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Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(3): 208-213, set. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041826


La capacidad de formar biopelículas de los microorganismos patógenos en gran variedad de ambientes, superficies y condiciones trae consigo un importante riesgo, tanto para la industria alimentaria como para la salud pública. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar y comparar los efectos de la metodología empleada y de los medios de cultivo utilizados, sobre la capacidad de una cepa de Escherichia coli verotoxigénica no O157 y una enteropatogénica de formar biopelículas sobre una superficie de poliestireno. Se ensayaron 2 variantes metodológicas en cultivo estático y se utilizaron medios de cultivo con diferente composición. Los resultados mostraron que ambas cepas formaron una mayor cantidad de biopelícula en cultivo en LB suplementado con glucosa, con recambio del medio a las 24 h y la cuantificación de la biopelícula realizada a las 48 h de incubación. Dichas condiciones podrían ser utilizadas en futuros estudios sobre formación de biopelícula.

The ability to form biofilms of pathogenic microorganisms in a wide variety of environments, surfaces and conditions constitute an important risk, both for the food industry and for public health. The aim of this work was to evaluate and to compare the effects of the methodology applied and the culture medium used on the ability of a non-O157 verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain and an enteropathogenic strain to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Two methodological variants were tested in static culture and culture mediums with different composition were used. The results showed that both strains were able to form a greater biofilm under culture in LB supplemented with glucose, with medium replacement at 24 h and the quantification of the biofilm carried out at 48 h of incubation. These conditions could be used in future studies on biofilm formation.

Biofilms/drug effects , Culture Media/pharmacology , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/drug effects , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/drug effects , Polystyrenes , Species Specificity , Bacteriological Techniques , Biofilms/growth & development , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/physiology , Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/physiology , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Glucose/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180001, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041589


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Studies have demonstrated that pathogens react to the harsh conditions in human tissues by inducing mechanisms that promote survival. METHODS: Persistence and biofilm-forming ability were evaluated during stress conditions that mimic those in the host. RESULTS: Carbon-source availability had a positive effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A adhesion during hypoxia, accompanied by a decrease in pH. In contrast, iron limitation led to decreased surface-adherent biomass, accompanied by an increase medium acidification and lactate levels. Interestingly, iron starvation and hypoxia induced persister cells in planktonic culture. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of host stress in the virulence of S. epidermidis.

Humans , Staphylococcus epidermidis/physiology , Virulence/physiology , Biofilms/growth & development , Culture Media/pharmacology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/pathogenicity , Stress, Physiological , Virulence/drug effects , Biological Assay , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2359-2370, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886801


ABSTRACT During composting processes, the degradation of organic waste is accomplished and driven by a succession of microbial populations exhibiting a broad range of functional competencies. A total of 183 bacteria, isolated from a composting process, were evaluated for cellulase activity at different temperatures (37, 50, 60, and 70°C) and pH values. Out of the 22 isolates that showed activity, isolate 380 showed the highest cellulase activity. Its ability to produce cellulase was evaluated in culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, wheat straw, and rice husk. The culture medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose induced higher enzyme activity after 6 hours of incubation (0.12 UEA mL-1 min-1). For wheat straw and rice husk, the results were 0.08 UEA mL-1 min-1 for both, while for microcrystalline cellulose, 0.04 UEA mL-1 min-1 were observed. The highest carboxymethyl cellulase activity was observed at 60°C (0.14 UEA mL-1 min-1) for both crude and partially purified enzyme after 30 and 120 min of incubation, respectively. Alkalinization of the medium was observed during cultivation in all substrates. The cellulase had a molecular mass of 20 kDa determined by SDS-Page. Isolate 380 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. This work provides a basis for further studies on composting optimization.

Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium/pharmacology , Cellulase/isolation & purification , Cellulase/biosynthesis , Culture Media/pharmacology , Bacillus licheniformis/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Bacillus licheniformis/drug effects , Hot Temperature
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2021-2031, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886773


ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effects of the culturing media and the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on the growth, biomass productivity and lipid production of four species of Microcystis (M. novacekii, M. aeruginosa, M panniformis and M. protocystis). The lipid extract was obtained by refluxing with dichloromethane (Soxhlet). The biomass and biomass productivity yields were maximized with ASM-1 medium treatment enriched with nitrogen and/or phosphorus (0.25-0.65 g/L and 25-50.7 mg/L d-1, respectively). The lipid extract yields from M. panniformis and M. novacekii were inversely correlated with the concentration of nitrogen and directly correlated with the concentration of phosphorus (35.8 % and 31.7 %). The lipid extract yield from M. aeruginosa was inversely correlated with the nutrient concentration (23.3 %). M. protocystis exhibited a higher lipid content in the control medium (41.5 %) than in the nitrogen-enriched media. The recorded results show that a nutrient-poor culture medium favours cell growth and stimulates lipid accumulation, which directly affects the cost of cultivation by reducing nutrient consumption. All studied species may serve as biomass sources for biodiesel production, although M. protocystis exhibited the highest lipid production. Further studies are necessary to determine the composition of the recorded lipid extract.

Biofuels/microbiology , Lipids/biosynthesis , Phosphorus/metabolism , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , Biomass , Culture Media/pharmacology , Nitrogen/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 50: 26, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950876


BACKGROUND: CCL2 was up-regulated in neurons and involved in microglia activation and neurological decline in mice suffering from hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, no data exist concerning the effect of neuron-derived CCL2 on microglia activation in vitro. METHODS: The rats were pretreated with CCL2 receptor inhibitors (INCB or C021, 1 mg/kg/day i.p.) for 3 days prior to thioacetamide (TAA) administration (300 mg/kg/day i.p.) for inducing HE model. At 8 h following the last injection (and every 4 h after), the grade of encephalopathy was assessed. Blood and whole brains were collected at coma for measuring CCL2 and Iba1 expression. In vitro, primary neurons were stimulated with TNF-α, and then the medium were collected for addition to microglia cultures with or without INCB or C021 pretreatment. The effect of the medium on microglia proliferation and activation was evaluated after 24 h. RESULTS: CCL2 expression and microglia activation were elevated in the cerebral cortex of rats received TAA alone. CCL2 receptors inhibition improved neurological score and reduced cortical microglia activation. In vitro, TNF-α treatment induced CCL2 release by neurons. Medium from TNF-α stimulated neurons caused microglia proliferation and M1 markers expression, including iNOS, COX2, IL-6 and IL-1ß, which could be suppressed by INCB or C021 pretreatment. The medium could also facilitate p65 nuclear translocation and IκBα phosphorylation, and NF-κB inhibition reduced the increased IL-6 and IL-1ß expression induced by the medium. CONCLUSION: Neuron-derived CCL2 contributed to microglia activation and neurological decline in HE. Blocking CCL2 or inhibiting microglia excessive activation may be potential strategies for HE.

Animals , Rats , Hepatic Encephalopathy/metabolism , Microglia/metabolism , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Receptors, Chemokine/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurons/metabolism , Thioacetamide , Gene Expression , Hepatic Encephalopathy/chemically induced , Hepatic Encephalopathy/therapy , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Microglia/drug effects , Chemokine CCL2/antagonists & inhibitors , Culture Media/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Nervous System Diseases
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 184-188
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158413


Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1mg/L) + IAA (0.1mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1mg/L) and BAP (1mg/L) + IAA (0.1mg/L).

Cold Temperature , Culture Media/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gibberellins/radiation effects , Hydroponics/methods , Photoperiod , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/radiation effects , Valerian/drug effects , Valerian/growth & development , Valerian/radiation effects
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 177-183
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158412


We studied the influence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of Withania somnifera. BA (1.5 mg/l) and IAA (0.3 mg/l) on MS medium supplemented with 4% sucrose showed 67% of in vitro flower induction frequency, 9 flowers/shoot, 4 fruits/shoot and 11 seeds/fruit in elongated-shoots. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (L-glutamine, adenine sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate 5-25 mg/l) were tested in combination with 4% sucrose and BA at 1.5 mg/l and IAA at 0.3 mg/l. Highest number of flowers (20 flowers/shoot; 2.2-fold) and fruits (16 fruits/shoot; 3.39-fold), fruit setting (12 seeds/fruit; 1.08-fold) at a higher frequency (88 %) were achieved on MS medium augmented with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate with same PGRs and sucrose concentration. The maximum production of withanolide A (0.68 mg/g DW) and withanolide B (0.77 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro fruits. Highest accumulation of withaferin A (2 mg/g DW) was quantified from in vitro flowers, whereas, it was low in in vitro fruits (0.49 mg/g DW withaferin A). However, withanone (0.23 mg/g DW) was found accumulated uniformly in both in vitro flowers and fruits compared to control.

Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Carbon/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/pharmacology , Flowers/chemistry , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/growth & development , Germination/drug effects , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/pharmacology , Hydroponics , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitrates/pharmacology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Sucrose/pharmacology , Withania/chemistry , Withania/growth & development , Withania/metabolism , Withanolides/metabolism
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1128-1137
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153803


Different explants of fenugreek, T. foenum-graecum L. (Var. RMt-303), were compared for their callus induction and subsequent shoot regeneration capabilities on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with different phytohormones in varying concentration. The highest percentage of callus induction frequency was observed in 1ppm benzylaminopurine (BAP). Maximum shoots were induced on media supplemented with 0.5ppm BAP using leaf and stem tissues as explants. However, root tissues showed only callusing with no subsequent shooting. Cotyledonary node responded better than hypocotyls in terms of shoot induction on media supplemented with thidiazuron (0.1ppm). The callus was subjected to drought stress as simulated by reduced water potential of growth media due to addition of mannitol. Calli could withstand -2 MPa water potential till 30 days indicating that the drought stress tolerance mechanisms are functional in this variety. Chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll, proline and total phenolic contents, total peroxidase and catalase activities increased under stress conditions suggesting the tolerance of callus to drought stress. However, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase activities were found to decrease slightly. Malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents were found to decrease while only a slight disturbance was found in membrane stability index. These results underline the mechanisms that are crucial for drought stress tolerance in fenugreek.

Adaptation, Physiological , Catalase/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Culture Media/pharmacology , Dehydration/chemically induced , Dehydration/metabolism , Droughts , Mannitol/toxicity , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/physiology , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidases/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Cells/physiology , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Proteins/analysis , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Proline/analysis , Regeneration/drug effects , Regeneration/physiology , Stress, Physiological , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Trigonella/physiology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1112-1121
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153800


Various parameters including explant-type, medium compositions, use of phytohormones and additives were optimized for direct and indirect regeneration of E. ochreata, a medicinal orchid under threat. Protocorm-like-bodies (PLBs) proved to be the best explants for shoot initiation, proliferation and callus induction. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium containing 2.5 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg L-1 kinetin (Kin) and additives (adenine sulfate, arginine, citric acid, 30 mg L-1 each and 50 mg L-1 ascorbic acid) was optimal for shoot multiplication (12.1 shoots and 7.1 PLBs per explant with synchronized growth), which also produced callus. Shoot number was further increased with three successive subcultures on same media and ~40 shoots per explant were achieved after 3 cycles of 30 days each. Additives and casein hydrolysate (CH) showed advantageous effects on indirect shoot regeneration via protocorm-derived callus. Optimum indirect regeneration was achieved on MS containing additives, 500 mg L-1 CH, 2.5 mg L-1 BAP and 1.0 mg L-1 Kin with 30 PLBs and 6 shoots per callus mass (~5 mm size). The shoots were rooted (70% frequency) on one by fourth-MS medium containing 2.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyric acid, 200 mg L-1 activated charcoal and additives. The rooted plantlets were hardened and transferred to greenhouse with 63% survival rate. Flow-cytometry based DNA content analysis revealed that the ploidy levels were maintained in in vitro regenerated plants. This is the first report for in vitro plant regeneration in E. ochreata.

Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Chromosomes, Plant , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Cytokinins/pharmacology , /pharmacology , Orchidaceae/genetics , Orchidaceae/growth & development , Orchidaceae/physiology , Organoids/drug effects , Organoids/physiology , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Cells/physiology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Ploidies , Regeneration , Rhizome/drug effects , Rhizome/growth & development
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1071-1081
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153790


Most of the phenol compounds are toxic and have been considered as hazardous pollutants. Several physicochemical and biological methods are available to detect and monitor the phenol pollutants in water and soil. In the present study, phenol constituents of winery, paper and plastic industrial effluents were successfully detected employing tyrosinase-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate. The synthesis of extracellular tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles was achieved by a single isolate of Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39. Enhanced production (369.41 IU) of tyrosinase was produced in submerged bioprocess employing response surface method with central composite design. Extracellular gold nanoparticles synthesized (12-18 nm) by Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39 were characterized with TEM, EDAX and FTIR analysis. A rapid detection (within 10 min) of phenol constituents from winery effluents was achieved by bioconjugate, when compared to tyrosinases and gold nanoparticles independently. Streptomyces tyrosinase could exhibit relatively a better performance than commercially available mushroom tyrosinase in the detection of phenol constituents. Winery effluent has shown much higher content (0.98 O.D) of phenol constituents than paper and plastic effluents based on the intensity of color and U.V absorption spectra.

Agaricales/enzymology , Biosensing Techniques , Colorimetry/methods , Culture Media/pharmacology , Environmental Pollutants/analysis , Ferrocyanides , Fungal Proteins/isolation & purification , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gold , Industrial Waste/analysis , Monophenol Monooxygenase/isolation & purification , Monophenol Monooxygenase/metabolism , Mycology/methods , Nanoparticles , Paper , Phenols/analysis , Plastics , Soil Microbiology , Species Specificity , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet/methods , /enzymology , /growth & development , /isolation & purification , Tyrosine/metabolism , Wine
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jun; 52(6): 658-663
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153745


The seeds of C. nervosa and E. pseudoclavicaulis were germinated asymbiotically on Knudson C (KC) and Schenk and Hildebrandt basal medium (SH). Growth regulators such as 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) individually and in combinations with benzyladenine (BA) and kinetin were used for callus induction from the protocorm like bodies. Coelogyne nervosa showed maximum (90%) callus induction in Knudson C medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.26 µM) and Eria pseudoclavicaulis showed 60% callus induction in Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.26 µM). Calli developed a route of production of protocorm-like bodies and eventually developed into plantlets on transfer to growth regulator free half strength basal medium. The well rooted plants were hardened successfully in the potting mixture containing coconut husk, charcoal, and brick pieces in the ratio 2:1:1.

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Culture Media/pharmacology , Endangered Species , India , Orchidaceae/cytology , Orchidaceae/physiology , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/physiology , Regeneration/drug effects
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 43-50, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193129


BACKGROUND: Standard protocols are lacking for the preparation of platelet lysates (PL) as an alternative to using fetal bovine serum as a cell culture supplement. This study aimed to establish optimum conditions for preparing PL for use in cell cultures. METHODS: Cell density in three pooled platelet concentrates (PC) were adjusted to 1x10(12)/L and 2x10(12)/L. PL was prepared from PC by 1 to 3 freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. HaCaT cells were cultured in media supplemented with 5% or 10% PL. Cell numbers were estimated using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8; Dojindo Laboratories, Japan). Growth factors were quantified by using the Luminex 200 system (Luminex Corporation, USA). RESULTS: Cell proliferation rates in the presence of PLs were similar when prepared from PCs of both cell densities. The rates were higher in media containing 5% PL than 10% PL when prepared by two FT cycles. Concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), PDGF-AA, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were significantly higher in PL prepared from PC with a cell density of 2x10(12)/L than 1x10(12)/L PC. However, only VEGF and PDGF-AA concentrations in PLs were correlated with HaCaT cell counts. CONCLUSIONS: The 5% PL from PC with a cell density of 1x10(12)/L prepared by two FT cycles treatment was the most effective condition that supported steady HaCaT cell proliferation. Our finding may be useful for preparing PL-supplemented cell culture media.

Humans , Blood Platelets/chemistry , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Culture Media/pharmacology , Epidermal Growth Factor/chemistry , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/chemistry , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/chemistry
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1003-1013, sep. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-688455


