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Braz. j. biol ; 77(1): 60-67, Jan-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839160


Abstract Crepuscular period is one of the factors that may influence the biting activity of mosquitoes. Many of these insects have a peak activity in this period. The purpose of this study was to investigate the afternoon crepuscular activity of Culicidae in a remaining area of Atlantic Forest in western Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Moreover, the possible influence of abiotic factors, the abundance and species richness were verified. In order to better analyze the influence of crepuscular period in specific composition and abundance of mosquitoes, the dusk was divided into three periods: pre-sunset, sunset and post-sunset. At the end of the study, nine hundred and eight four specimens distributed in 12 genera and 23 species were collected. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59.76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8.13%), Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5.89%) were the most abundant species. Spring time presented the greatest abundance and species richness. During the study, among the three periods evaluated, pre-sunset had the greatest abundance and post-sunset the lowest. Pre-sunset and sunset had the greatest similarity between species. Regarding to the abiotic factors evaluated seven and 15 days before sampling, they did not present significant correlation for the three most abundant species. However, temperature had a positive correlation to these species. Moreover, the correlation between collected species and its possible role as vectors of etiological agents of diseases was discussed.

Resumo O período crepuscular é um dos fatores que pode influenciar na atividade hematofágica dos mosquitos. Muitos desses insetos iniciam ou terminam suas atividades nesse período. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os Culicidae que ocorrem no crepúsculo vespertino em uma área de Floresta Atlântica no oeste de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Além disso, foi analisada a possível influência de fatores abióticos, bem como abundância e riqueza de espécies. Para melhor avaliar a influência do período crepuscular na composição das espécies e na abundância destas, o crepúsculo foi dividido em três períodos: pré-crepúsculo, crepúsculo e pós-crepúsculo. Ao final do estudo foram coletados 984 exemplares distribuídos em 12 gêneros e 23 espécies. Trichoprosopon pallidiventer (Lutz, 1905) (59,76%), Aedes crinifer (Theobald, 1903) (8,13%) e Ae. scapularis (Rondani, 1848) (5,89%) foram as espécies mais abundantes. A maior abundância e riqueza de espécies se deram na primavera. Dentre os três períodos estudados, o pré-crepúsculo apresentou a maior abundância de mosquitos, em contrapartida, o pós-crepúsculo apresentou a menor abundância. Os períodos pré-crepuscular e crepuscular apresentaram maior similaridade entre si com relação à composição das espécies. Relacionando os fatores abióticos e as três espécies mais abundantes, não foi observada correlação significativa nos dados avaliados nos sete e 15 dias anteriores às coletas. Entretanto, a temperatura apresentou uma correlação positiva para estas três espécies. A relação entre as espécies coletadas e a potencial transmissão de agentes etiológicos causadores de doenças foi comentada.

Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Seasons , Time Factors , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Forests , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Culicidae/classification
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.1): 192-195, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768223


Abstract Morphological features that remained uncertain in previous identification keys and descriptions of Sabethes fabricii were evaluated based on species type material and two recently collected males. As a result, the following features of Sa. fabricii should be considered: proboscis with a white ventral spot beyond the middle and variably enlarged to the apex, possibly spatulate in males; setae over root of wing yellowish and may be occasionally brownish, mainly in their basal portion; and proctiger ending in four teeth. Additionally, the first record of bamboo as a natural breeding site for Sa. fabricii as well as the first register of this species in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil are reported here.

Resumo Caracteres morfológicos que permaneceram incertos em chaves para identificação anteriores e descrições de Sabethes fabricii, foram avaliados com base em material tipo e dois machos recentemente coletados. Como resultado, os seguintes caracteres de Sa. fabricii devem ser considerados: probóscide variavelmente alargada para o ápice, possivelmente espatulada em machos e com uma mancha branca ventral localizada além do seu ponto médio; cerdas sobre a raiz das asas amareladas, podendo ser ocasionalmente marrons, principalmente na sua porção basal, e proctiger com quatro dentes na porção terminal. Adicionalmente, registram-se pela primeira vez, o Bambu como um criadouro natural para Sa. fabricii, bem como a presença dessa espécie para o estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Animals , Female , Male , Animal Distribution , Culicidae/anatomy & histology , Culicidae/physiology , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Ecosystem
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 905-911, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728805


