Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 154
Filter
1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 34-40, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153039

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp. are zoonotic protozoa, frequently associated with diarrhea in calves, which are responsible for important economic losses. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and its associated risk factors among calves raised in a milk production region of Northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 385) were obtained from young animals (up to ten months old) and evaluated by means of centrifugal fecal sedimentation in formalin-ether followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. In addition, Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated to evaluate associations between variables and infection by these protozoa. Out of all samples analyzed, 25.7% (99/385) scored positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Contact with other species (goat and sheep) (OR = 3.33; p = 0.000), use of a semi-intensive rearing system (OR = 1.70; p = 0.024) and absence of hygienic conditions (fecal contamination of food and water) (OR = 1.64; p = 0.029) were considered to be risk factors. Data herein reported shows that the implementation of hygienic-sanitary measures on the farms studied, it is imperative to reduce Cryptosporidium spp. infection and consequently the economic impact caused by this pathogen.(AU)


Cryptosporidium spp. são protozoários zoonóticos frequentemente associados à diarreia em bezerros e responsáveis por importantes perdas econômicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e os fatores de risco associados à infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em bezerros de propriedades leiteiras no Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras fecais (n = 385) foram obtidas de animais jovens (até 10 meses de idade) e avaliadas por centrífugo-sedimentação em formol éter, seguida da técnica de coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. A Odds Ratio (OR) foi calculada para avaliar a associação entre variáveis e infecção pelos protozoários. De todas as amostras analisadas, 25,7% (99/385) apresentaram oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. Contato com outras espécies (caprino e ovino) (OR = 3,33; p = 0,000), sistema semi-intensivo de criação (OR = 1,70; p = 0,024) e ausência de condições higiênicas (contaminação fecal do alimento e da água) (OR = 1,64; p = 0,029) foram considerados fatores de risco. Com base nos resultados, é imprescindível a adoção de medidas higiênico-sanitárias nas fazendas estudadas, a fim de reduzir infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. e o impacto econômico causado por esse patógeno.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Oocysts
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 489-492, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans. However, only a few Cryptosporidium species have been described in birds (C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli and C. avium). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), followed by molecular characterization of the parasite. A total of 196 animals of both sexes were trap-captured; the animals were culled and the intestinal contents were collected for DNA extraction. After extraction, a nested-PCR (nPCR), which amplifies a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp., was performed. The amplicons obtained were purified and sequenced. PCR analysis revealed that 30 animals (15.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. There was no significant sex-dependent enrichment of Cryptosporidium occurrence (p > 0.05). Only 15 out of the 30 positive samples were successfully sequenced and their species determined, of which, 13 (86.7%) and 2 (13.3%) were C. meleagridis and C. galli, respectively. Herein, we present for the first time a molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from feces of eared doves (Z. auriculata) and propose that these birds are a potential source of C. meleagridis infection in humans.


Resumo Cryptosporidium é um protozoário com uma grande variedade de hospedeiros, incluindo os seres humanos. No entanto, poucas espécies têm sido descritas em aves (Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli e C. avium). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. em fezes de pombas-de-bando (Zenaida auriculata), e realizar a caracterização molecular dos isolados. Um total de 196 animais de ambos os sexos foram capturados, eutanasiados e o conteúdo intestinal recolhido para extração de DNA. Após a extração, realizou-se uma nested-PCR (nPCR), que amplifica um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA do Cryptosporidium spp.. Os fragmentos obtidos foram purificados e encaminhados para sequenciamento. Os resultados da n-PCR revelaram 30 animais (15.3%) positivos para Cryptosporidium spp.. Quanto ao sexo dos animais não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas (p > 0.05). Somente 15 de 30 amostras positivas foram sequenciadas com sucesso e as espécies determinadas, das quais, 13 (86.7%) e 2 (13.3%) foram C. meleagridis e C. galli, respectivamente. Esse é o primeiro estudo com caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium de fezes de pombas-de-bando (Z. auriculata), e propõe serem esses animais potenciais fonte de infecção de C. meleagridis para humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Columbidae/parasitology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Feces/parasitology
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 291-297, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013743

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular characterization of these pathogens in sewage may provide insight on their occurrence and prevalence in Brazil. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in raw and treated sewage from Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Samples were collected every two weeks during a year. Samples were concentrated, then DNA was extracted and subjected to a nested PCR targeting the Giardia 18S rRNA gene and the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. Species of Cryptosporidium were characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). All raw sewage and 76% of the treated sewage were positive for Giardia; 84% of raw sewage samples and 8% of treated sewage were positive for Cryptosporidium. C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. parvum and C. suis were detected in 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% and 4% of raw sewage, respectively. C. muris was the only species found in treated sewage. Multiple species of Cryptosporidium were present in 19.04% of the raw sewage. Treated sewage water can pose a threat to human health. The speciation of Cryptosporidium revealed the presence of non-common zoonotic species as C. suis and C. muris.