Thalassiosira pseudonana is a marine Bacillariophyta commonly used as live feed in mariculture. The growth rate and biochemical composition of microalgae are highly influenced by environmental factors such as, irradiance and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of three irradiances (60, 120 and 180μE/m².s) and two culture media (Algal and Humus) on growth and biochemical composition of this diatom. The microalga was grown semicontinuously at a daily renewal rate of fresh media of 30%, 37‰ salinity, 25±1ºC and constant aeration (200mL/min). The cell densities (cel/mL) and contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, chlorophyll a, total carotenoids, and fatty acids, showed significant differences (p<0.05) between treatments. During steady-state phase, the maximal cell density, and lipid and carbohydrate contents were of 4.62x10(6)cel/mL, 20.3±2.28% and 16.6±2.43%, respectively, and were achieved in Humus medium at 180μE/m².s. Moreover, highest protein contents (45.0±5.05%) and total carotenoids (0.5±0.01%) were obtained in Algal medium at 180μE/m².s. Chlorophyll a (0.93±0.04%) was higher at low irradiances in Algal medium. In both media, the fatty acids unsaturation degree was lower with increasing irradiance, being eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 (EPA) most represented (6.20%) in Algal medium at 60μE/m².s. This strain of T. pseudonana showed multiple physiological responses to changes in culture conditions, and may be cultivated with an alternative medium, which reduced the operating costs and allowed a high nutritional biomass production value for animals under culture.

Thalassiosira pseudonana es utilizada como alimento en acuicultura, pero su valor nutricional está influenciado por las condiciones de crecimiento. Sistemas semicontinuos, en fase de estabilización, con tres irradiancias (60, 120 y 180μE/m².s) y dos medios de cultivo (Algal y Humus) fueron las condiciones en las que se determinó el crecimiento y componentes bioquímicos de T. pseudonana. En Humus a 180μE/m².s se obtuvieron las máximas densidades celulares (entre 3.86 y 4.62x10(6)cel/mL) y mayores concentraciones de lípidos y carbohidratos, con porcentajes de 20.3±2.28 y 16.6±2.43, respectivamente. A 180μE/m².s en Algal se observaron los mayores valores de proteínas (45.0±5.05) y carotenoides totales (0.5±0.01). El contenido de clorofila a fue favorecido por baja intensidad de luz, principalmente en Algal, con máximos de 0.9±0.04%. El grado de insaturación de los ácidos grasos disminuyó por incremento de la irradiancia en ambos medios, estando mayoritariamente representados por el ácido eicosapentaenoico, 20:5 n-3 (AEP), con porcentajes máximos (6.20%) en Algal a 60μE/m².s. Los resultados muestran múltiples respuestas fisiológicas de T. pseudonana frente a cambios en las condiciones de crecimiento, las cuales pueden ser aprovechadas para mejorar su valor nutricional como alimento de organismos cultivados, utilizando medios de cultivo alternativos, que disminuyan los costos en la producción microalgal.

Culture Media/pharmacology , Diatoms/chemistry , Diatoms/growth & development , Carbohydrates/analysis , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Culture Media/chemistry , Diatoms/radiation effects , Fatty Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Proteins/analysis
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(8): 700-707, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684532


Follicle cultures reproduce in vitro the functional features observed in vivo. In a search for an ideal model, we cultured bovine antral follicle wall sections (FWS) in a serum-free defined medium (DM) known to induce 17β-estradiol (E2) production, and in a nondefined medium (NDM) containing serum. Follicles were sectioned and cultured in NDM or DM for 24 or 48 h. Morphological features were determined by light microscopy. Gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor were determined by RT-PCR; progesterone (P4) and E2 concentrations in the media were measured by radioimmunoassay. DM, but not NDM, maintained an FWS morphology in vitro that was similar to fresh tissue. DM also induced an increase in the expression of all steroidogenic enzymes, except FSH receptor, but NDM did not. In both DM and NDM, there was a gradual increase in P4 throughout the culture period; however, P4 concentration was significantly higher in NDM. In both media, E2 concentration was increased at 24 h, followed by a decrease at 48 h. The E2:P4 ratio was higher in DM than in NDM. These results suggest that DM maintains morphological structure, upregulates the expression of steroidogenic enzyme genes, and maintains steroid production with a high E2:P4 ratio in FWS cultures.