The physical integrity of bednets is a concern of national malaria control programs, as it is a key factor in determining the rate of replacement of bednets. It is largely assumed that increased numbers of holes will result in a loss of protection of sleepers from potentially infective bites. Experimental hut studies are valuable in understanding mosquito behaviour indoors, particularly as it relates to blood feeding and mortality. This review summarises findings from experimental hut studies, focusing on two issues: (i) the effect of different numbers or sizes of holes in bednets and (ii) feeding behaviour and mortality with holed nets as compared with unholed nets. As might be expected, increasing numbers and area of holes resulted in increased blood feeding by mosquitoes on sleepers. However, the presence of holes did not generally have a large effect on the mortality of mosquitoes. Successfully entering a holed mosquito net does not necessarily mean that mosquitoes spend less time in contact with the net, which could explain the lack in differences in mortality. Further behavioural studies are necessary to understand mosquito behaviour around nets and the importance of holed nets on malaria transmission.

Animals , Anopheles/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Culex/physiology , Mosquito Nets , Malaria/prevention & control , Culicidae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insecticides , Insect Vectors/physiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Nitriles , Permethrin , Pyrethrins
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2014; 44 (2): 447-454
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-166026


The effect of larval and adult nutrition on survival and fecundity of the dengue vector Aedes albopictus Skuse [Diptera: Culicidae] were studied under laboratory conditions, the energy for the physiological activities for both male and female mosquitoes is provided largely by their reserves during larval stage and affected by adult diets. Two groups of larvae [A, B] were reared at 27 +/- 3°C, 70-80% R.H. and DL. 12: 12. Group [A] with 200 larvae [high larval diet] and Group [B] with 600 larvae [low larval diet]. Ae. albopictus exhibited increased fecundity and egg hatch success. Immature development was quick. Immature survival was high, with lowest rate in the pupal stage. Highest longevity was observed in large females fed water + 10% sucrose solution [29.571 +/- 0.415 days] while the lowest one was [1.3 +/- 0.132 days] in starved small females. Large females have significantly [P< 0.001] higher fecundity than smaller females, regardless of whether the females were provided 10% sucrose solution or not [524 +/- 0.203 eggs/group 159.714 +/- 0.1997 eggs/group], respectively. The addition of 10% sucrose solution significantly [P< 0.001] increase the fecundity regardless of whether large or small females [657.9 +/- 0.2198 eggs/group, 242.429 +/- 0.119 eggs/group], respectively

Insecta , Insect Proteins/physiology , Fertility , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Culicidae/physiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 563-571, ago. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680771


Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits). The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.

Animals , Female , Humans , Rabbits , Culicidae/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Argentina , Chickens , Culicidae/classification , Seasons
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 65(1): 107-118, ene.-abr. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665683


Introducción: la alimentación en el período larval del mosquito es sumamente importante, debido a que en esta etapa almacenan los nutrientes básicos para el desarrollo de la pupa y el adulto. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de tres dietas como fuente nutritiva y su influencia en el desarrollo de las fases preadultas de Aedes aegypti. Métodos: se evaluaron tres dietas en el insectario del Instituto Pedro Kourí, concentrado CENPALAB, elaborado en el Centro para la Producción de Animales de Laboratorio (CENPALAB), levadura torula, subproducto de la caña de azúcar (ambas de producción nacional) y harina de pescado, producto de importación. Previamente, se determinó la calidad higiénica-microbiológica y química nutricional de las dietas. Se evaluaron variables biológicas como el número de pupas diarias por alimentos y la duración del ciclo larval; se determinó la cantidad de proteínas presentes en las larvas alimentadas con cada dieta, mediante el método de Lowry. Resultados: la calidad higiénica-microbiológica, así como la caracterización química nutricional de los 3 alimentos evaluados, aportaron resultados satisfactorios para el desarrollo de la investigación. Los valores mayores en la concentración de proteínas y en la actividad biológica en la fase larval del mosquito se obtuvieron con la harina de pescado. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la concentración de proteínas entre las dietas en los primeros días del período larval, A partir del quinto hasta el séptimo día de vida, la harina de pescado fue superior al concentrado CENPALAB. La emergencia de pupas comenzó al sexto día para todas las dietas, obteniéndose el pico más alto al séptimo día con diferencias entre estas. El ciclo larval duró de 7 a 8 días. Conclusiones: se sugiere la utilización de las dietas de producción nacional en situaciones que lo requieran por carencia de la dieta importada, para no detener el desarrollo de las investigaciones