Resumo Cryptosporidium e Giardia são protozoários causadores de diarreia em animais e humanos. A caracterização molecular destes protozoários em esgoto pode prover dados ainda desconhecidos da ocorrência de espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi monitorar a ocorrência de Giardia e espécies de Cryptosporidium em esgoto bruto e tratado em uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE) de Londrina, Paraná. Amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado foram coletadas no período de um ano, com periodicidade quinzenal. A ocorrência destes protozoários foi caracterizada por meio de concentração das amostras e posterior extração de DNA seguida de nested-PCR para amplificação de fragmentos dos genes 18S rRNA de Giardia e 18S rRNA de Cryptosporidium. A caracterização das espécies de Cryptosporidium foi realizada por meio de análise por polimorfismo de comprimento do fragmento de restrição (RFLP) dos produtos obtidos. Foram coletadas no total 25 amostras de cada, esgoto bruto e esgoto tratado. Para Giardia, todas as amostras de esgoto bruto e 76% das de esgoto tratado foram positivas. Cryptosporidium esteve presente em 84% das amostras de esgoto bruto e em 8% do tratado. No esgoto tratado foi encontrado apenas C. muris, já nas amostras de esgoto bruto foram encontradas cinco espécies: C. muris, C. hominis, C. baileyi, C. suis e C. parvum em 100%, 19%, 9%, 9% e 4%, respectivamente. A presença de espécies mistas foi observada em 19,04% das amostras. A presença de Giardia e Cryptosporidium em esgoto tratado pode pôr em risco a saúde humana. A discriminação de espécies de Cryptosporidium revelou a presença de espécies zoonóticas incomuns como C. suis e C. muris.


Subject(s)
Sewage/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Urban Population , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Giardia/genetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 574-578, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951569

ABSTRACT

Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals) were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%), Taenia spp. (6.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%). Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3%) and Cystoisospora belli (4.4%) were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient's first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.


Resumo As parasitoses intestinais em pacientes imunocomprometidos podem levar a graves complicações se não diagnosticadas e tratadas precocemente. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a frequência de parasitos intestinais em pacientes oncológicos submetidos ao tratamento quimioterápico. Foram coletadas três amostras de fezes de cada paciente, sendo processadas pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Faust e submetidas à métodos de coloração específicos para protozoários intestinais. Foi encontrada positividade de 61,6% para parasitos e/ou comensais. Os helmintos identificados foram Ascaris lumbricoides (33,3%), Taenia spp. (6,6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4,4%) e Trichuris trichiura (2,2%). Dentre os protozoários, foram identificados Giardia lamblia (26,6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (13,3%) e Cystoisospora belli (4,4%). Também foi registrada presença de Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana e Entamoeba hartmanni. Os resultados encontrados alertam para a importância do diagnóstico parasitológico de fezes junto à utilização de colorações específicas para parasitos intestinais em pacientes oncológicos, sendo que os mesmos deveriam ser requeridos como conduta já na primeira consulta clínica destes pacientes, dada à elevada prevalência aqui constatada e a possível severidade que tais moléstias podem acarretar nestes indivíduos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Entamoeba/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Helminths/isolation & purification
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(3): 327-337, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959196

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with vegetable contamination with zoonotic protozoan. Samples of water, soil and vegetables were collected from July/2014 to May/2016, totaling 83 samples, 21 properties of Londrina region, Paraná, Brazil. DNA amplification of Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in the samples was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR results were positive for T. gondii in 12.9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. in 11.3% (7/62) and G. intestinalis in 25.8% (16/62) of the samples. DNA sequencing identified C. parvum in five samples and G. intestinalis Assemblage E in three. The statistical associations demonstrated greater probability of positive samples for T. gondii and for at least one of the three protozoa when the source of irrigation water was the river; a greater chance of positive samples for Cryptosporidium spp. when deer were present on the property; and a smaller chance of positive samples for at least one of the three etiologic agents when soil was supplemented with limestone. The results expose some critical contamination points, providing support for training farmers on good management practices during the production process.