Animals , Cattle , Female , Culture Media/pharmacology , Estradiol/pharmacology , Ovarian Follicle/drug effects , Progesterone/pharmacology , Tissue Culture Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Aromatase/genetics , Culture Media, Serum-Free , Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme/genetics , Gene Expression , Ovarian Follicle/anatomy & histology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Progesterone Reductase/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, FSH/genetics , /genetics
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(2): 117-120, Mar-Apr/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668865


Melanin is a pigment produced by laccase, a phenoloxydase enzyme, and is related to the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans as it is also considered an adaption mechanism to environmental conditions and protection against UV radiation, phagocytic system attack and antifungal drugs. Laccase synthesis is stimulated by several factors, including copper metabolism. The current study shows C. neoformans strains with higher melanization intensity when grown in L-dopa medium supplemented with different concentrations of copper sulfate. This increase shows that melanization rates may be enhanced in the presence of copper ions and may also enhance the virulence of C. neoformans in infected patients that present increasing copper concentrations in serum, such as those with HIV. The virulence of these strains may also be increased in the environment, where this metal is available as CuSO4 in algicidal and fungicidal compounds.

A melanina é um pigmento produzido pela enzima lacase, uma fenoloxidase, e está associada à virulência de Cryptococcus neoformans sendo considerada mecanismo de adaptação às condições ambientais e proteção contra a radiação UV, ataque do sistema fagocítico e antifúngicos. A lacase tem sua síntese estimulada por diversos fatores, incluindo o metabolismo de cobre. Este estudo mostra linhagens de C. neoformans com maior intensidade de melanização quando cultivadas em meio L-dopa suplementado com diferentes concentrações de sulfato de cobre. Este aumento demonstra que as taxas de melanização podem ser aumentadas na presença de íons cobre e também aumentar a virulência de C. neoformans em pacientes infectados que apresentam aumento nas concentrações séricas de íons cobre tais como pacientes com HIV. A virulência destas linhagens também pode ser incrementada no meio ambiente, onde este metal está disponível como CuSO4 em compostos algicidas e fungicidas.

Humans , Copper/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans/drug effects , Melanins/biosynthesis , Cryptococcus neoformans/growth & development , Cryptococcus neoformans/pathogenicity , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/pharmacology , Levodopa/pharmacology , Virulence
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 142-144, Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612819


The performance of the nitrate reductase assay (NRA) was compared with the proportion method (PM) on Lowenstein-Jensen medium and the BACTEC MGIT960 assay under routine conditions using 160 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a high proportion of resistant strains. The mean time to obtain results was 8.8 days and the overall agreements between NRA and PM and NRA and M960 were 95 percent and 94 percent, respectively. NRA was easy to perform and represents a useful tool for the rapid screening of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains in low-resource countries.

Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Nitrate Reductase/pharmacology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(5): 591-594, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602902


INTRODUCTION: Melanin production by species of Cryptococcus is widely used to characterize C. neoformans complex in mycology laboratories. This study aims to test the efficacy of methyldopa from pharmaceutical tablet as a substrate for melanin production, to compare the production of melanin using different agar base added with methyldopa, and to compare the melanin produced in those media with that produced in Niger seed agar and sunflower seed agar by C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus. Two isolates of each species, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, and C. albidus, and one of Candida albicans were used to experimentally detect conditions for melanin production. METHODS: The following media were tested: Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA), brain and heart infusion agar (BHIA), blood agar base (BAB), and minimal medium agar (MMA), all added with methyldopa, and the media Niger seed agar (NSA) and sunflower seed agar (SSA). RESULTS: All isolates grew in most of the culture media after 24h. Strains planted on media BAB and BHIA showed growth only after 48h. All isolates produced melanin in MMA, MHA, SSA, and NSA media. CONCLUSIONS: Methyldopa in the form pharmaceutical tablet can be used as a substrate for melanin production by Cryptococcus species; minimal medium plus methyldopa was more efficient than the BAB, MHA, and BHIA in the melanin production; and NSA and SSA, followed by MMA added with methyldopa, were more efficient than other media studied for melanin production by all strains studied.

