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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257314, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355908

ABSTRACT

Abstract Melon production in the Brazilian semi-arid region is subject to the use of marginal waters with high salinity. However, the use of regulators and bioactivators in seed treatment can mitigate the harmful effects of salts in irrigation water. In this context, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-germination treatments with plant regulators and bioactivator in melon seeds for the production of seedlings irrigated with biosaline water from fish farming effluent. For this, two trials with the Goldex and Grand Prix hybrids were carried out separately. A completely randomized design was used in a 4 × 3 factorial scheme (pre-germination treatments × water dilutions). In addition to the control, the seeds were treated with salicylic and gibberellic acids and thiamethoxam. The waters used for irrigation were local-supply water, fish farming effluent (biosaline water) and these diluted to 50%. Physiological and biochemical analyses were performed for fourteen days. Biosaline water (5.0 dS m-1) did not affect the emergence of Goldex melon seedlings, but compromised the establishment of the Grand Prix cultivar. Seed pre-treatments with salicylic and gibberellic acids attenuate the effects of water salinity and promote growth modulations, resulting in more vigorous melon seedlings.


Resumo A produção de meloeiro no semiárido brasileiro está sujeita a utilização de águas marginais com salinidade elevada. Entretanto, a utilização de reguladores e bioativadores no tratamento de sementes podem mitigar os efeitos nocivos dos sais na água de irrigação. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-germinativos com fitorreguladores e bioativador em sementes de melão para a produção de mudas irrigadas com água biossalina de efluente de piscicultura. Para isso, dois ensaios com os híbridos Goldex e Grand Prix foram realizados separadamente. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 3 (tratamentos pré-germinativos × diluições de água). Além do controle, as sementes foram tratadas com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico, e tiametoxam. As águas utilizadas para irrigação foram a de abastecimento local, efluente de piscicultura (água biossalina) e estas diluídas a 50%. Durante quatorze dias foram realizadas as análises fisiológicas e bioquímicas. A água biossalina (5,0 dS m-1) não afetou a emergência de plântulas de meloeiro Goldex, mas prejudicou o estabelecimento da cultivar Grand Prix. Os pré-tratamentos de sementes com os ácidos salicílico e giberélico atenuam os efeitos da salinidade da água e promovem modulações no crescimento, proporcionando mudas de meloeiro mais vigorosas.


Subject(s)
Germination , Cucurbitaceae , Seeds , Water , Seedlings
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e253009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339373

ABSTRACT

Abstract Today, global focus of research is to explore the solution of energy crisis and environmental pollution. Like other agricultural countries, bulk quantities of watermelon peels (WMP) are disposed-off in environment as waste in Pakistan and appropriate management of this waste is the need of hour to save environment from pollution. The work emphasizes the role of ethanologenic yeasts to utilize significant sugars present in WMP for low-cost bioethanol fermentation. Dilute hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of WMP was carried out on optimized conditions employing RSM (response surface methodology) following central composite design (CCD). This experimental design is based on optimization of ethanologenesis involving some key independent parameters such as WMP hydrolysate and synthetic media ratio (X1), incubation temperature (X2) and incubation temperature (X3) for maximal ethanol yield exploiting standard (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) as well as experimental (Metchnikowia cibodasensisY34) yeasts. The results revealed that maximal ethanol yields obtained from S. cerevisiae K7 was 0.36±0.02 g/g of reducing sugars whereas M. cibodasensisY34, yielded 0.40±0.01 g ethanol/g of reducing sugars. The yeast isolate M. cibodasensisY34 appeared as promising ethanologen and embodies prospective potential for fermentative valorization of WMP-to-bioethanol.


Resumo Hoje, o foco global da pesquisa é explorar a solução da crise energética e da poluição ambiental. Como em outros países agrícolas, grandes quantidades de cascas de melancia (WMP) são descartadas como resíduos no meio ambiente no Paquistão, mas a gestão adequada desses resíduos é a mais recente solução para salvar o meio ambiente da poluição. O trabalho enfatiza o papel das leveduras etanologênicas para utilizar açúcares significativos presentes no WMP para fermentação de bioetanol de baixo custo. A hidrólise de ácido clorídrico diluído de WMP foi realizada em condições otimizadas empregando RSM (metodologia de superfície de resposta) e seguindo o projeto de composto central (CCD). Este projeto experimental é baseado na otimização da etanologenesis envolvendo alguns parâmetros independentes importantes, como hidrolisado de WMP e razão de meio sintético (X1), temperatura de incubação (X2) e temperatura de incubação (X3) para rendimento máximo de etanol explorando o padrão (Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7) também como leveduras experimentais (Metchnikowia cibodasensis Y34). Os resultados revelaram que os rendimentos máximos de etanol obtidos a partir de S. cerevisiae K7 foi de 0,36 ± 0,02 g / g de açúcares redutores, enquanto M. cibodasensis Y34 rendeu 0,40 ± 0,01 g de etanol / g de açúcares redutores. O isolado de levedura M. cibodasensis Y34 apareceu como um etanologeno promissor e incorpora um potencial prospectivo para a valorização fermentativa de WMP em bioetanol.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Ethanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Water , Biotransformation , Prospective Studies , Fermentation
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929063