Resumo O trabalho teve como objetivo determinar os fatores associados à contaminação de vegetais por protozoários zoonóticos. Amostras de água, solo e vegetais foram coletadas de julho/2014 a maio/2016, totalizando 83 amostras de 21 propriedades da região de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. A amplificação de fragmentos de DNA de T. gondii, Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia intestinalis foi realizada por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Os resultados da PCR foram positivos para T. gondii em 12,9% (8/62), Cryptosporidium spp. em 11,3% (7/62) e G. intestinalis. em 25,8% (16/62) das amostras. O sequenciamento de DNA identificou C. parvum em cinco amostras e G. intestinalis, Assemblage E em três amostras. As associações estatísticas evidenciaram maior probabilidade de amostras serem positivas para T. gondii ou para pelo menos um dos três protozoários quando a fonte de água de irrigação era o rio; uma maior chance de amostras positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. quando havia cervos na propriedade; e uma menor chance das amostras serem positivas para pelo menos um dos três agentes etiológicos quando o solo era suplementado com calcário. Os resultados expõem alguns pontos críticos de contaminação, fornecendo suporte para capacitar os agricultores em boas práticas de gestão durante o processo de produção.


Subject(s)
Toxoplasma/isolation & purification , Vegetables/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Soil/parasitology , Toxoplasma/genetics , Water/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Giardia lamblia/genetics , Cryptosporidium/genetics
7.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 248-253, Apr.-June 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042472

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in cattle and sheep from the North Pioneer mesoregion of the state of Paraná. For this, 317 stool samples were collected from cattle and sheep on 16 properties in six municipalities in the North Pioneer mesoregion of Paraná. For detection of Cryptosporidium species, molecular analysis was performed using nested-PCR techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Of the 37 beef cows and 115 calves analyzed, four (10.8%) and 14 (12.2%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of the 12 cows and 52 calves, one (8.3%) and 14 (26.9%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium; and of the 42 ewes and 59 lambs, six (14.3%) and 12 (20.3%), respectively were positive for Cryptosporidium. Cattle (15.3%) and sheep (17.8%) were both susceptible to infection. All the properties of the municipalities of Assaí, Ibaiti and, Leópolis presented infected animals. The study showed that Cryptosporidium occurs in most municipalities assessed, that dairy calves had a higher risk (Odds Ratio=2,66, p-value=0,018) for infection than beef calves, and that sheep are just as susceptible to infection as are cattle, and that further Cryptosporidium studies are developed.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium em bovinos e ovinos da mesorregião norte pioneiro do Estado do Paraná. Para tanto, 317 amostras de fezes destes ruminantes foram colhidas de 16 propriedades de seis municípios do Norte Pioneiro do Paraná. Para detecção de Cryptosporidium spp foi realizada análise molecular pela Técnica de nested-PCR direcionada ao gene 18S rRNA. Das 37 vacas de corte e 115 bezerros de corte analisados, quatro (10,8%) e 14 (12,2%) foram respectivamente positivos para Cryptosporidium . Das 12 vacas e 52 bezerros de leite, um (8,3%) e 14 (26,9%) foram positivos para Cryptosporidium e das 42 ovelhas e 59 cordeiros avaliados, seis (14,3%) e 12 (20,3%) amostras estavam positivas para Cryptosporidium, respectivamente. Bovinos (15,3%) e ovinos (17,8%) foram igualmente suscetíveis à infecção. Todas as propriedades dos municípios de Assaí, Ibaiti e Leópolis apresentaram animais infectados. Este estudo demonstrou que Cryptosporidium ocorre na maioria dos municípios avaliados, sendo que os bezerros de leite apresentam maior risco (Razão de chances=2,66, p-value=0,018) à infecção que os bezerros de corte e que os ovinos são tão suscetíveis à infecção quanto os bovinos e por isso, estudos nesta espécie animal devem ser mais desenvolvidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Cattle/parasitology , Sheep/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Brazil/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 60-65, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899315

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study used several diagnostic methods to examine the occurrence of and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium spp. in captive canaries (Serinus canaria) in southern and southeastern Brazil. A total of 498 fecal samples were purified by centrifugal-flotation using Sheather's solution. Cryptosporidium spp. diagnosis was performed using three diagnostic methods: malachite green negative staining, nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments, and duplex real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA specific to detect Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III. The overall positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. (total samples positive in at least one protocol) from the microscopic analysis, nested PCR and duplex real-time PCR protocol results was 13.3% (66/498). The positivity rates were 2.0% (10/498) and 4.6% (23/498) for Cryptosporidium spp. by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. Sequencing of 20 samples amplified by nested PCR identified C. galli (3.0%; 15/498), Cryptosporidium avian genotype I (0.8%; 4/498) and Cryptosporidium avium (0.2%; 1/498). Duplex real-time PCR revealed a positivity of 7.8% (39/498) for C. galli and 2.4% (12/498) for avian genotype III. Malachite green negative staining differed significantly from nested PCR in detecting Cryptosporidium spp. Duplex real-time PCR was more sensitive than nested PCR/sequencing for detecting gastric Cryptosporidium in canaries.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a ocorrência e realizar a caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. em 498 amostras fecais de canários (Serinus canaria) criados em cativeiro, utilizando três métodos de diagnóstico: análise microscópica pela coloração negativa com verde malaquita, nested PCR seguida de sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados e PCR duplex em tempo real específica para detecção de Cryptosporidium galli e Cryptosporidium genótipo III de aves. A positividade total para Cryptosporidium spp. (total de amostras positivas em pelo menos um método de diagnóstico) obtida pela análise microscópica, nested PCR e PCR duplex em tempo real foi de 13,3% (66/498). As taxas de positividade para Cryptosporidium spp. foram 2,0% (10/498) e 4,6% (23/498) por microscopia e nested PCR, respectivamente. O sequenciamento de 20 amostras amplificadas pela nested PCR identificou C. galli (3,0%; 15/498), Cryptosporidium genótipo I de aves (0,8%; 4/498) e Cryptosporidium avium (0,2%; 1/498). A PCR duplex em tempo real revelou positividade de 7,8% (39/498) para C. galli e 2,4% (12/498) para Cryptosporidium genótipo III de aves. A análise microscópica diferiu significativamente da nested PCR para detecção de Cryptosporidium spp. A PCR duplex em tempo real apresentou maior sensibilidade que a nested PCR/sequenciamento para detectar as espécies/genótipos gástricos de Cryptosporidium.


