: a epidemiologia, as técnicas histoquímicas básicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e coloração pela prata (GMS), bem como as técnicas histoquímicas especiais de mucicarmim de Mayer (MM) e Fontana-Masson (FM), o teste do antígeno criptocóccico (CrAg) e o isolamento em cultivos em ágar-Sabouraud (SAB), ágar infusão de cérebro-coração (BHI) e meio com canavanina azul de bromotimol (CGB). Em quatro casos, resultados tintoriais insatisfatórios pela coloração de MM associados a títulos negativos pelo teste do CrAg, a coloração de FM confirmou a infecção pelo Cryptococcus deficiente de cápsula. Oito isolados foram identificados: seis casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans e dois casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus gattii.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus/classification , Retrospective Studies
18.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(5): 255-259, Sept.-Oct. 2009. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-530130

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 13 cases of cryptococcal infection based on histopathology, serology and cultures. Epidemiological analysis, histochemical techniques of hematoxilin and eosin (HE) and Grocot's silver (GMS), as well special histochemical techniques such as Mayer's mucicarmine (MM) and Fontana-Masson (FM), cryptococcal antigen test (CrAg) and isolation on fungal media: Sabouraud's (SAB), brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue (CGB) agar were analyzed. Unsatisfactory staining results by MM stain associated to negative titers by CrAg test, which FM stain confirmed that capsule-deficient Cryptococcus infections were observed in four cases. Eight isolated cases were identified as follows: six cases were infection with Cryptococcus neoformans and two cases were Cryptococcus gattii.


A criptococose é a mais comum infecção fúngica oportunística observada em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS). Relatamos 13 casos da infecção baseados no diagnóstico histopatológico, sorológico e cultivo. Foram analisadas: a epidemiologia, as técnicas histoquímicas básicas de hematoxilina-eosina (HE) e coloração pela prata (GMS), bem como as técnicas histoquímicas especiais de mucicarmim de Mayer (MM) e Fontana-Masson (FM), o teste do antígeno criptocóccico (CrAg) e o isolamento em cultivos em ágar-Sabouraud (SAB), ágar infusão de cérebro-coração (BHI) e meio com canavanina azul de bromotimol (CGB). Em quatro casos, resultados tintoriais insatisfatórios pela coloração de MM associados a títulos negativos pelo teste do CrAg, a coloração de FM confirmou a infecção pelo Cryptococcus deficiente de cápsula. Oito isolados foram identificados: seis casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus neoformans e dois casos apresentaram a infecção por Cryptococcus gattii.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cryptococcosis/diagnosis , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Biopsy , Coloring Agents , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Cryptococcus/classification , Histocytochemistry , Immunocompromised Host , Retrospective Studies , Staining and Labeling , Young Adult
19.
Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association [The]. 2009; 84 (1, 2): 169-180
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100843

ABSTRACT

Meningitis occurs throughout Egypt and is largely attributed to bacterial pathogens, but there is little information on fungal etiologies of meningitis. We, therefore, investigated fungal infections among Egyptian patients with acute and subacute meningitis who tested negative for bacterial and viral agents. A total of 1000 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] samples collected from nine governorates of Egypt during 1998-2002 were initially stained with Gram's, India ink, and lacto-phenol cotton-blue stains, and examined under light microscope to detect fungal elements. All CSF samples were cultured on brain heart infusion, Wickerham and Staib agar media for fungus isolation. CSF with suspected Cryptococcus neoforntans infections were also tested by latex agglutination test for antigen detection. Species identification of selected isolates was carried out at the Mycotic Diseases Branch, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Fungal agents were detected microscopically and by culture in 17 of 1000 [1.7%] CSF samples tested. Ten of 17 were identified as C. neoformans var grubii [serotype A], 4 as Candida albicans, and one each of Aspergillus candidus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa [rubra] and Nocardia spp [actinomycetes]. Out of the 17 cases with fungal CSF infection, 8 died [Cryptococcus-3. Candida-2, AspergiUus, Rhodotorula and Nocardia] and 2 suffered neurological sequelae. Of the 10 cryptococcal meningitis patients, 4 were HIV positive and one was diagnosed with lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first study on isolation of fungi other than Cryptococcus from CSF of Egyptian patients with acute/subacute meningitis. Consideration must now be given to cryptococcosis and candidiasis as potential etiologies of meningitis in Egypt


Subject(s)
Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , Rhodotorula/isolation & purification , Nocardia/isolation & purification , Aspergillosis/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(8): 813-818, Dec. 2008. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-502302

ABSTRACT

In order to study the infectious agents causing human disseminated cryptococcosis in the state of Pará, North Brazil, 56 isolates of Cryptococcusspp. (54 isolated from cerebral spinal fluid and two from blood cultures) from 43 cases diagnosed between 2003-2007 were analysed. The species were determined through morphological and physiological tests and genotypes were determined by URA5-RFLP and PCR-fingerprinting (wild-type phage M13). The following species and genotypes were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans VNI (28/56, 50 percent), Cryptococcus gattii VGII (25/56, 44.64 percent) and C. gattii VGI (3/56, 5.26 percent). The genotype VNI occurred in 12 out of 14 HIV-positive adults, whereas the genotype VGII occurred in 11 out of 21 HIV-negative adults (p < 0.02, OR = 6.6 IC95 percent 0.98-56.0). All patients less than 12 years old were HIV negative and six cases were caused by the VGII genotype, one by the VGI and one by VNI. Therefore, endemic primary mycosis in HIV-negative individuals, including an unexpectedly high number of children, caused by the VGII genotype deserves further study and suggests the need for surveillance on cryptococcal infection in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazon.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Cryptococcosis/epidemiology , Cryptococcus/genetics , Endemic Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology , Cryptococcosis/microbiology , Cryptococcus/classification , Cryptococcus/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Genotype , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
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