ABSTRACT

Cucurbitaceae is an important family of flowering plants containing multiple species of important food plants, such as melons, cucumbers, squashes, and pumpkins. However, a highly efficient genetic transformation system has not been established for most of these species (Nanasato and Tabei, 2020). Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an economically important and globally cultivated fruit crop, is a model species for fruit quality research due to its rich diversity of fruit size, shape, flavor, aroma, texture, peel and flesh color, and nutritional composition (Guo et al., 2019). Through pan-genome sequencing, many candidate loci associated with fruit quality traits have been identified (Guo et al., 2019). However, few of these loci have been validated. The major barrier is the low transformation efficiency of the species, with only few successful cases of genetic transformation reported so far (Tian et al., 2017; Feng et al., 2021; Wang JF et al., 2021; Wang YP et al., 2021). For example, Tian et al. (2017) obtained only 16 transgenic lines from about 960 cotyledon fragments, yielding a transformation efficiency of 1.67%. Therefore, efficient genetic transformation could not only facilitate the functional genomic studies in watermelon as well as other horticultural species, but also speed up the transgenic and genome-editing breeding.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Citrullus/genetics , Cucurbitaceae/genetics , Gene Editing , Plant Breeding , Transformation, Genetic
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 524-535, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369071

ABSTRACT

Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) has been used in ethnopharmacological as a lotion to prevent hair loss, diuretic and cathartic, in the region of central Veracruz, Mexico is used as antidiabetic. The antioxidant properties of the hexanic (EHex), chloroformic (ECHCl3) and ethanolic (EEtOH) extracts, were evaluated by 2,2diphenyl-1-pychrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and the total phenolic content test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in the acute ear edema induced with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) in mouse and the hypoglycemic and cardioprotective effects of the EEtOH were determined in rats. The EEtOH was the most active in the antioxidant potential DPPH test and the ECHCl3 was the best in the FRAP assay and the total polyphenols content. In the anti-inflammatory assay, the ECHCl3 showed the most activity. The EEtOH had the decreased the glucose levels and reduced myocardial damage. The results support the use of this plant in folk medicine in Mexico as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and cardioprotective.


Microsechium helleri (Cucurbitaceae) se utiliza en etnofarmacología como una loción para prevenir la caída del cabello, como diurético y catártico, en la región del centro de Veracruz, México es usado como antidiabético. Las propiedades antioxidantes de los extractos hexánico (EHex), clorofórmico (ECHCl3) y etanólico (EEtOH), se evaluaron mediante la prueba de 2,2difenil-1-psililhidrazilo (DPPH), el poder reductor férrico/poder antioxidante (FRAP) y el contenido fenólico total. El efecto anti-inflamatorio se evaluó en el edema agudo de la oreja inducido con forbol 12-miristato 13-acetato (TPA) en ratones y se determinaron los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotectores del EEtOH en ratas. El EEtOH fue el más activo en la prueba DPPH de potencial antioxidante y el ECHCl3 fue el mejor en el ensayo FRAP y el contenido total de polifenoles. En el ensayo antiinflamatorio, el ECHCl3 mostró la mayor actividad. El EEtOH disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los efectos hipoglucémicos y cardioprotector del extracto de EEtOH se determinaron en ratas, donde el extracto disminuyó los niveles de glucosa y redujo el daño miocárdico. Los resultados apoyan el uso de esta planta en la medicina popular en México como antioxidante, anti-inflamatorio, hipoglucemiante y cardioprotector.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cardiotonic Agents/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Mexico , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 69(2)jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387662

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The species and functional diversity of pollinators are important components for the reproduction of cultivated plants. More information is necessary about this diversity and its geographical variation in crops such as Cucurbita pepo, an important crop in global agriculture. Objective: To describe the taxonomic diversity, geographic variation and foraging patterns of the community of bees that visit C. pepo crops in Costa Rica. Methods: Squash fields were visited at 11 locations within three geographic regions of the country, where the groups of bees and their relative frequency were determined. Through video recordings, information was obtained on their behavior at two locations. Results: A minimum of 27 species belonging to 19 genera and 2 families of bees were found. Three species were dominant in 10 localities (Eucera limitaris, Apis mellifera and Trigona corvina). Altitude reduces bee diversity due to the dominance of Bombus ephipiatus in high regions. Two genera of halictids (Megalopta and Caenaugochlora) that are rarely reported in this crop were frequently observed. Trigona bees dominated among the flowers later in the morning, lacerating nectary holes to facilitate nectar collection. Conclusions: Squash fields in Costa Rica are visited by a highly diverse bee community, which may ensure pollination via complementarity in the face of spatial or seasonal changes in environmental conditions.