Subject(s)
Animals , Canaries/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Brazil , DNA/analysis , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Animals, Domestic
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 177-183, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889193

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The study was conducted to compare the specificity of immunological diagnostic methods used for the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium species capable of causing life-threatening infection in both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent patients. For the detection of Cryptosporidium species in 79 animals with diarrhoea, we used three Copro-antigen tests: RIDASCREEN® Cryptosporidium test, Cryptosporidium 2nd Generation (ELISA) and RIDA®QUICK Cryptosporidium. For immunoassays we used positive and negative samples detected by means of polymerase chain reaction and validated by sequencing and nested polymerase chain reaction to confirm the presence six different species of Cryptosporidium species. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in the entire group determined by enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-chromatographic test and polymerase chain reaction was 34.17%, 27.84%, 6.33% and 27.84%, respectively. Sensitivity of animal samples with enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and immuno-chromatographic test was 63.6%, 40.9% and 22.7%, resp., when questionable samples were considered positive, whereas specificity of enzyme immunoassay, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and immuno-chromatographic test was 75.9%, 78.9% and 100%, respectively. Positive predictive values and negative predictive values were different for all the tests. These differences results are controversial and therefore reliability and reproducibility of immunoassays as the only diagnostic method is questionable. The use of various Cryptosporidium species in diagnosis based on immunological testing and different results obtained by individual tests indicate potential differences in Copro-antigens produced by individual Cryptosporidium species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Immunologic Tests/methods , Cryptosporidiosis/microbiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/veterinary , Immunologic Tests/economics , Immunologic Tests/veterinary , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cryptosporidium/immunology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/microbiology
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 129-135, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899275

ABSTRACT

Abstract Central Chile has been identified as a unique ecosystem with high conservation priority because of its high levels of endemism and intensive anthropic pressure. Over a period of almost four decades, the monk parakeet has been successful in establishing and dispersing in urban Santiago, although little is known about its potential impact. Furthermore, nothing is known about its epidemiological risks towards animals or even humans. For this reason, we conducted the first parasitic survey of monk parakeets in Chile through capture, necropsy and thorough external and internal inspection of 92 adult individuals. Among these, 45.7% presented lice that were identified as Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatum, 1.1% had mesostigmatid acari and 8.9% had free-ranging acari. Among 89 parakeets, 19.1% had structures identified as Cryptosporidium sp. This study provides the first description of Cryptosporidium sp. in monk parakeets. Along with the presence of a mesostigmatid acarus in one parakeet, this serves as a public health warning, given that both of these parasites have zoonotic potential.


Resumo A porção central do Chile é reconhecidamente uma área com ecossistemas únicos de alta prioridade para conservação. Isso se deve aos altos níveis de endemismo na região e pressões antrópicas intensas. Durante quase quatro décadas, a caturrita tem obtido sucesso em seu estabelecimento e dispersão na área urbana de Santiago, apesar da falta de conhecimento com relação ao seu potencial impacto. Além disso, não há informações sobre riscos epidemiológicos para animais e tampouco para humanos. Motivado por essa questão, foi realizado o primeiro levantamento parasitário de caturritas no Chile a partir da captura, necropsia e inspeção interna e externa de 92 indivíduos adultos. Deste total, 45,7% apresentaram piolhos da espécie Paragoniocotes fulvofasciatum, 1,1% apresentaram ácaros da ordem Mesostigmata, e 8,9% apresentaram ácaros de vida livre. Dentre 89 caturritas, 19,1% apresentaram estruturas identificadas como Cryptosporidium sp. Este estudo apresenta a primeira descrição de Cryptosporidium sp. em caturritas. Ademais, a presença de ácaros da ordem Mesostigmata em uma das aves serve como um alerta para saúde pública, considerando que estes dois parasitas apresentam potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parakeets/parasitology , Introduced Species , Chile , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Mites
11.
Hig. aliment ; 30(252/253): 137-141, 29/02/2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-982683

