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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190222, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057276

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The genus Haemagogus Williston is restricted to Central America and North and middle of South America and it includes numerous species of yellow fever virus vectors. METHODS: Adult female and larvae mosquitoes were collected using hand aspirators and dipper and pipette, respectively. RESULTS: The first record of a species of Haemagogus and particularly of Haemagogus spegazzinii was from La Pampa, Argentina. With this registry, the number of species found in La Pampa province rises to 18. CONCLUSIONS: New information on breeding sites for the species and implications of this new record suggest a possible extension of distribution in the near future.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Culicidae/classification , Argentina , Yellow Fever/transmission
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190439, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101443

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: DENV-2 is the cause of most dengue epidemics worldwide and is associated with severe cases. METHODS: We investigated arboviruses in 164 serum samples collected from patients presenting with clinical symptoms of dengue fever and 152 mosquito pools. RESULTS: We detected the Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in humans and mosquitoes. Our results confirmed the circulation of the Asian II genotype in Brazil, in addition to the prevalent Asian/American genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The detection of Asian II genotype of DENV-2 in mosquito pools collected in a forest park may be related to a spillback event of human dengue virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Culicidae/virology , Phylogeny , Seasons , Brazil , RNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype , Culicidae/classification
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Yellow Fever , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Forests , Population Dynamics , Insect Vectors/virology , Culicidae/virology , Seasons , Temperature , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Brazil , Insect Vectors/classification , Culicidae/classification
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(4): 523-527, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041476

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mosquitoes are vectors of several pathogens in tropical regions. However, information on Culicidae in the northeast region of Brazil is scarce despite many municipalities having environmental conditions favorable for these insects. METHODS: We collected mosquitoes monthly for one year from urban, ecotonal, and ecological reserve areas in Moreno, Brazil, by using CDC Miniature light traps, aspiration, ovitraps, and liquid suction. RESULTS: We collected 1,401 insects in the Culicidae family. Fifteen species of seven genera of Culicidae were identified and five specimens were identified only at the genus level. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide diversity of mosquito species in the sampled areas, some of which are important for human health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Seasons , Urban Population , Forests , Population Density
5.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 64 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995988

ABSTRACT

A identificação de focos de transmissão pode ser de grande utilidade no controle da malária. Por esse motivo, hospitais em regiões endêmicas buscam saber os locais que foram visitados anteriormente por pacientes. No entanto, tais informações, obtidas através de questionários fornecidos aos pacientes, são geralmente vagas e muitas vezes imprecisas. Isto torna o processo manual, lento e de pouca valia em estudos epidemiológicos de larga escala. Baseando-se no fato de que uma parcela significativa da população possui celulares com GPS, o objetivo deste projeto é melhorar a acurácia, organização e dinâmica do processo de coleta de dados de geolocalização de pacientes infectados. Um sistema (https://sipos.fcf.usp.br) foi desenvolvido para que pacientes que chegam aos hospitais possam, sob consentimento voluntário, fornecer os dados de GPS dos seus celulares. Os dados dos usuários, que são tratados de forma anônima, são automaticamente processados e armazenados de forma segura. Através do sistema SiPoS Explorer, epidemiologistas e especialistas em saúde pública podem explorar e analisar os dados de geolocalização, permitindo, desta forma, que regiões vulneráveis sejam priorizadas durante campanhas de controle


The identification of regions with high rates of infection can be of great use in the control of malaria. For this reason, hospitals in endemic regions seek to know the places previously visited by patients. However, such information, obtained through questionnaires provided to patients, is usually vague, inaccurate and not integrated into databases. This makes the process manual, slow and of little value in large-scale epidemiological studies. Based on the fact that a significant portion of the population has smartphones equipped with GPS, this project aims to improve the accuracy and organization of the process of collecting geolocation data from infected patients. The Sickness Positioning System (https://sipos.fcf.usp.br) was developed so that patients who arrive at hospitals can, with voluntary consent, provide the GPS data collected by their smartphones. User data, which is handled anonymously, is automatically processed and securely stored. Through the SiPoS Explorer system (https://sipos.fcf.usp.br/explorer), epidemiologists and public health experts can explore and analyze geolocation data, thereby allowing vulnerable regions to be prioritized during control campaigns


Subject(s)
Patients , Geographic Mapping , Culicidae/classification , Social Media , Cloud Computing , Malaria/ethnology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 539-542, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041419

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cacipacore virus (CPCV), a possible bird-associated flavivirus, has yet to be detected in mosquitoes. Our purpose is examining CPCV in mosquitoes from the Amazon region of Brazil. METHODS: Approximately 3,253 Culicidae (grouped into 264 pools) were collected from the Amazon region during 2002-2006 and analyzed using a Flavivirus genus-specific reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction followed by nested polymerase chain reaction assay and by nucleotide sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: Nucleotide sequences from five mosquito samples showed high similarity to the those of CPCV originally isolated in the Amazon region. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of CPCV-infected mosquitoes which has implications on the arbovirus maintenance in nature and transmission to man.