INTRODUÇÃO: A produção de melanina por espécies de Cryptococcus é uma característica amplamente utilizada em laboratórios de micologia para caracterização do complexoC. neoformans. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia da metildopa na forma farmacêutica de comprimido, como substrato para a produção de melanina por Cryptococcus, comparar diferentes bases de meios de cultura acrescidas de metildopa para produção de melanina e comparar o pigmento produzido nestes meios com o produzido em ágar Níger e ágar girassol por C. neoformans, C. laurentii e C. albidus. MÉTODOS: Foram testados dois isolados de cada uma das espécies, C. neoformans, C.laurentii e C.albidus, e um de C. albicans para avaliar a produção de melanina nos meios de cultura ágar Müeller-Hinton (MH), ágar brain heart infusion (BHI), ágar base sangue (BS), meio mínimo (MM), todos acrescidos de metildopa, e ainda ágar girassol e ágar Níger. RESULTADOS: Todos os isolados cresceram na maioria dos meios após 24h. O crescimento nos meios BS e BHI somente ocorreu após 48h. Todos os isolados produziram melanina nos meios MM, MH, girassol e Niger. CONCLUSÕES: A metildopa de origem farmacêutica pode ser utilizada como substrato para a produção de melanina por espécies de Cryptococcus; o MM acrescido de metildopa mostrou-se mais eficiente na produção de melanina do que os meios BS, MH e BHI; ágar girassol e ágar Níger seguidos de MM acrescido de metildopa foram os mais eficientes na produção de melanina pelos isolados estudados.

Cryptococcus/metabolism , Culture Media/pharmacology , Melanins/biosynthesis , Methyldopa/pharmacology , Agar , Cryptococcus gattii/growth & development , Cryptococcus gattii/metabolism , Cryptococcus neoformans/growth & development , Cryptococcus neoformans/metabolism , Cryptococcus/classification , Cryptococcus/growth & development , Culture Media/chemistry , Species Specificity
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 191-194, jun.-set. 2011. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634691


Dada la considerable incidencia de tuberculosis renal entre enfermos con tuberculosis pulmonar, nos propusimos estudiar la frecuencia de esta asociación en pacientes atendidos en centros de salud públicos y privados de Córdoba a lo largo del período 1997-2009. Se tomó en consideración la incidencia según el sexo y las especies del complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis identificadas. El análisis de 948 muestras de orina de 383 pacientes indicó tuberculosis renal en 24 casos (6,3 %), con presencia mayoritaria de Mycobacterium tuberculosis (95,8 %) y presencia de Mycobacterium bovis en 4,2 % de los casos. La asociación tuberculosis renal-tuberculosis pulmonar activa se encontró en 6 casos. En esta investigación quedó demostrada la importancia del cultivo seriado de muestras de orina y la conveniencia de cultivar en medios sólidos y líquidos. Asimismo, el aislamiento de Mycobacterium bovis pone de relieve la importancia de usar el medio Stonebrink junto con el medio de Lowenstein-Jensen. El medio líquido no tuvo un aporte significativo al diagnóstico de tuberculosis renal; sin embargo, el cultivo de muestras seriadas aumentó la sensibilidad de la detección.

Bacteriological diagnosis of renal tuberculosis: an experience at the Regional Tuberculosis Laboratory in Córdoba province, Argentina. Given the incidence of renal tuberculosis in patients suffering of pulmonary tuberculosis, we seek to study both the frequency of this association in diagnosed cases of renal tuberculosis and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species that were identified (period 1997-2009), observing its incidence by sex, demonstrating the importance of serial culture of urine samples and evaluating the convenience of using solid and liquid media. The analysis of urine samples from 383 patients indicated renal tuberculosis in 24 cases; in most cases, (95.8 %) Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex species prevailed, whereas the presence of Mycobacterium bovis accounted for 4.2 % of the cases. The association of pulmonary and renal tuberculosis was found in 6 cases. The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis indicates the importance of including Stonebrink medium along with Lowenstein- Jensen medium. The liquid medium made no significant contribution to the diagnosis of renal tuberculosis, but indeed, cultivating serial samples increases sensitivity.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Bacteriological Techniques , Tuberculosis, Renal/diagnosis , Age Distribution , Argentina/epidemiology , Culture Media/pharmacology , Incidence , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Mycobacterium bovis/growth & development , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution , Staining and Labeling , Tuberculosis, Renal/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Renal/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Renal/urine , Urine/microbiology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 43(3): 218-225, jun.-set. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634695