Introduction: feeding mosquitoes during the larval stage is an important process, since it is the stage in which basic nutrients are stored for the subsequent development of pupas and adults. Objective: to evaluate both the quality of three diets as nutritional source and the influence these diets have on the development of the Aedes aegypti in its pre-adult stage. Methods: three different diets were evaluated at the Insectarium of the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute in Havana, Cuba. The diets evaluated were: CENPALAB Food Concentrate, elaborated at the Center for Laboratory Animal Production (CENPALAB, Spanish acronym) and torula yeast, a sugar cane byproduct (both of them from domestic production) as well as fish flour, an imported product

Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/microbiology , Mosquito Control/methods , Culicidae/physiology , /methods
Braz. j. biol ; 72(4): 795-799, Nov. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660373


This study observed the mosquito population in a rural eutrophised dam. Larvae of L3 and L4 stages and pupae were dipped out during twelve month collections and the reared to the adult stage for identification. The collections were done along nine metres from the edge of the dam divided in three parts (P1, P2 and P3), each part being 3 m long. P1 did not have vegetation (grass) along its edge,which would reach or sink into the water to promote some shade on the marginal water. A total of 217 adults of four species was identified with the following constancies and frequencies: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% and 40.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% and 26.7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia and Lopez, 1940) (83% and 14.3%) and Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% and 18.4%). C. quinquefasciatus, A. evansae, A. rangeli and C. nigripalpus were more frequent in the quarters Nov./Dec./Jan. (85.7%), May/June/July (75%), Aug./Sept./Oct. (29.4%) and Aug./Sept./Oct. (23.5%) particularly in the months of December (88.4%) Sept.tember (48.94), (38.3) and August (47.62) respectively. The presence of C. quinquefasciatus and the high incidence of Daphinia sp. and also the levels of Organic Nitrogen (0.28 mg/L) and of total Phosphorus (0.02 mg/L) are indications of the eutrophication of the dam. There was a difference regarding the total of Anopheles (A. avansae + A. rangeli) and Culex species (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) between P1 and P2 (χ² = 0.0097), P1 and P3 (χ² = 0.0005), but not between P2 and P3 (χ² = 0.2045).The high C. quinquefasciatus constancy and frequency were confirmed to be a good biological indicator for a eutrophised environment and A. evansae showed a good potential for this environment. Vegetation can be an important factor for anopheline population dynamic also in eutrophic breeding sites.

Este estudo observou a dinâmica populacional dos mosquitos em açude eutrofizado na área rural de Paraíba do Sul, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizadas 12 coletas mensais de mosquitos imaturos pelo método da conchada em 9 m de borda, divididos em três postos (P1, P2 e P3), com 3 m de extensão cada. O posto P1 difere por não ter vegetação (capim, mato) na margem, alcançando ou penetrando e promovendo alguma sombra na água. Larvas L3, L4 e pupas foram isoladas para a obtenção dos adultos e identificação. Foram identificados 217 espécimes adultos de quatro espécies, com as seguintes constâncias e frequências: Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823) (83% e 40,6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) evansae (Brèthes, 1926) (92% e 26,7%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rangeli (Gabaldon, Cova Garcia e Lopez, 1940) (83% e 14,3%) e Culex nigripalpus (Theobald, 1901) (33% e 18,4%), com maiores frequências nos trimestres nov./dez./jan. (85,7%), maio/jun./jul. (75%), ago./set./out. (29,4%), ago./set./out. (23,5%) e, nos meses dezembro (88,4%), setembro (48,94), (38,3) e agosto (47,62), respectivamente. A presença do Culex quinquefasciatus (40%) e a elevada incidência de Daphinia sp., juntamente com os níveis de Nitrogênio orgânico (0,28 mg/L) e de Fósforo total (0,02 mg/L), indicam a eutrofização do açude. Houve diferença comparando os totais de anofelinos (A. avansae + A. rangeli) com os totais de culicini (C. quinquefasciatus + C. nigripalpis) entre P1 e P2 (χ² = 0,0097), e entre P1 para P3 (χ² = 0,0005), mas não entre P2 e P3 (χ² = 0,2045). A elevada frequência e a constância de C. quinquefasciatus confirmam esta ser uma boa espécie bioindicadora para ambientes eutrofizados e A. evansae apresentou boa potencialidade nesse nível trófico. A vegetação pode influir na dinâmica populacional dos anofelinos também em ambientes eutróficos.

Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Ecosystem , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Eutrophication , Fresh Water , Population Dynamics , Rural Population , Seasons
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(5): 287-292, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648565


Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.

Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atingir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e liberação destes métodos de controle de vetores.

Animals , Female , Male , Culicidae/genetics , Genes, Lethal/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Mosquito Control/methods , Culicidae/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology
Rev. saúde pública ; 46(2): 387-389, Apr. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618500


The presence of Aedes aegypti is reported beyond its current limit of distribution in Argentina, in the city of Neuquén, Neuquén Province. Ovitraps were placed to collect Ae. aegypti eggs between December 2009 and April 2010. The geographical distribution of Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata and Ps. cingulata is extended with new records from two provinces.

Relata-se a presença de Aedes aegypti ao sul de seu limite atual de distribuição na Argentina, na cidade de Neuquén, província de Neuquén. Ovitrampas foram instaladas de dezembro/2009 a abril/2010. A distribuição geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata e Ps. cingulata aumenta, incluindo novos registros para duas províncias.

Se reporta la presencia de Aedes aegypti al sur de su límite actual de distribución en Argentina, en la ciudad de Neuquén, provincia de Neuquén. Huevos de esta especie fueron colectados mediante el uso de ovitrampas que fueron colocadas de diciembre/2009 a abril/2010. La distribución geográfica de Culex eduardoi, Psorophora ciliata y Ps. cingulata se amplía, incluyendo nuevos registros para dos provincias.

Animals , Female , Male , Culicidae/classification , Argentina/epidemiology , Culicidae/physiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Larva/classification , Larva/physiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135714


Background & objectives: Chikungunya infection has become a public health threat in Malaysia since the 2008 nationwide outbreaks. Aedes albopictus Skuse has been identified as the chikungunya vector in Johor State during the outbreaks. In 2009, several outbreaks had been reported in the State of Kelantan. Entomological studies were conducted in Kelantan in four districts, namely Jeli, Tumpat, Pasir Mas and Tanah Merah to identify the vector responsible for the virus transmission. Methods: CHIKV cases records were obtained from State Health Department, Kelantan and localities involved were identified. Larva survey was conducted to collect the immature mosquito stages. Modified aspirators were used to collect the adult mosquitoes. All samples on dry ice were transferred to laboratory and the presence of the virus was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR. Results: A total of 1,245 mosquito larvae were collected during larval survey and 2,019 adult mosquitoes were collected using aspirator. From these collections, 640 mosquito pools were tested for the presence of CHIKV by RT-PCR but none found positive. Ae. albopictus was the most abundant mosquito collected, followed by Culex sp., Armigeres sp. and Anopheles sp. A total of 2, 814 artificial containers were inspected during the study. Interpretation & conclusions: Since none of the mosquito samples was found to be positive for chikungunya virus, the vector(s) of chikungunya virus in these localities could not be identified.

Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Culicidae/physiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(4): 400-407, June 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-592181


To classify mosquito species based on common features of their habitats, samples were obtained fortnightly between June 2001-October 2003 in the subtropical province of Chaco, Argentina. Data on the type of larval habitat, nature of the habitat (artificial or natural), size, depth, location related to sunlight, distance to the neighbouring houses, type of substrate, organic material, vegetation and algae type and their presence were collected. Data on the permanence, temperature, pH, turbidity, colour, odour and movement of the larval habitat's water were also collected. From the cluster analysis, three groups of species associated by their degree of habitat similarity were obtained and are listed below. Group 1 consisted of Aedes aegypti. Group 2 consisted of Culex imitator, Culex davisi, Wyeomyia muehlensi and Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis separatus. Within group 3, two subgroups are distinguished: A (Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cyanescens, Psorophora varinervis, Psorophora confinnis, Psorophora cingulata, Ochlerotatus hastatus-oligopistus, Ochlerotatus serratus, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Culex intrincatus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex pilosus, Ochlerotatus albifasciatus, Culex bidens) and B (Culex maxi, Culex eduardoi, Culex chidesteri, Uranotaenia lowii, Uranotaenia pulcherrima, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles triannulatus, Anopheles albitarsis, Uranotaenia apicalis, Mansonia humeralis and Aedeomyia squamipennis). Principal component analysis indicates that the size of the larval habitats and the presence of aquatic vegetation are the main characteristics that explain the variation among different species. In contrast, water permanence is second in importance. Water temperature, pH and the type of larval habitat are less important in explaining the clustering of species.

Animals , Culicidae , Ecosystem , Argentina , Culicidae/physiology , Larva/physiology , Seasons , Tropical Climate
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(4): 903-906, Dec. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567800


The efficiency of an alternative method of collection (by suction of water) for the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) and Coenagrionidae (Odonata) in bromeliads with different foliar architecture in a restinga at Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, was studied. The alternative method was less efficient to collect Culicidae and Chironomidae (Wilcoxon test p < 0.05) and was more efficient to Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae (Wilcoxon test p > 0.05) from Aechmea lindenii. This method was less efficient to collect insects of all groups from Vriesea friburgensis (Wilcoxon test p < 0.05). The alternative method was efficient to estimate the diversity of these insects in both species of bromeliads. The higher mobility of immature forms of beetles and dragonflies, and the availability of only one tank in Aechea lindenii, contrasting to several tanks in Vriesea friburgensis that help the suction of these immature, probably influenced the results, which indicated that the suction method should not replace the dismantling in the study of Culicidae and Chironomidae. This method can be useful to get immature forms of Scirtidae and Coenagrionidae in one-tank bromeliads.

A eficiência do método alternativo de coleta (por sucção da água) para o estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae (Diptera), Scirtidae (Coleoptera) e Coenagrionidae (Odonata) em bromélias com diferentes estruturas foliares de restinga em Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foi estudada. O método alternativo foi menos eficiente para coletar Culicidae e Chironomidae (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0, 05) e foi mais eficiente para Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae (teste de Wilcoxon p > 0, 05) a partir de Aechmea lindenii. Esse foi menos eficiente para coletar insetos de todos os grupos a partir de Vriesea friburgensis (teste de Wilcoxon p < 0,05). O método alternativo se mostrou eficiente em estimar a diversidade desses insetos nas duas espécies de bromélias. A alta mobilidade das formas imaturas dos coleópteros e libélulas e a disponibilidade de apenas um tanque em Aechea lindenii, em contraste com as várias axilas e Vriesea friburgensis, facilitando a sucção destas formas imaturas provavelmente influenciaram os resultados. Os resultados indicam que o método de sucção não deve substituir o desmanche no estudo de Culicidae e Chironomidae; ele pode ser útil para a obtenção de formas imaturas de Scirtidae e Coenagrionidae em bromélias de um só tanque.

Animals , Coleoptera/physiology , Bromelia/anatomy & histology , Chironomidae/physiology , Culicidae/physiology , Ecosystem , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(4): 664-670, July-Aug. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-558857


In 2000, an outbreak of sylvatic yellow fever possibly occurred in gallery forests of the Grande river in the Paraná basin in the northwestern region of São Paulo state. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the bionomics of Haemagogus and other mosquitoes inside tree holes in that area. Eighteen open tree holes were sampled for immature specimens. Adults were collected twice a month in the forest in Santa Albertina county from July 2000 to June 2001. The seasonal frequency of fourth instars was obtained by the Williams geometric mean (Mw), while the adult frequency was estimated either by hourly arithmetic or the Williams' means. Cole's index was applied to evaluate larval inter-specific associations. Among the ten mosquito species identified, the most abundant was Aedes terrens Walker followed by Sabethes tridentatus Cerqueira and Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar. Larval and adult abundance of these species was higher in summer than in winter. Although larval abundance of Hg. janthinomys peaked in the rainy season, correlation with rainfall was not significant. Six groups of larval associations were distinguished, one of which the most positively stable. The Hg. janthinomys and Ae. terrens association was significant, and Limatus durhamii Theobald was the species with most negative associations.