ABSTRACT

A água é a matéria-prima utilizada na produção de gelo e a adoção de práticas rigorosas de higiene em sua fabricação, manuseio, embalagem, conservação e distribuição torna-se indispensável. O método de congelamento não é capaz de destruir os patógenos contaminantes, pois os mesmos permanecem em estado de latência até que o produto entre em processo de fusão. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as condições parasitológicas e bacteriológicas do gelo comercializado para consumo no município de Juazeiro do Norte, CE. Trata-se de um estudo analítico e transversal, realizado a partir de análises microbiológicas, por meio da técnica dos tubos múltiplos, e parasitológicas, pelo método de Hoffmann Modificado, técnica de Faust e pesquisa de Cryptosporidium spp. pela técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen Modificado, conhecido como coloração de Kinyoun. Em quinze amostras adquiridas em diferentes bairros deste município, 66,7% apresentaram coliformes totais e 33,3% coliformes termotolerantes. Na avaliação parasitológica, 33,3% estavam contaminadas por Giardia lamblia e 6,6% por Cryptosporidium spp. As irregularidades higienicossanitárias, que abordam desde o processo de fabricação do produto até a sua distribuição nos estabelecimentos, são as possíveis causas de contaminações parasitárias e microbiológicas. Reforça-se, portanto, a necessidade de estabelecer estratégias a fim de detectar os possíveis pontos de contaminação do gelo, buscando solucionar o problema e, assim, prevenir os consumidores de possíveis infecções e parasitoses, além de garantir a segurança deste alimento.


Since this is the raw material used in the production of ice, it is essential to adopt strict hygiene practices in their manufacturing, handling, packaging, storage and distribution. Since the freezing method is not able to destroy contaminating pathogens because the microorganisms remain in the sleep state until the product goes into melting process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parasitological and bacteriological ice conditions marketed for consumption in Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará. It's about an analytic and transversal study, conducted from microbiological, using the technique of multiple tubes, and parasitological through the modified method of Hoffmann, Faust technic and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. by Ziehl-Neelsen Modified, known as Kinyoun staining. In fifteen samples, acquired in different neighborhoods of the city, 66,7% had total coliforms and 33,3% thermotolerant coliforms. In parasitological evaluation, 33.3% were contaminated with Giardia lamblia and 6,6% with Cryptosporidium spp. The hygienic and sanitary irregularities, which range from the manufacturing process of the product to distribution establishments, are possible causes of parasitic and microbiological contamination. Therefore, it reinforces the need to provide strategies to detect the possible points of contamination of ice, seeking to solve the problem and then prevent consumers from possible infections, in addition to ensure the safety of food.


Subject(s)
Humans , Water Microbiology , Drinking Water/microbiology , Drinking Water/parasitology , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Ice/analysis , Water Microbiology , Coliforms , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Microbiological Techniques , Microbiological Techniques
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(3): 303-308, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761129

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR) and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33%) samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.


O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. e Giardia spp. em um sistema público de tratamento de água. Amostras de água bruta e tratada foram coletadas e concentradas, utilizando-se a técnica de filtração em membranas. Foi realizada a técnica de Imunofluorescência Direta nas amostras. A extração de DNA foi realizada, utilizando-se um kit comercial, e o DNA extraído foi submetido a uma reação de nested-PCR (n-PCR). Na imunofluorescência, 2/24 (8,33%) amostras de água bruta foram positivas para Giardiaspp.. Na n-PCR, 2/24 (8,33%) amostras de água bruta foram positivas para Giardia spp., e 2/24 (8,33%) amostras foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp.. O sequenciamento demonstrou DNA de Cryptosporidium parvum e de Giardia duodenalis. Na água bruta, houve correlação moderada entre turbidez, cor e Cryptosporidium spp. e entre a turbidez e Giardia spp.. A presença desses protozoários na água indica a necessidade de monitoramento pelas empresas de tratamento de água.


Subject(s)
Water/parasitology , Water Purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Brazil
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(4): 333-336, July-Aug. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761158

ABSTRACT

SUMMARYThe aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidiumspp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardiaspp. or Cryptosporidiumspp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardiaspp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed.