Resumen Introducción: Dada la importancia del componente diversidad para la polinización de plantas cultivadas, es necesario obtener más información de esta diversidad y su variación geográfica en cultivos como Cucurbita pepo, uno de los cultivos más importantes de la agricultura centroamericana. Objetivo: Describir la diversidad y la variación geográfica de la comunidad de abejas que visitan este cultivo en Costa Rica, y algunos aspectos de sus patrones de búsqueda de alimento. Métodos: Se visitaron cultivos de C. pepo en 11 localidades dentro de tres regiones geográficas de Costa Rica, donde se determinó los grupos de abejas y su frecuencia relativa. Por medio de grabaciones de video se registró el comportamiento de cada grupo en dos localidades. Resultados: Fueron encontradas un mínimo de 27 especies pertenecientes a 19 géneros y 2 familias de abejas. Tres especies son dominantes en 10 localidades (Eucera limitaris, Apis mellifera y Trigona corvina). La altitud reduce la diversidad de abejas debido a la dominancia de Bombus ephipiatus en regiones altas. Se observaron dos géneros de halíctidos (Megalopta y Caenaugochlora) no previamente reportados en este cultivo. Abejas Trigona dominan las flores en horarios más tardíos de la mañana, donde algunas veces muerden los orificios de los nectarios para facilitar la recolecta de néctar. Conclusiones: La diversidad de abejas que visitan C. pepo en Costa Rica parece asegurar su polinización ante cambios espaciales o estacionales en condiciones ambientales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Cucurbitaceae , Pollination , Cucurbita
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879155

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to investigate the chemical constituents of the seeds of Herpetospermum pedunculosum. One new coumarin and two known lignans were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the seeds of H. pedunculosum with thin layer chromatography(TLC), silica gel column chromatography, Sephedax LH-20 chromatography, Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography and recrystallization, etc. Their structures were elucidated as herpetolide H(1), phyllanglaucin B(2), and buddlenol E(3) by analysis of their physicochemical properties and spectral data. Among them, compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2 and 3 were isolated from this genus for the first time. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity test showed that herpetolide H had certain NO inhibitory activity for LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, with its IC_(50) value of(46.57±3.28) μmol·L~(-1).


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Coumarins/pharmacology , Cucurbitaceae , Lignans , Seeds
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888130

ABSTRACT

Bolbostemma paniculatum is a commonly used Chinese medicinal material effective in clearing heat, removing toxin, eliminating phlegm, and alleviating swelling. The anti-tumor activity it possesses makes it a research hotspot. At present, 76 compounds have been isolated from B. paniculatum, including triterpenoids, sterols, alkaloids, anthraquinones, organic acids, etc., with anti-tumor, antiviral, and immunosuppressive pharmacological activities. This study reviewed the research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of B. paniculatum over the past 20 years, aiming to provide a scientific basis for the research on the pharmacodynamic material basis and promote the development and utilization of B. paniculatum.


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Edema , Triterpenes
8.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 270-275, set 24, 2020. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358164

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cucurbita pepo L. is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The species is popularly used in different countries for the treatment of diabetes and parasitic diseases. Objective: This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm potential of aqueous extracts of leaves and seeds of C. pepo. Methodology: the extracts were tested in vitro against strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans and Candida krusei. The antimicrobial activity was performed by the microtiter method and the antibiofilm activity by the violet crystal method. Results: the results demonstrated that the extracts tested showed antibacterial and antibiofilm actions against S. pyogenes, but it was not possible to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The extracts inhibited the growth of C. albicans and C. krusei with MIC of 0.03 mg/mL. The antibiofilm activity of these species did not present either a dose dependence relationship or a synergistic effect when associated with the antifungal Fluconazole®. Conclusion: although there are indications of antimicrobial and inhibitory action in the formation of biofilm, additional studies are necessary to characterize the possible pharmacological effects of the analyzed specie.


Introdução: Cucurbita pepo L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Cucurbitaceae. A espécie é usada popularmente em diferentes países para tratamento de diabetes e parasitoses. Objetivo: esse trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial antimicrobiano e antibiofilme de extratos aquosos de folhas e sementes de C. pepo. Metodologia: os extratos foram testados in vitro contra cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans e Candida krusei. A atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pelo método de microtitulação e a atividade antibiofilme pelo método de cristal de violeta. Resultados: os resultados demonstraram que os extratos testados apresentaram ação contra S. pyogenes, tanto em relação ao controle do crescimento bacteriano como inibição de formação de biofilme, mas não foi possível determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM). Os extratos inibiram o crescimento C. albicans e C. krusei com CIM de 0.03 mg/mL. A atividade antibiofilme dessas espécies não apresentou relação de dose dependência nem de efeito sinérgico quando associado ao antifúngico Fluconazol®. Conclusão: Embora haja indicativos de ação antimicrobiana e inibitória na formação de biofilme, são necessários estudos adicionais para a caracterização dos possíveis efeitos farmacológicos da espécie analisada.