Subject(s)
Animals , Flavivirus/genetics , Culicidae/virology , Phylogeny , Brazil , Base Sequence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Flavivirus/classification , Culicidae/classification
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 60-67, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.


Resumo O período crepuscular é um dos fatores que pode influenciar na atividade hematofágica dos mosquitos. Muitos desses insetos iniciam ou terminam suas atividades nesse período. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os Culicidae que ocorrem no crepúsculo vespertino em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no oeste de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Além disso, foi analisada a possível influência de fatores abióticos, bem como abundância e riqueza de espécies. Para melhor avaliar a influência do período crepuscular na composição das espécies e na abundância destas, o crepúsculo foi dividido em três períodos: pré-crepúsculo, crepúsculo e pós-crepúsculo. Ao final do estudo foram coletados 984 exemplares distribuídos em 12 gêneros e 23 espécies. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59,76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8,13%) e Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5,89%) foram as espécies mais abundantes. A maior abundância e riqueza de espécies se deram na primavera. Dentre os três períodos estudados, o pré-crepúsculo apresentou a maior abundância de mosquitos, em contrapartida, o pós-crepúsculo apresentou a menor abundância. Os períodos pré-crepuscular e crepuscular apresentaram maior similaridade entre si com relação à composição das espécies. Relacionando os fatores abióticos e as três espécies mais abundantes, não foi observada correlação significativa nos dados avaliados nos sete e 15 dias anteriores às coletas. Entretanto, a temperatura apresentou uma correlação positiva para estas três espécies. A relação entre as espécies coletadas e a potencial transmissão de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças foi comentada.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Forests , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Culicidae/classification
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(1): 20-29, Jan. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-771080

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Culicidae/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/virology , Alphavirus/genetics , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Genotype , Insect Vectors/classification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Seasons
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 192-195, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768223

ABSTRACT

Abstract Morphological features that remained uncertain in previous identification keys and descriptions of Sabethes fabricii were evaluated based on species type material and two recently collected males. As a result, the following features of Sa. fabricii should be considered: proboscis with a white ventral spot beyond the middle and variably enlarged to the apex, possibly spatulate in males; setae over root of wing yellowish and may be occasionally brownish, mainly in their basal portion; and proctiger ending in four teeth. Additionally, the first record of bamboo as a natural breeding site for Sa. fabricii as well as the first register of this species in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil are reported here.


Resumo Caracteres morfológicos que permaneceram incertos em chaves para identificação anteriores e descrições de Sabethes fabricii, foram avaliados com base em material tipo e dois machos recentemente coletados. Como resultado, os seguintes caracteres de Sa. fabricii devem ser considerados: probóscide variavelmente alargada para o ápice, possivelmente espatulada em machos e com uma mancha branca ventral localizada além do seu ponto médio; cerdas sobre a raiz das asas amareladas, podendo ser ocasionalmente marrons, principalmente na sua porção basal, e proctiger com quatro dentes na porção terminal. Adicionalmente, registram-se pela primeira vez, o Bambu como um criadouro natural para Sa. fabricii, bem como a presença dessa espécie para o estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Animal Distribution , Culicidae/anatomy & histology , Culicidae/physiology , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Ecosystem
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 227-232, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752590

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.


No Brasil, a maior parte dos estudos relacionados à família Culicidae se concentram em regiões de florestas úmidas, existindo uma lacuna no conhecimento da diversidade destes mosquitos em regiões com características climáticas e vegetacionais diferentes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi inventariar a fauna de culicídeos em unidades de conservação do semi-árido de Minas Gerais, visando assim contribuir para o conhecimento da diversidade de Culicidae desta região. O estudo foi realizado em quatro unidades de conservação localizadas na região norte do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, área representada por fragmentos de Floresta Tropical Seca (FTS). Foram utilizados três métodos de coleta: armadilha do tipo Shannon, armadilha luminosa do tipo CDC e coleta ativa. Durante o período de agosto de 2008 a julho de 2012 foi coletado um total de 11.219 espécimes de mosquitos, distribuídos em 11 gêneros e 45 espécies. Foram registrados 15 novos registros de mosquitos para o estado de Minas Gerais e 26 novos registros para a região do semi-árido de Minas Gerais. O elevado número de novos registros de Culicidae na região demonstra a importância de estudos de inventário para o aumento do conhecimento da biodiversidade de culicídeos em Minas Gerais, e em particular a região do semi-árido do estado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Rainforest , Brazil
12.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(8): 1021-1029, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732604