Animals , Culicidae/physiology , Trees/parasitology , Brazil , Larva , Population Dynamics , Seasons
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 105(2): 155-162, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-544620


The influence of climatic factors on the seasonal frequency of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Peixe Angical hydroelectric scheme (Tocantins, Brazil) was evaluated in the present paper. Mosquito surveys were conducted in the municipality of Peixe and in areas surrounding the reservoir in the municipalities of Paranã and São Salvador do Tocantins during two daytime periods (10 am-12 noon and 2 pm-4 pm) and two night-time periods (6 pm-8 pm and 6 pm-10 am) over 14 months. In total, 10,840 specimens from 42 species were captured, 84.5 percent of which belonged to the Culcinae. The most common species were Anopheles darlingi, Psorophora albipes and Sabethes chloropterus. The number of Culicidae specimens was higher in months with higher rainfall and air humidity than during the drier months. The large population of Ps. albipes and the presence of both An. darlingi (primary vector for human malaria parasites) and Haemagogus janthinomys (primary vector for yellow fever virus) are highlighted.

Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Weather , Brazil , Culicidae/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Population Density , Seasons
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(4): 592-598, July 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523725


This study was conducted in a meteorological tower located in the Caxiuanã Forest (municipality of Melgaço, Pará, Brazil) with the aim of assessing the vertical stratification of species of Haemagogus and Sabethes, potential vectors of the yellow fever virus. To investigate the role of microclimates in mosquito stratification, bimonthly collections were conducted at ground level (0 m), 8 m, 16 m and 30 m (canopy level), with the aid of entomological nets and suction tubes, from July 2005-April 2006. A total of 25,498 mosquitoes were collected; specimens of Sabethes sp. and Haemagogus janthinomyswere found mostly at heights of 16 m and 30 m while Hg. leucocelaenus was most frequently observed at ground level. The largest number of vector species was collected during the rainiest months, but this difference between seasons was not statistically significant. However, the number of Hg. janthinomys was positively correlated with variations in temperature and relative humidity.

Animals , Climate , Culicidae/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Yellow Fever/transmission
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(1): 11-17, Feb. 2009. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-507200


A study of crepuscular and night-biting mosquitoes was conducted at remote settlements along the Padauiri River, middle Negro River, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Collections were performed with human bait and a CDC-light trap on three consecutive days per month from June 2003-May 2004. In total, 1,203 h of collection were performed, of which 384 were outside and 819 were inside houses. At total of 11,612 specimens were captured, and Anophelinae (6.01 percent) were much less frequent than Culicinae (93.94 percent). Anopheles darlingi was the most frequent Anophelinae collected. Among the culicines, 2,666 Culex (Ae.) clastrieri Casal & Garcia, 2,394 Culex. (Mel.) vomerifer Komp, and 1,252 Culex (Mel.) eastor Dyar were the most frequent species collected. The diversity of insects found reveals the receptivity of the area towards a variety of diseases facilitated by the presence of vectors involved in the transmission of Plasmodium, arboviruses and other infectious agents.

Animals , Humans , Culicidae/physiology , Insect Vectors/physiology , Brazil , Culicidae/classification , Insect Bites and Stings , Insect Vectors/classification , Periodicity , Seasons
Neotrop. entomol ; 36(5): 809-811, Sept.-Oct. 2007.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-468117


Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab), a poorly known mosquito species, was observed preying upon Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae, in an oviposition trap placed for routine dengue entomological surveillance, during 2003-2004 in the urban area of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. This is the first report for Tx. guadeloupensis using Ae. aegypti oviposition traps as breeding places. This finding may have important consequences in the epidemiology and local dengue control since Ae. aegypti density is a basic variable in dengue prediction. Whether predation of Ae aegypti by Tx. guadeloupensis in the Amazon is of significance, is a question to be examined. Also, larval predation may be a cause for underestimation of the actual Ae aegypti numbers. Together these hypotheses need to be better investigated as they are directly related to dengue epidemiology, to the success of any outbreak prediction and surveillance program.