The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica accumulates oils and is able to produce extracellular lipases when growing in different carbon sources including glycerol, the principal by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study, biomass production of a novel mutant strain of Y. lipolytica was statistically optimized by Response Surface Methodology in media containing biodiesel-derived glycerol as main carbon source. This strain exhibited distinctive morphological and fatty acid profile characteristics, and showed an increased extracellular lipase activity. An organic source of nitrogen and the addition of 1.0 g/l olive oil were necessary for significant lipase production. Plackett-Burman and Central Composite Statistical Designs were employed for screening and optimization of fermentation in shaken flasks cultures, and the maximum values obtained were 16.1 g/l for biomass and 12.2 Units/ml for lipase, respectively. Optimized batch bioprocess was thereafter scaled in aerated bioreactors and the values reached for lipase specific activity after 95 % of the glycerol had been consumed, were three-fold higher than those obtained in shaken flasks cultures. A sustainable bioprocess to obtain biomass and extracellular lipase activity was attained by maximizing the use of the by-products of biodiesel industry.

Optimización de la producción de biomasa usando glicerol crudo, de una cepa mutante de Yarrowia lipolytica con actividad incrementada de lipasa. La levadura Yarrowia lipolytica acumula aceites y produce una lipasa extracelular al crecer en diferentes fuentes de carbono, entre ellas el glicerol, principal subproducto de la creciente industria del biodiésel. En el presente trabajo, se optimizó mediante la metodología de superficies de respuesta la producción de biomasa de una nueva cepa mutante de Y. lipolytica, empleando medios con glicerol derivado de la industria del biodiésel como principal fuente de carbono. Esta cepa presentó características morfológicas y perfil de ácidos grasos distintivos, y una mayor actividad de lipasa extracelular. Para obtener una producción significativa de lipasa extracelular, fue necesario el agregado de una fuente orgánica de nitrógeno y de 1 g/l de aceite de oliva. Se utilizaron los diseños estadísticos de Plackett-Burman y central compuesto para la selección y la optimización de las fermentaciones en frascos agitados; los máximos valores de biomasa y de lipasa obtenidos fueron de 16,1 g/l y 12,2 unidades/ml, respectivamente. Luego, el bioproceso en lote optimizado se escaló a biorreactores aireados, y los valores de actividad específica de lipasa alcanzados después de haberse consumido el 95 % del glicerol fueron tres veces más altos que los obtenidos en los cultivos en frascos agitados. En suma, se desarrolló un bioproceso sostenible para la obtención de biomasa y de una actividad de lipasa extracelular, que a la vez maximiza el uso de subproductos de la industria del biodiésel.

Biomass , Culture Media/pharmacology , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Glycerol/pharmacology , Industrial Microbiology/methods , Lipase/genetics , Mycology/methods , Yarrowia/growth & development , Bioreactors , Biofuels/analysis , Culture Media, Conditioned/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Fungal Proteins/biosynthesis , Genes, Fungal , Glycerol/isolation & purification , Hyphae/ultrastructure , Lipase/biosynthesis , Yarrowia/enzymology , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/ultrastructure
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(3): 980-991, July-Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607528


Antihistaminics are widely used for various indications during microbial infection. Hence, this paper investigates the antimicrobial activities of 10 antihistaminics belonging to both old and new generations using multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates. The bacteriostatic activity of antihistaminics was investigated by determining their MIC both by broth and agar dilution techniques against 29 bacterial strains. Azelastine, cyproheptadine, mequitazine and promethazine were the most active among the tested drugs. Diphenhydramine and cetirizine possessed weaker activity whereas doxylamine, fexofenadine and loratadine were inactive even at the highest tested concentration (1 mg/ml). The MIC of meclozine could not be determined as it precipitated with the used culture media. The MBC values of antihistaminics were almost identical to the corresponding MIC values. The bactericidal activity of antihistaminics was also studied by the viable count technique in sterile saline solution. Evident killing effects were exerted by mequitazine, meclozine, azelastine and cyproheptadine. Moreover, the dynamics of bactericidal activity of azelastine were studied by the viable count technique in nutrient broth. This activity was found to be concentration-dependant. This effect was reduced on increasing the inoculum size while it was increased on raising the pH. The post-antimicrobial effect of 100 fg/ml azelastine was also determined and reached up to 3.36 h.

Humans , Histamine H1 Antagonists/analysis , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , In Vitro Techniques , Culture Media/analysis , Culture Media/pharmacology , Methods , Methods , Therapeutic Uses