RESUMOO objetivo do estudo foi investigar fontes de água utilizadas para consumo e irrigação de hortaliças a serem comercializadas sob o aspecto parasitológico ( Cryptosporidiumspp. e Giardia duodenalis), bacteriológico (coliformes totais e termotolerantes) e físico-químico. De janeiro de 2010 a maio de 2011 foram coletadas amostras de água de diferentes fontes de abastecimento de propriedades produtoras de hortaliças; 100 litros para análise parasitológica, 200 mL para bacteriológica e cinco litros para análise físico-química. As amostras de água foram filtradas a vácuo com um kit de filtragem contendo uma membrana de acetato de celulose, 1,2 µm, (Millipore(r), Barueri, São Paulo, Brasil). O material retido na membrana foi extraído mecanicamente e analisado por imunofluorescência direta (kit Merifluor(r)). De 20 propriedades rurais, 10 tinham poços artesianos (40 amostras), 10 semi-artesianos (40 amostras) e um possuía uma mina (quatro amostras). Esta última contaminada por Cryptosporidiumspp. Das amostras de poços artesianos com 90 a 130 metros de profundidade, 42,5% foram positivas para coliformes totais e 5,0% apresentavam coloração alterada. Em amostras de poços semi-artesianos com 14 a 37 m de profundidade, 87,5% apresentaram coliformes totais, 82,5% termotolerantes, e 12,5% destas amostras tinham alteração de cor. Não foi detectada a presença de Giardiaspp. e Cryptosporidiumspp. em poços artesianos ou semi-artesianos. A utilização de poços artesianos ou semi artesianos constitui importante medida no controle da disseminação de zoonoses, principalmente Cryptosporidiumspp. e Giardiaspp., assim como de poços artesianos para o controle de coliformes, em locais de produção de hortaliças irrigadas, a serem comercializadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agricultural Irrigation , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Giardia/isolation & purification , Vegetables , Water Microbiology , Water/parasitology , Brazil , Drinking Water/microbiology , Drinking Water/parasitology , Water/chemistry
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(2): 441-446, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-747058

ABSTRACT

Considering the proximity of sheep farmers to animals that are possibly diseased or releasing fecal oocysts into the environment and the marked pathogenicity in lambs, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and to molecularly characterize the infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 193 fecal samples were collected from sheep of several breeds, males and females, aged up to one year. Polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) was used to amplify DNA fragments from the subunit 18S rRNA gene and indicated 15% positivity; sequencing of amplified fragments was possible for 19 samples. Analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the identified species were Cryptosporidium xiaoi for 15 samples, constituting thus the first molecular characterization study of this Cryptosporidium species in Brazil. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was identified for three samples and Cryptosporidium meleagridis for one sample; the latter two are considered zoonotic species.(AU)


Devido à proximidade de criadores de ovinos com animais possivelmente doentes e/ou eliminando oocistos fecais no ambiente e pela acentuada patogenicidade em cordeiros o objetivo foi, determinar a ocorrência e caracterizar molecularmente a infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em cordeiros na região Centro Sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Num total de 193 amostras de fezes foram coletadas de ovinos de diversas raças, machos e fêmeas, com idade de até um ano. Por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase (nested PCR) para a amplificação de fragmentos de DNA a partir do gene da subunidade 18S do rRNA houve positividade de 15% e o sequenciamento dos fragmentos amplificados foi possível em 19 amostras. A análise das sequências obtidas mostraram que as espécies identificadas nesses animais foram Cryptosporidium xiaoi em 15 amostras, sendo o primeiro estudo de caracterização molecular desta espécie de Cryptosporidium no Brasil. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum em três amostras, e Cryptosporidium meleagridis em uma amostra, sendo estas duas últimas consideradas espécies zoonóticas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium/ultrastructure , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification
15.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(8): 728-732, Aug. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-723189

ABSTRACT

O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a ocorrência da infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. em cabritos de Quixadá, Ceará, Brasil. Participaram do estudo 400 cabritos, com idade entre três e 360 dias, de ambos os sexos, com e sem padrão racial definido, procedentes de 25 estabelecimentos rurais distribuídos em três circuitos. As fezes foram cadastradas de acordo com o aspecto e cor, distribuídas em tubos tipo "eppendorf®" e congeladas in natura a -20°C, até o momento das extrações de DNA genômico do parasito com auxílio de kit comercial. Para amplificação de fragmentos da subunidade 18S do RNA ribossômico (rRNA) foi utilizada a "Nested"-PCR. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp em cabritos de Quixadá foi de 7,50% (30/400). A frequência no período seco e no chuvoso foi de 9,55% (19/199) e 5,47% (11/201), respectivamente (χ²=2,39 e P>0,05). Amostras positivas foram identificadas em 64,00% (16/25) das propriedades estudadas e dessas amostras 50,00% (15/30) e 70,00% (21/30) tinham as fezes com aspecto e cor normais, respectivamente, sugerindo que cabritos assintomáticos estão eliminando oocistos. Não foi observada positividade para Cryptosporidium spp. em animais com 301 a 360 dias, demonstrando que animais mais velhos apresentam menos possibilidade de se infectarem com o parasito...