Subject(s)
Plants , Streptococcus pyogenes , Candida albicans , Cucurbita pepo , Cucurbitaceae , Fluconazole
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828043

ABSTRACT

This project is to study chemical compositions from the stems of Herpetospermum pedunculosum. Twenty-two compounds were isolated from the 70% acetone extract of the stems of H. pedunculosum by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, semi-preparative HPLC and preparative TLC. Their structures were elucidated by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data as N-benzyltyramine(1), α-spinasterol(2),(2S)-1-O-heptatriacontanoyl glycerol(3), 5,7-dihydroxychromanone(4), methyl 2β,3β-dihydroxy-D:C-friedoolean-8-en-29-oate(5), p-hydroxy benzyl alcohol(6), p-hydroxybenzoate(7), p-hydroxy cinnamic acid(8), 1H-indol-3-carboxylic acid(9), rhodiocyanoside B(10), rhodiolgin(11), rhodiosin(12), 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10(E)-octadecenoic acid(13), cylo-(Tyr-Leu)(14), matteflavoside A(15), loliolide(16), 1H-indol-3-carboxaldehyde(17),(+)-dehydrovomifoliol(18), 3-hydroxy-5α,6α-epoxy-β-ionone(19), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-propen-1-yl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-1-propanone(20), 7-en-nonadecanoic acid monoglyceride(21), vanillic acid(22). Compound 1 is a new natural product, while compounds 3-15 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cucurbitaceae
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: 0882018, 2020. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1096040

ABSTRACT

Anastrepha grandis is one of the main pests related to Cucurbitaceae in South and Central America. This study discusses the impact of temperature increase on the number of generations of A. grandis, whose distribution could be aggravated due to temperature increase. Climatic variations were analyzed for reference scenarios obtained from 1961‒1990 and of A2 and B1 climatic change scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in which a less pessimistic scenario (B1) and a more pessimistic scenario (A2) were found. In relation to the reference scenarios, in colder seasons, the southern and southeastern regions are inadequate for the development of A. grandis, presenting one generation at most. In other regions of Brazil, where temperatures are higher throughout the year, the number of generations is at least two, and there is no variation from one climatic season to another. When analyzing the temperature increase, in a more pessimistic scenario (A2), there is a considerable variation in the number of generations, if we take into account three future climate scenarios in which A. grandis practically doubles the number of generations. In relation to a less pessimistic scenario (B1), there is a smaller variation in the number of generations, mainly in the southern region of the country. This variation is more accentuated in southeastern Brazil due to the temperature increase, in which the pest's number of generations doubles even in colder seasons.(AU)


Anastrepha grandis é uma das principais pragas relacionadas à Cucurbitaceae nas Américas do Sul e Central. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer o impacto do aumento da temperatura no número de gerações de A. grandis, cuja distribuição poderá ser agravada devido ao aumento da temperatura. Essas variações climatológicas foram analisadas para cenários de referência obtidos de 1961‒1990 e nos cenários de mudanças climáticas A2 e B1 do Painel Intergovernamental de Mudanças Climáticas, onde encontramos um cenário menos pessimista (B1) e um mais pessimista (A2). Em relação ao período de referência é possível observar que, nas estações mais frias, as regiões Sul e Sudeste mostram-se inadequadas para o desenvolvimento de A. grandis, apresentando no máximo uma geração, enquanto nas estações mais quentes o inseto pode chegar a duas gerações. Nas demais regiões do país, onde as temperaturas apresentam-se mais elevadas durante todo o ano, o número de gerações é de no mínimo duas e não há variação de uma estação climática para outra. Quando analisado o aumento da temperatura, em um cenário mais pessimista (A2), é possível observar uma variação considerável no número de gerações nos três cenários climáticos futuros, podendo A. grandis dobrar o número de gerações. Em relação a um cenário menos pessimista (B1), é evidente uma variação menor no número de gerações, principalmente na região Sul do país, enquanto que na região Sudeste essa variação já é mais acentuada devido ao aumento da temperatura, podendo dobrar o número de gerações mesmo nas estações mais frias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Climate Change , Cucurbitaceae , Tephritidae , Abiotic Factors
11.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0132020, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130089

ABSTRACT

This research aimed to evaluate the biological aspects and the feeding behavior of Aphis gossypii in watermelon cultivars submitted to silicon application. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Education, Agriculture and Environment of the Federal University of Amazonas, Humaitá, Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2×3 factorial (with and without silicon; cultivars Crimson Sweet, Fairfax and Charleston), with ten replications. The application of silicic acid (1%) was carried out directly on the substrate using dose equivalent to 1 ton SiO2·ha-1, 25 days after sowing. The rearing of aphids was kept in cucumber plants, cultivar Caipira. Insect biology tests were conducted to evaluate the duration of the prereproductive, reproductive and postreproductive periods, longevity, number of nymphs, and feeding behavior using the honeydew secretion technique. Analysis of variance was performed using the statistical program SISVAR and the means were compared by the F and Scott­Knott test (p ≤ 0.05). The silicon application to watermelon plants affects the reproduction and feeding of A. gossypii. The watermelon plants cultivar Crimson Sweet treated with silicon has high resistance to feeding by A. gossypii.(AU)