ABSTRACT

Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (χ2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Rainforest , Tropical Climate , Biodiversity , Brazil , Culex , Culicidae/classification , Ecosystem , Mosquito Control/methods , Ochlerotatus/classification , Population Density , Public Health , Rural Health
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(8): 1014-1020, 6/dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697143

ABSTRACT

In several countries, surveillance of insect vectors is accomplished with automatic traps. This study addressed the performance of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of CDC with CO2 and lactic acid (CDC-A) and CDC light trap (CDC-LT). The collection sites were in a rural region located in a fragment of secondary tropical Atlantic rainforest, southeastern Brazil. Limatus durhami and Limatus flavisetosus were the dominant species in the MMI, whereas Ochlerotatus scapularis was most abundant in CDC-A. Culex ribeirensis and Culex sacchettae were dominant species in the CDC-LT. Comparisons among traps were based on diversity indices. Results from the diversity analyses showed that the MMI captured a higher abundance of mosquitoes and that the species richness estimated with it was higher than with CDC-LT. Contrasting, difference between MMI and CDC-A was not statistically significant. Consequently, the latter trap seems to be both an alternative for the MMI and complementary to it for ecological studies and entomological surveillance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Mosquito Control/instrumentation , Rainforest , Brazil , Population Density , Rural Population
14.
Rev. saúde pública ; 47(5): 881-889, out. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-700219

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO Descrever a investigação do surto de febre amarela silvestre e as principais medidas de controle realizadas no estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo do surto de febre amarela silvestre na região sudoeste do estado, entre fevereiro e abril de 2009. Foram avaliados casos suspeitos e confirmados em humanos e primatas não humanos. A investigação entomológica, em ambiente silvestre, envolveu captura em solo e copa de árvore para identificação das espécies e detecção de infecção natural. Foram realizadas ações de controle de Aedes aegypti em áreas urbanas. A vacinação foi direcionada para residentes dos municípios com confirmação de circulação viral e nos municípios contíguos, conforme recomendação nacional. RESULTADOS Foram confirmados 28 casos humanos (letalidade 39,3%) em áreas rurais de Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré e Buri. Foram notificadas 56 mortes de primatas não humanos, 91,4% do gênero Alouatta sp . A epizootia foi confirmada laboratorialmente em dois primatas não humanos, sendo um em Buri e outro em Itapetininga. Foram coletados 1.782 mosquitos, entre eles Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , Sabethes chloropterus , Sa. purpureus e Sa. undosus . O vírus da febre amarela foi isolado de um lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. A vacinação foi realizada em 49 municípios, com 1.018.705 doses aplicadas e o registro de nove eventos adversos graves pós-vacinação. CONCLUSÕES Os casos humanos ocorreram entre fevereiro e abril de 2009 em áreas sem registro de circulação do vírus da febre amarela há mais de 60 anos. A região encontrava-se fora da área com recomendação de vacinação, com alto percentual da p...


OBJETIVO Describir la investigación de brote de fiebre amarilla silvestre y las principales medidas de control realizadas en el estado de Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS Estudio descriptivo del brote de fiebre amarilla silvestre en la región suroeste del Estado, entre febrero y abril de 2009. Se evaluaron casos sospechosos y confirmados en humanos y primates no humanos. La investigación entomológica, en ambiente silvestre, involucró capturo en suelo y copa de árboles para identificación de las especies y detección de infección natural. Se realizaron acciones de control de Aedes aegypti en áreas urbanas. La vacunación fue direccionada a residentes de los municipios con confirmación de circulación viral y en los municipios contiguos, siguiendo recomendación nacional. RESULTADOS Se confirmaron 28 casos en humanos (letalidad 39,3%) en áreas rurales de Sarutaiá, Pirajú, Tejupá, Avaré y Buri. Se notificaron 56 muertes de primates no humanos, 91,4% del género Allouatta sp. La epizootia fue confirmada laboratorialmente en dos primates no humanos siendo uno de Buri y el otro de Itapetininga. Se colectaron 1.782 mosquitos, entre ellos Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Hg. janthinomys/capricornii, y Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus y Sa. undosus. El virus de la fiebre amarilla fue aislado de un lote de Hg. leucocelaenus procedente de Buri. La vacunación fue realizada en 49 municipios, con 1.018.705 dosis aplicadas y el registro de nueve eventos adversos graves post-vacunación. CONCLUSIONES Los casos humanos ocurrieron entre febrero a abril de 2009 en áreas sin registro de circulación del virus de la fiebre amarilla por más de 60 años. La región se encontraba fuera del área de recomendación de vacunación, con alto porcentaje de población susceptible. La adopción oportuna de medidas de control permitió ...


OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the state of Sao Paulo and the main control measures undertaken. METHODS This is a descriptive study of a sylvatic yellow fever outbreak in the Southwestern region of the state from February to April 2009. Suspected and confirmed cases in humans and in non-human primates were evaluated. Entomological investigation in sylvatic environment involved capture at ground level and in the tree canopy to identify species and detect natural infections. Control measures were performed in urban areas to control Aedes aegypti . Vaccination was directed at residents living in areas with confirmed viral circulation and also at nearby cities according to national recommendation. RESULTS Twenty-eight human cases were confirmed (39.3% case fatality rate) in rural areas of Sarutaiá, Piraju, Tejupá, Avaré and Buri. The deaths of 56 non-human primates were also reported, 91.4% were Allouatta sp. Epizootics was confirmed in two non-human primates in the cities of Itapetininga and Buri. A total of 1,782 mosquitoes were collected, including Haemagogus leucocelaenus , Hg. janthinomys/capricornii , and Sabethes chloropterus, Sa. purpureus and Sa. undosus . Yellow fever virus was isolated from a group of Hg. Leucocelaenus from Buri. Vaccination was carried out in 49 cities, with a total of 1,018,705 doses. Nine serious post-vaccination adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS The cases occurred between February and April 2009 in areas with no recorded yellow fever virus circulation in over 60 years. The outbreak region occurred outside the original recommended vaccination area with a high percentage of susceptible population. The fast adoption of control measures interrupted the human transmission within a month and the confirmation of viral circulation in humans, monkeys and mosquitoes. The results allowed the identification of new areas of viral circulation but ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Yellow Fever/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Yellow Fever/veterinary
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(5): 566-574, Sept-Oct/2013.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-691431

ABSTRACT

Introduction We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF). Methods Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the canopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69%) during the rainy season (86%). The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes) albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus) scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma) ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (p<0.05) in their habitat use. Limatus durhamii was found more often in the canopy, unlike the other species. During the rainy season, the most abundant species were Sa. albiprivus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Limatus durhamii. During the dry season, the potential YF vectors exhibited a very low frequency and abundance, except Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus. No flavivirus was detected in the 2,677 examined mosquitoes. Conclusions We recommend continued and systematic entomological monitoring in areas vulnerable to the transmission of YF in the Federal District of Brazil. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Yellow Fever , Brazil , Culicidae/virology , Ecosystem , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Insect Vectors/virology , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Trees , Yellow Fever/transmission
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 563-571, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680771

ABSTRACT

Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Rabbits , Culicidae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Argentina , Chickens , Culicidae/classification , Seasons
17.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2013; 43 (2): 481-491
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170626

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes are unquestionably the most medically important arthropod vectors of disease. The maintenance and transmission of the pathogens that cause malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and numerous viral infections are absolutely dependent on the availability of competent mosquito vectors. Although the medical community has known for over a century the role played by mosquitoes in the transmission of malaria and lymphatic filariasis, these diseases continue to have a devastating influence on less privileged populations throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The present study was done to identify the different culicine mosquitoes in four different districts in Sohag Governorate and to describe and compare the various types of sensilla located on their antenna and maxillary palps using scanning electron microscopy


Subject(s)
Arthropod Antennae , Culicidae/classification , Comparative Study , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 100-109, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697823

ABSTRACT

Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Culicidae/genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Ecology/classification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Ecuador , Oviposition , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rainforest
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 928-934, Nov. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656051

ABSTRACT

Wyeomyia exallos, a new mosquito species from Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, is described based on morphological characters of the adult female, male, male genitalia, pupa and fourth-instar larva. The morphological characters of Wy. exallos sp. nov. are compared with those of different subgenera of Wyeomyia as well as of species without subgeneric position. It is proposed that the new species should be placed in genus Wyeomyia Theobald without subgeneric assignment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Culicidae/anatomy & histology , Culicidae/classification , Brazil , Genitalia, Male/anatomy & histology , Larva/anatomy & histology , Pupa/anatomy & histology
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 795-799, Nov. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660373

ABSTRACT

This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (χ² = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (χ² = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (χ² = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.


Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3), com 3 m de extensão cada. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato) na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% e 40,6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% e 26,7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940) (83% e 14,3%) e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% e 18,4%), com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%), maio/jun./jul. (75%), ago./set./out. (29,4%), ago./set./out. (23,5%) e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%), setembro (48,94), (38,3) e agosto (47,62), respectivamente. A presença do Culex quinquefasciatus (40%) e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L) e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L), indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli) com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) entre P1 e P2 (χ² = 0,0097), e entre P1 para P3 (χ² = 0,0005), mas não entre P2 e P3 (χ² = 0,2045). A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Ecosystem , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Eutrophication , Fresh Water , Population Dynamics , Rural Population , Seasons
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