The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in goat kids from Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil. The study included 400 goat kids of both sexes, 3 to 360 days old, with or without defined breed, originating from 25 farms distributed in three circuits. Feces were registered in accordance with the appearance and color, distributed into tubes Eppendorf tubes and frozen in natura at-20°C until the moment of extraction of genomic DNA from the parasite with the aid of a commercial kit. For amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was used to Nested PCR. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in goats kids of the Quixadá was 7.50% (30/400). The frequency in the dry period and rainy was 9.55% (19/199) and 5.47% (11/201) respectively (χ²=2.39 and P>0.05). Positive samples were identified in 64.00% (16/25) of the studied farms, and from these samples 50.00% (15/30) and 70.00% (21/30) had feces with normal appearance and color respectively, suggesting that the asymptomatic goats were eliminating oocysts. No positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in 301 to 360-day-old goats, demonstrating that older animals have less chance to become infected with the parasite...


Subject(s)
Animals , Goats/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidiosis/veterinary , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Age Distribution , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(6): 529-536, jun. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716343

ABSTRACT

Foram utilizados 17 bezerros, recém nascidos, da raça Holandesa, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do volume de sucedâneo nos principais patógenos causadores de diarreia neonatal. [...] Foram coletadas amostras de sangue dos bezerros com cinco dias de idade para dosagem da proteína total. A média da proteína total foi 6,33 e 6,21g/dL nos grupos 1 e 2 respectivamente. O grupo 2 apresentou tendência (p<0,1) de maior consumo de sucedâneo no período avaliado. A quantidade de sucedâneo oferecida aos animais não influenciou a incidência de diarreia e sua etiologia, ou seja, não foi observada diferença (p>0,05) na frequência das amostras positivas para cada agente entre os grupos. A frequência dos enteropatógenos nas amostras foi de 100 e 75 por cento para Cryptosporidium spp.; 28,5 e 43,7 por cento para Salmonella spp.; 28,5 e 15,6 por cento para patotipos de E. coli; 3,5 e 6,2 por cento para Rotavírus e 10,7 e 9,4 por cento para Giardia sp. nos grupos 1 e 2 respectivamente. Foram encontrados os sorotipos de Salmonella infantis e muenster. Os patotipos de E. coli isolados foram classificados como E. coli enterohemorrágica, enteropatogênica, enterotoxigênica e produtoras de toxinas Shiga 1 e 2. Foi observada associação entre o Cryptosporidium spp. e os patotipos de E. coli em 30 por cento das amostras do grupo 1 e Cryptosporidium spp. e Salmonella spp. em 45,5 por cento no grupo 2. Os resultados do presente trabalho demonstraram que o fornecimento de diferentes volumes de sucedâneo não apresentou influência sobre a incidência e etiologia da diarreia neonatal. A avaliação longitudinal dos enteropatógenos durante o período de patência da diarreia demonstrou que a associação entre eles ocorre a partir do primeiro dia da doença e destacou a importância da infecção pelo Cryptosporidium spp. agente encontrado em todos os momentos e animais.


Seventeen Holstein newborn calves were used with the objective of evaluating the influence of milk replacer volume in the pattern of pathogens causing neonatal diarrhea. […] Were collected blood samples from calves with five days of age for determination of total protein. The average total protein was 6.33 and 6.21g/dL in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The group 2 tended (p<0.1) higher consumption of milk replacer during the study period. The volume of milk replacer did not influenced the incidence of diarrhea and the frequency of positive samples for each etiologic agent between the two groups (p>0.05). Also, there was no difference (p>0.05) on the pattern of the frequency of positive samples for evaluated pathogens. The frequency of pathogens in the samples was 100 and 75 percent for Cryptosporidium, 28.5 and 43.7 percent for Salmonella spp., 28.5 and 15.6 percent for E. coli pathotypes, 3.5 and 6.2 percent for Rotavirus and 10.7 and 9.4 percent for Giardia in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Serotypes of Salmonella infantis and muenster were found. The isolated pathotypes of E. coli isolates were classified as Escherichia coli enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic and Shiga-toxin-producing 1 and 2. Associations between Cryptosporidium spp. and E. coli pathotypes, and between Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were found in 30 percent of the samples in group 1 and in 45.5 percent in group 2, respectively. Our results showed that the different volumes of milk replacer did not influence the incidence and etiology of neonatal diahrrea. Longitudinal evaluation of enteropathogens during patency demonstrated that the association between the etiologic agents starts from the first day of disease. This result highlighted the great importance of the infection by Cryptosporidium spp. which was present in every moments and animals evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Infant , Cattle , Bottle Feeding/veterinary , Dysentery/veterinary , Feces , Animal Feed , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Noxae/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Giardiavirus , Giardia/isolation & purification , Salmonella/isolation & purification
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7399