Nesta pesquisa objetivou-se avaliar os aspectos biológicos e o comportamento alimentar de Aphis gossypii em cultivares de melancia submetidas à aplicação de silício. O experimento foi conduzido no Instituto de Educação, Agricultura e Ambiente da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Humaitá, Brasil. Utilizaram-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso e o esquema fatorial 2×3 (sem silício e com silício; cultivares Crimson Sweet, Fairfax e Charleston), com dez repetições. A aplicação do ácido silícico (1%) foi realizada diretamente no substrato, com dose equivalente a 1 ton SiO2·ha-1, 25 dias após a semeadura. Os pulgões da criação foram mantidos em plantas de pepino, cultivar Caipira. Foram conduzidos ensaios de biologia do inseto para avaliação da duração dos períodos pré-reprodutivo, reprodutivo e pós-reprodutivo, longevidade, número de ninfas e comportamento alimentar por meio da técnica de secreção de honeydew. Realizou-se a análise de variância dos dados utilizando-se o programa estatístico SISVAR e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de F e Scott­Knott (p ≤ 0,05). A aplicação de silício em plantas de melancia afeta a reprodução e a alimentação de A. gossypii. Plantas de melancia do cultivar Crimson Sweet tratadas com silício apresentam alta resistência à alimentação por A. gossypii.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aphids , Silicic Acid , Gossypium , Citrullus , Pest Control , Agricultural Pests , Cucurbitaceae , Feeding Behavior
12.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-9, dez. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1148151

ABSTRACT

Originária da América Tropical, provavelmente do Brasil, a Sicana odorifera Naudin (Cucurbitaceae) é uma planta herbácea anual, vigorosa, rasteira ou trepadeira, cujos frutos exalam um odor intenso e agradável quando maduros. O presente trabalho visou caracterizar os metabólitos secundários em extratos obtidos das folhas, sementes, polpa e casca do fruto, e avaliar a atividade antioxidante do fruto. Diferentes classes de metabólitos secundários foram identificadas nas análises qualitativas e quantitativas, realizadas nos diferentes extratos obtidos. A atividade antioxidante do extrato aquoso da polpa do fruto foi determinada pela habilidade de sequestrar o radical estável 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH). Os carotenoides foram extraídos com acetona, separados com éter de petróleo e quantificados em espectrofotômetro UV. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos indicou a presença de compostos como açúcares redutores, depsídeos e depsidonas, esteroides e triterpenoides, polissacarídeos, proteínas e aminoácidos, saponinas, taninos, alcaloides e carotenoides, além de atividade antioxidante na polpa do fruto. De acordo com os resultados obtidos constata-se que S. odorifera possui propriedades de interesse farmacológico. O estudo serve como subsídio preliminar sobre o conhecimento da composição química e viabilidade de emprego dessa planta para fins medicinais. (AU)


Being native of Tropical America, probably from Brazil, the Sicana odorifera Naudin (Cucurbitaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant, vigorous, creeping or climbing, whose fruits exude an intense and pleasant odor when ripe. This study aimed at characterizing the secondary metabolites in the extracts obtained from the leaves, seeds, pulp and fruit peel, and to evaluate the fruit antioxidant activity. Different classes of secondary metabolites were identified by the qualitative and quantitative analyzes in the varied extracts. The antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the fruit pulp was determined by the ability to sequester the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH). The carotenoids were extracted with acetone, separated with the petroleum ether, and quantified by UV spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening of extracts indicated the occurrence of compounds as the reducing sugars, depsids and depsidones, steroids and triterpenoids, polysaccharides, proteins and amino acids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and carotenoids, besides the antioxidant activity in the fruit pulp. According to the obtained results,S. odorifera possesses properties of pharmacological interest. This study provides a preliminary subsidy on the knowledge concerning the chemical composition and the feasibility of using this plant for medicinal purposes. (AU)


Subject(s)
Cucurbitaceae , Paullinia , Phytochemicals , Fruit , Metabolism , Antioxidants
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776418

ABSTRACT

To investigate the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. HPLC fingerprints of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces were established, and the values of creatinekinase-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin (MYO) and cardiac troponin-T (cTNT) in 3 dose groups (2.25, 13.5, 27.0 g·kg⁻¹, equivalent to the crude herb g·kg⁻¹) of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats were measured, and the grey relational analysis was used to study the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. With the dosage increase from 2.25 g·kg⁻¹ to 27.0 g·kg⁻¹, the correlation degree of spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces was also enhanced, but the change trend was different between these two groups. According to the frequency of the top 10 peaks in the correlation degree, peak 17, 14, 16, 19, 32, 12, 26, 30, 4, 6 and 2 were the basic effective substances group of Trichosanthis Fructus, peak 6,14,12,32,30,4 and 6 were the basic effective substances group of Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces. Peak 6, 14, 12, 32, 30, 4 and 26 in fingerprints of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces were the main common pharmacodynamic substance base, among them, peak 6 was 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, peak 14 was vanillic acid and the peak 28 was rutin, but the correlation degree with the efficacy was different. The effect of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces on rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was due to the synergistic effect of the effective substance groups related to the dosage. The essential pharmacodynamic substance groups of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces were different, but they shared a common active ingredient group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Creatine Kinase, MB Form , Blood , Cucurbitaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fruit , Chemistry , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Myoglobin , Blood , Rats , Troponin T , Blood
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773637

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to improve storage stability and oral bioavailability of Ganneng dropping pills (GNDP) by transforming lignans of Herpetospermum caudigerum (HL) composed of herpetrione (HPE) and herpetin (HPN) into nanosuspension (HL-NS), the main active ingredient of GNDP, HL-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization and lyophilized to transform into solid nanoparticles (HL nanoparticles), and then the formulated HL nanoparticles were perfused into matrix to obtain NS-GNDP by melting method. For a period of 3 months, the content uniformity, storage stability and pharmacokinetics test in vivo of NS-GNDP were evaluated and compared with regular GNDP at room temperature. The results demonstrated that uniformity of dosage units of NS-GNDP was acceptable according to the criteria of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015J. Physical stability of NS-GNDP was investigated systemically using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), zeta potential measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a slight increase in particles and PI of HL-NS re-dispersed from NS-GNDP after storage for 3 months, compared with new formulated NS-GNDP, which indicated a good redispersibility of the NS-GNDP containing HL-NS after storage. Besides, chemical stability of NS-GNDP was studied and the results revealed that HPE and HPN degradation was less when compared with that of GNDP, providing more than 99% of drug residue after storage for 3 months. In the dissolution test in vitro, NS-GNDP remarkably exhibited an increased dissolution velocity compared with GNDP and no distinct dissolution difference existed within 3 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed that HPE and HPN in NS-GNDP exhibited a significant increase in AUC, C and decrease in T when compared with regular GNDP. These results indicated that NS-GNDP possessed superiority with improved storage stability and increased dissolution rate and oral bioavailability.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Chemistry , Biological Availability , Cucurbitaceae , Chemistry , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Stability , Freeze Drying , Furans , Chemistry , Humans , Lignans , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Nanoparticles , Chemistry , Particle Size , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solubility
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy in pollinosis patients caused by raw fruits and vegetables and is the most common food allergy in adults. However, there has been no nationwide study on PFAS in Korea. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PFAS in Korea. METHODS: Twenty-two investigators participated in this study, in which patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or bronchial asthma with pollen allergy were enrolled. The questionnaires included demographic characteristics, a list of fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. Pollen allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and/or measurement of the serum level of specific IgE. RESULTS: A total of 648 pollinosis patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7% (n = 270). PFAS patients exhibited cutaneous (43.0%), respiratory (20.0%), cardiovascular (3.7%) or neurologic symptoms (4.8%) in addition to oropharyngeal symptoms. Anaphylaxis was noted in 8.9% of the PFAS patients. Seventy types of foods were linked to PFAS; e.g., peach (48.5%), apple (46.7%), kiwi (30.4%), peanut (17.4%), plum (16.3%), chestnut (14.8%), pineapple (13.7%), walnut (14.1%), Korean melon (12.6%), tomato (11.9%), melon (11.5%) and apricot (10.7%). Korean foods such as taro/taro stem (8.9%), ginseong (8.2%), perilla leaf (4.4%), bellflower root (4.4%), crown daisy (3.0%), deodeok (3.3%), kudzu root (3.0%) and lotus root (2.6%) were also linked to PFAS. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first nationwide study of PFAS in Korea. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7%, and 8.9% of the PFAS patients had anaphylaxis. These results will provide clinically useful information to physicians.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ananas , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asthma , Codonopsis , Crowns , Cucurbitaceae , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Lotus , Lycopersicon esculentum , Neurologic Manifestations , Perilla , Pollen , Prevalence , Prunus armeniaca , Prunus domestica , Prunus persica , Pueraria , Research Personnel , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Skin , Vegetables
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812427

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to improve storage stability and oral bioavailability of Ganneng dropping pills (GNDP) by transforming lignans of Herpetospermum caudigerum (HL) composed of herpetrione (HPE) and herpetin (HPN) into nanosuspension (HL-NS), the main active ingredient of GNDP, HL-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization and lyophilized to transform into solid nanoparticles (HL nanoparticles), and then the formulated HL nanoparticles were perfused into matrix to obtain NS-GNDP by melting method. For a period of 3 months, the content uniformity, storage stability and pharmacokinetics test in vivo of NS-GNDP were evaluated and compared with regular GNDP at room temperature. The results demonstrated that uniformity of dosage units of NS-GNDP was acceptable according to the criteria of Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015J. Physical stability of NS-GNDP was investigated systemically using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), zeta potential measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a slight increase in particles and PI of HL-NS re-dispersed from NS-GNDP after storage for 3 months, compared with new formulated NS-GNDP, which indicated a good redispersibility of the NS-GNDP containing HL-NS after storage. Besides, chemical stability of NS-GNDP was studied and the results revealed that HPE and HPN degradation was less when compared with that of GNDP, providing more than 99% of drug residue after storage for 3 months. In the dissolution test in vitro, NS-GNDP remarkably exhibited an increased dissolution velocity compared with GNDP and no distinct dissolution difference existed within 3 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed that HPE and HPN in NS-GNDP exhibited a significant increase in AUC, C and decrease in T when compared with regular GNDP. These results indicated that NS-GNDP possessed superiority with improved storage stability and increased dissolution rate and oral bioavailability.


Subject(s)
Animals , Benzofurans , Chemistry , Biological Availability , Cucurbitaceae , Chemistry , Drug Carriers , Chemistry , Drug Compounding , Drug Stability , Freeze Drying , Furans , Chemistry , Humans , Lignans , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Nanoparticles , Chemistry , Particle Size , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Solubility
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e6069, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889062

ABSTRACT

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) has high economic value and in recent years, its production has increased; however, part of the fruit is wasted. Usually, inedible parts such as peel and seeds are discarded during processing and consumption. Extracts of melon residues were prepared and their phenolic compounds, antioxidants and antiproliferative activities were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds were found in hydroethanolic, hydromethanolic, and aqueous extracts, especially for melon peel (1.016 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Flavonoids total content found for melon peel aqueous extract was 262 µg of catechin equivalent (CA)/100 g. In all extracts of melon peel significant amounts of gallic acid, catechin, and eugenol were found. For total antioxidant capacity, reported as ascorbic acid equivalent, the hydroethanolic and hydromethanolic extracts in peels and hydromethanolic in seeds were 89, 74, and 83 mg/g, respectively. Different extracts of melon showed iron and copper ions chelating activity at different concentrations, especially melon peel aqueous extract, reaching values of 61% for iron and 84% for copper. The hydroethanolic extract of melon peel presented a significant ability for hydroxyl radicals scavenging (68%). To assess the antiproliferative potential in human cancer cell lines, such as kidney carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma, MTT assay was performed. The proliferation was inhibited by 20-85% at extracts concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mg/mL in all cancer cell lines. The results suggest that melon residues extracts display a high antioxidant activity in in vitro assays and have effective biological activity against the growth of human tumor cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cucurbitaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phenols/pharmacology , Seeds/chemistry , Tannins/isolation & purification , Tannins/pharmacology
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 94p graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876414

ABSTRACT

The consumption of fungal- and plant-derived non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) have been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. In addition to promote physiochemical effects on the gastrointestinal tract and serve as substrate for the intestinal microbiota to produce short-chain fatty acids, NSP can interact with immune system cells including macrophages, which are crucial for tissue repair, lipid metabolism and host defense against foreign substances and pathogens. However, the effects of NSP in macrophages depends on their structure. Recently, it was showed that the chayote (Sechium edule) and the fungus Pleurotus albidus are promising sources of NSP with potential immunomodulatory effects in macrophages. In this study, it was explored the effects of cooking on the composition of NSP from chayote and evaluated their biological effects in macrophages. Furthermore, it was optimized a method for the extraction of mushroom NSP and characterized the structure and biological effects of NSP from P. albidus in macrophages. Results showed that the NSP from chayote pulp regulate cytokine secretion and phagocytosis by macrophages, and minor changes in composition during cooking influences their effects in macrophages. Furthermore, NSP from chayote induces cholesterol efflux and inhibits the expression of genes required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages previously exposed to cholesterol crystals. Then, it was showed that the optimized method for the extraction of NSP from mushroom reduces by up to half the extraction time commonly required. Furthermore, results showed that P. albidus is source of easily extractable glucans with biological effects in macrophages. Results also suggest that glucans from P. albidus inhibit lipid-induced inflammation and foam-cell formation at distinct levels, with significant effects on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, the results suggest that the benefits of chayote NSP is beyond their physical properties on the gastrointestinal tract, and that the P. albidus NSP offers potential health benefits that might be of relevance as a functional food ingredient


O consumo de polissacarídeos não-amido (PNA) de fungos e plantas tem sido associado a redução do risco de doenças cardiovasculares. Além de promoverem efeitos físicos no trato gastrointestinal e serem utilizados como substratos pela microbiota intestinal, os PNA podem interagir com células do sistema imune, como macrófagos, cruciais no reparo tecidual, metabolismo lipídico, e na defesa do organismo contra patógenos. Entretanto, os efeitos em macrófagos dependem da estrutura do PNA. Recentemente, foi observado que o chuchu (Sechium edule) e o fungo Pleurotus albidus são fontes de PNA com potencial efeito sobre macrófagos. Assim, foram avaliados os efeitos dos PNA do chuchu fresco e cozido em macrófagos. Além disso, foi otimizado um método para extração de polissacarídeos de cogumelo, e avaliada a estrutura e os efeitos biológicos dos PNA do P. albidus em macrófagos. Foi observado que os PNA do chuchu regulam a secreção de citocinas e o processo de fagocitose por macrófagos, e alterações na composição de PNA durante o cozimento tem um impacto em seus efeitos biológicos. Além disso, os PNA do chuchu induzem o efluxo de colesterol e regulam a expressão de genes necessários para a ativação do inflamassoma NLRP3 em macrófagos previamente tratados com cristais de colesterol. Também foi demonstrado que o método otimizado de extração de PNA de cogumelos reduz em até pela metade o tempo de extração normalmente empregado. Além disso, foi verificado que o P. albidus é fonte para extração de glicanos com efeitos em macrófagos. Os resultados também sugerem que os glicanos obtidos do P. albidus inibem em diferentes níveis a inflamação induzida por lipídeos e a formação de células espumosas, com efeitos significativos sobre a ativação do inflamassoma NLRP3. Tais diferenças parecem estar associadas à estrutura dos glicanos. Por fim, os resultados sugerem que os benefícios dos PNA do chuchu estão além dos seus efeitos físicos sobre o trato gastrointestinal, e que os PNA do P. albidus promovem benefícios que podem ser relevantes para explorar sua utilização como um alimento ou fonte para extração de ingredientes funcionais


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides/adverse effects , Cucurbitaceae/classification , Macrophages , Pleurotus/metabolism , Immune System , Lipids
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93850

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dietary potassium intake, Na/K intake molar ratio, consumption of 18 food groups, and foods contributing to potassium intake of Korean adults as well as the relationships among quartile of potassium intake level and blood pressure, blood biochemical index. METHODS: This study was conducted using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007~2010. The total number of subjects was 20,291. All analyses were conducted using a survey weighting to account for the complex survey design. RESULTS: Overall average intakes of potassium were 2,934.7, 3,070.6, 3,078.1, and 3,232.0 mg/day, and they significantly increased by year in Korean adults. The average dietary potassium intake was close to adequate intake (AI), whereas that of women was considerably lower than the AI. The Na/K intake molar ratio in males (2.89~3.23) was higher than in females (2.62~2.95). The major food groups contributing to potassium intake were vegetables, cereals, and fruits/meats. The two major foods contributing to potassium intake were polished rice and cabbage kimchi. The rankings of food source were as follows; polished rice > cabbage kimchi > potato > oriental melon > sweet potato > seaweed > radish > apple > black soybean. In 50~64 year old females, systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and HDL-cholesterol significantly increased (p < 0.05) as potassium intake increased. Triglyceride (TG) was significantly higher in the other quartile of potassium intake level than in the first quartile (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our study suggests the need for an appropriate set of dietary reference intakes according to caloric intake by sex and age groups and for development of eating patterns to increase potassium intake and decrease sodium intake.


Subject(s)
Adult , Blood Pressure , Brassica , Cucurbitaceae , Eating , Edible Grain , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Ipomoea batatas , Korea , Male , Molar , Nutrition Surveys , Potassium , Potassium, Dietary , Raphanus , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Seaweed , Sodium , Solanum tuberosum , Soybeans , Triglycerides , Vegetables
20.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 43(3): 284-289, set. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830137

ABSTRACT

Coatings are defined as edible products which form a thin layer on the food, and are characterized by it constitute a semipermeable barrier to gases and water vapor retarding food spoilage, improve the mechanical properties, help maintain the structural integrity of the product wrapping, to retain volatile compounds and can act as a vehicle for food additives. We evaluated the performance of the biofilms on melon through the determination of physico-chemical and sensory properties. The results show that all the variables are significantly influenced by the biomolecule employed "modified starch", noting a favorable performance in the edible biofilms.


Los recubrimientos se definen como productos comestibles que forman una fina capa sobre el alimento y se caracterizan por que constituyen una barrera semipermeable a los gases y al vapor de agua que retrasa el deterioro del alimento, mejoran las propiedades mecánicas, ayudan a mantener la integridad estructural del producto que envuelven, ayudan a retener compuestos volátiles y pueden actuar como vehículo de aditivos alimentarios. Se evaluó el desempeño de los biorecubrimientos sobre el melón mediante la determinación de propiedades sensoriales y fisicoquímicas. Los resultados muestran que todas las variables están significativamente influenciadas por la biomolécula empleada "almidón modificado", observando un desempeño favorable en los biorecubrimientos comestibles.


Subject(s)
Starch , Succinic Anhydrides , Cucurbitaceae , Food Preservation , Plant Tubers
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