Larvas de Toxorhynchites guadeloupensis (Dyar & Knab), espécie raramente encontrada, foram observadas predando larvas de Aedes aegypti (L.), em uma armadilha para ovos de monitoração rotineira para o controle do dengue na área urbana da cidade de Boa Vista, RO, em 2003-2004. Essa observação constitui o primeiro registro de Tx. guadeloupensis em armadilhas para ovos de Ae. aegypti e pode ocasionar repercussões importantes na epidemiologia e no controle local do dengue, uma vez que a densidade de Ae. aegypti em um dado momento constitui uma das variáveis básicas na predição da doença. Se a predação de Ae. aegypti por Tx. guadeloupensis na Amazônia é significativa, é uma questão que precisa ser melhor investigada. A predação larval pode levar ainda a uma subestimativa do número real de espécimens de Ae aegypti preditas pela amostragem. Juntas, essas hipóteses precisam de atenção visto que estão diretamente relacionadas à epidemiologia do dengue, ao sucesso de qualquer predição e programas de controle.

Animals , Aedes/parasitology , Culicidae/physiology , Predatory Behavior , Aedes/anatomy & histology , Larva/parasitology , Oviposition
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34392


The rate of predation by stage IV instar Toxorhynchites splendens larvae on the equivalent instar stage larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus, co-occurring in sewage drains, were noted for a period of three consecutive days in the laboratory using different prey densities and combinations. The rate of predation varied by age of the predator, density of prey, and prey type. The number of Ar. subalbatus larvae consumed by a single Tx. splendens larva ranged between 0.50 +/- 0.71 and 16.40 +/- 2.01; while for Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, the number consumed ranged from 0.20 +/- 0.42 to 20.40 +/- 1.43 per day. The pupation rates of the prey species varied in respect to control, with a minimum of 0.20 +/- 0.42 pupa/day to a maximum of 12.20 +/- 2.30 pupa/day in the presence of Tx. splendens. The values for the controls were 1.00 +/- 0.87 and 14.44 +/- 2.83 pupa/day, respectively. Irrespective of prey densities and combinations, a single Tx. splendens fourth instar larvae was found to consume on average 10.07 larvae on the first day 16.57 larvae on the second day and 4.38 larvae on the third day, killing a total of 17.70 to 45.10 larvae, in three days. In the presence of Tx. splendens, the cumulative pupation, irrespective of prey, remained between 12.20 and 45.10, and differed significantly from control where the values were between 13.90 and 54.70. The results indicate that Tx. splendens can significantly reduce immature numbers and lower the rate of pupation of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ar. subalbatus. Tx. splendens may be a potential biological resource in the control of mosquitoes inhabiting sewage drains.

Animals , Culex/physiology , Culicidae/physiology , Insect Vectors , Larva , Mosquito Control , Predatory Behavior , Pupa , Sewage
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 101(6): 591-596, Sept. 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-437050


We conducted a whole year research on the ecology of Mansonia indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, Costanera Sur Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The usage of different floating plants by immature instars and their overwintering was analized. The percentage of usage of the available floating macrophytes (Pistia, Limnobium, and Salvinia) by the larvae and pupae was studied. Also, we defined positivity (P+) as the percentage of plants with immature instars for each plant genus on a monthly basis. Ma. immature instars were captured throughout the year and Pistia was the resource most commonly exploited by the mosquitoes. The percentage of fourth-instar larvae and pupae on Pistia roots with respect to total immature instars captured was assessed on a monthly and seasonal basis. The proportion of fourth-instar larvae and pupae from both species of Mansonia on water lettuce roots, showed significant differences between months and seasons. Our results suggest that the populations of Ma. indubitans and Ma. titillans in Macáes Pond, survive during winter mainly as fourth-instar larvae.

Animals , Female , Culicidae/physiology , Plants/parasitology , Seasons , Argentina , Host-Parasite Interactions , Larva/physiology , Population Density , Pupa/physiology