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium diarrhea represents a relevant clinical problem in developing countries. In Al-Taif, a city of Saudi Arabia that lies at an altitude of an around 2 km above the sea level, Cryptosporidium infection seems to be undiagnosed in nearly all clinical laboratories. Furthermore, nothing was published regarding Cryptosporidium-associated diarrhea in this area. The objectives of this research were to (1) determine the Cryptosporidium prevalence among patients with diarrhea and (2) to estimate the performances of 3 different diagnostic methods. Total 180 diarrheal fecal samples, 1 sample per patient, were collected between January and August 2013. Samples were screened for Cryptosporidium with modified Zeihl Neelsen (ZN) microscopy, RIDA(R) Quick lateral flow (LF) immunotest, and a previously published PCR. The Cryptosporidium prevalence rate was 9.4% (17/180), 10% (18/180), and 11.6% (21/180) by microscopy, LF, and PCR test, respectively. Infection was significantly (P=0.004) predominant among children <5 years (22%) followed by children 5-9 years (11.1%). Although infection was higher in males than in females (16.2% males and 8.5% females), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.11). Compared to PCR, the sensitivity of microscopy and the LF test were 80.9%, 85.7%, respectively. To conclude, high Cryptosporidium-associated diarrhea was found in this area especially in children < or =9 years. The PCR test showed the best performance followed by the LF test and ZN staining microscopy. The primary health care providers in Al-Taif need to be aware of and do testing for this protozoon, particularly for children seen with diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Altitude , Child , Child, Preschool , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(3): 270-276, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679524

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cryptosporidium is an important protozoan cause of waterborne disease worldwide of concern to public health authorities. To prevent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis, the monitoring of this parasite in drinking water is necessary. In the present work, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested-PCR techniques were used to detect Cryptosporidium in raw water from catchment points of four water treatment plants (WTP) in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Methods First, DNA extraction techniques were tested in samples containing decreasing amount of oocysts in reagent water, and PCR and nested-PCR with specific primers for 18SSU rDNA of Cryptosporidium were conducted to determine their sensitivity. In reagent water, a commercial extraction kit provided the best analytical sensitivity, and PCR and nested-PCR allowed the detection of five and two oocysts, respectively, with the primers XIAOR/XIAOF and XIAO1F/XIAO2R. Results In the spiking experiments, only the PCR with the primers AWA995F/AWA1206R was successful at detecting concentrations of 0.1 oocysts/mL. Two catchments samples of raw water and/or water sludge from four WTPs were contaminated with Cryptosporidium. Conclusions The application of the techniques to monitor Cryptosporidium in water and detect contamination in water catchments of WTPs in Curitiba are discussed in the present work. .


Subject(s)
Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , Fresh Water/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Water Purification , Brazil , Cryptosporidium/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Sewage/parasitology , Water Supply/analysis
19.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 22(1): 22-28, jan-mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671607

ABSTRACT

In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows) in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME), enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200). The occurrence in calves (26%) was significantly higher than in cows (2%). Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%), C. bovis in three (11.1%), and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%). The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.


No presente estudo foram identificadas espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium originadas de bovinos leiteiros na região central do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 200 animais (100 bezerros e 100 vacas) em 10 propriedades leiteiras. As amostras foram examinadas utilizando os métodos de microscopia óptica (MO), ensaio imunoenzimático (EI) e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). As espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium foram determinados pelo método de polimorfismo no tamanho dos fragmentos de restrição (RFLP) ou sequenciamento dos genes SSU-rRNA e GP60. A infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. teve ocorrência de 14% (28/200). A ocorrência em bezerros (26%) foi significativamente maior do que em vacas (2%). Do total de 27 amostras positivas submetidas à caracterização genética, C. andersoni foi identificado em 23 (85.1%), C. bovis em três (11.1%) e C. parvum subtipo IIaA15G2R1 em uma (3.7%). O presente estudo demonstrou que a infecção por Cyptosporidium é comum e difundida em bovinos leiteiros nessa região e que bezerros possuem uma alta prevalência de C. andersoni. A presença de C. parvum subtipo IIaA15G2R1 indica que bezerros leiteiros dessa região devem ser considerados uma fonte de oocistos de Cryptosporidium com potencial zoonótico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Brazil , Dairying , Genotype
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(4): 476-479, June 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626440

ABSTRACT

This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Feces/parasitology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium parvum/classification , Cryptosporidium parvum/genetics , Cryptosporidium parvum/isolation & purification , Cryptosporidium/classification , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal/analysis , Prevalence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , /analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL