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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881035

ABSTRACT

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is one of the main effective components of bile acid, playing critical roles in apoptosis and immune responses through the TGR5 receptor. In this study, we reveal the interaction between TCDCA and TGR5 receptor in TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells and the regulation of inflammation via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) signal pathway in NR8383 macrophages. In TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells, TCDCA significantly activated cAMP level via TGR5 receptor, indicating TCDCA can bind to TGR5; in NR8383 macrophages TCDCA increased cAMP content compared to treatment with the adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor SQ22536. Moreover, activated cAMP can significantly enhance gene expression and protein levels of its downstream proteins PKA and CREB compared with groups of inhibitors. Additionally, TCDCA decreased tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 through nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity. PKA and CREB are primary regulators of anti-inflammatory and immune response. Our results thus demonstrate TCDCA plays an essential anti-inflammatory role via the signaling pathway of cAMP-PKA-CREB induced by TGR5 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the direct intervention effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on pain memory, and to explore their effects on cAMP/PKA/cAMP pathway in anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC).@*METHODS@#Fifty clean healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an indomethacin group, an EA group and a sham EA group, 10 rats in each group. Except the control group, the pain memory model was established in the remaining four groups by twice injection of carrageenan at foot; 0.1 mL of 2%λ-carrageenan was subcutaneously injected at the left foot of rats; 14 days later, when the pain threshold of rats of each group returned to the basic level, the second injection was performed with the same procedure. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 30 min; the rats in the indomethacin group was treated with indomethacin intragastric administration with the dose of 3 mg/kg; the rats in the sham EA group was treated with EA without electricity at the point 0.3 mm forward "Zusanli" (ST 36) with the depth of 2 mm for 30 min; the rats in the control group was not given any invention. All the above interventions were performed 5 h, 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection of 2% λ-carrageenan. The left-side paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) were observed before the first injection, 4 h, 3 d, 5 d after the first injection, before the second injection and 4 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d after the second injection. Three days after the second injection, the number of positive cells of cAMP, p-PKA, p-CREB and the number of positive cells of protein co-expression in the right ACC brain area were detected by immunofluorescence, and the relative protein expression of p-PKA and p-CREB were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the PWTs in the model group decreased significantly 4 h, 3 d and 5 d after the first injection and 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the control group, the positive expression of cAMP, p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the model group increased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of the co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB also increased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the PWTs in the EA group were increased significantly 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the positive expression of p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the EA group decreased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB was decreased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group and sham EA group, the positive expression of cAMP in the right ACC brain area was decreased in the EA group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA have a direct intervention effect on pain memory, which have significant advantage over NSAIDs in the treatment of chronic pain. The advantage effect of EA on pain memory may be related to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in ACC area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Therapeutic Uses , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Gyrus Cinguli , Metabolism , Male , Pain Threshold , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the therapeutic effect of the combined treatment with balance acupuncture therapy and exercise re-learning rehabilitation therapy and the impact on serum cAMP and cGMP in the patients with hemiplegia of cerebral ischemic stroke.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 patients of hemiplegia of cerebral ischemic stroke were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 45 cases in each one. All of the patients in the two groups received health education, diet guidance, routine symptomatic treatment as well as exercise re-learning rehabilitation therapy. Additionally, in the observation group, balance acupuncture therapy was applied, in which, the acupoints on the aspect of the human body, on the governor vessel and bladder meridian were adopted in the morning and those on the aspect of the human body, on the conception vessel and kidney meridian were stimulated in the afternoon. In the control group, the regular acupuncture was given. In the two groups, both acupuncture and rehabilitation therapies were given 5 days a week, 2 week-treatment as one course and totally 2 courses were required. Separately, before and after treatment, the score of Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) and the score of Chinese stroke scale (CSS) were recorded, the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) detected in serum and the clinical therapeutic effect were evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, FMA score was increased in the patients of either of the groups as compared with that before treatment (<0.01) and CSS score decreased as compared with that before treatment (<0.01). After treatment, FMA score in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.01) and CSS score was lower than the control group (<0.01). After treatment, the level of serum cAMP of the patients in either of the groups was increased as compared with that before treatment (<0.01) and that of cGMP decreased as compared with that before treatment (<0.01). After treatment, the level of cAMP in the observation group was higher than that in the control group (<0.01) and that of cGMP was lower than the control group (<0.01). The total effective rate was 93.3% (42/45) in the observation group, better than 73.3% (33/45) in the control group (<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#The balance acupuncture therapy combined with exercise re-learning rehabilitation effectively improves the motor function of the affected limb, relieves injury and regulate the levels of serum cAMP and cGMP in the patients with hemiplegia of ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Brain Ischemia , Therapeutics , Cyclic AMP , Blood , Cyclic GMP , Blood , Hemiplegia , Therapeutics , Humans , Stroke , Therapeutics , Stroke Rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(6): 555-568, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284299

ABSTRACT

Despite the development of modern medicine, alternative medicine, which has not lost its timeliness, remains attractive for the treatment of various diseases. Glabridin, a major flavonoid of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was: 1) to determine the possible protective role of glabridin against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the intestine; 2) to evaluate the in vitrocontractile responses of ileum smooth muscles to acetylcholine after an intestinal I/R; and 3) to explain the underlying molecular mechanism of its effect. Rats were assigned to groups of six rats each; 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)methyl]-L-ornithine, methyl ester monohydrochloride (L-NAME)+gla40, and 6) Sham group. The healing effect of glabridin was abolished by L-NAME. Glabridin did not cause contractility of the smooth muscles to acetylcholine-induced contractile responses in intestinal I/R. Yet, it increased to spontaneous basal activity.


A pesar del desarrollo de la medicina moderna, la medicina alternativa, sin perder su vigencia, sigue siendo atractiva para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades. Glabradina, el flavonoide mayoritario de Glycyrrhiza glabra, es conocido por su actividad antioxidante y antiinflamatoria. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron: 1) Determinar el posible rol protector de glabradina ante daños intestinales por isquemia/reperfusion (I/R) 2) Evaluar in vitrolas respuestas de contracción de los músculos lisos del ileum ante acetilcolina después de I/R intestinal; y 3) Explicar el mecanismo molecular subyacente de este efecto. Se asignaron grupos de seis ratas: 1) I/R, 2) gla10, 3) gla20, 4) gla40, 5) N5-[imino(nitroamino)metil]-L-ornithina, metil ester monohidrochloruro (L-NAME)+gla40, y 6) Grupo testigo. El efecto curativo de glabridina fue abolido por L-NAME. Glabridina no causó contracción en el músculo liso como respuesta acetilcolina-inducida I/R. Además, incrementa la actividad basal expontánea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Phenols/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Glycyrrhiza , Isoflavones/administration & dosage , Phenols/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic GMP/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Ileum/drug effects , Ileum/chemistry , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a rare disease primarily caused by growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, and its treatment is costly. Moreover, some patients are unresponsive to treatment. Hence, there are increasing efforts to develop new drugs with improved effectiveness for this disease. BIM23B065 is a novel chimeric molecule that acts on both somatostatin and dopamine receptors. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BIM23B065 compared with those of a somatostatin receptor analog and a dopamine agonist.METHODS: The effects of BIM23B065 on the proliferation, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and cyclic AMP response element binding (CREB) phosphorylation of GH3 cells were investigated with MTS assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, respectively. The dosage and treatment duration of BIM23B065 were tested in animal models of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The effect of BIM23B065 (3 mg/kg/day) on changes in IGF-1 levels before and after treatment was further investigated.RESULTS: In vitro, BIM23B065 treatment decreased GH release in the culture media and downregulated ERK 1/2 and CREB phosphorylation to 22% and 26%, respectively. In vivo, IGF-1 expression decreased to 50 % after 4 weeks of treatment with BIM23B065 using an osmotic pump implant. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the tumor size decreased significantly following treatment with BIM23B065 for 4 weeks.CONCLUSION: The novel chimeric molecule was effective in decreasing IGF-1 and GH levels and may serve as an effective therapeutic agent for acromegaly.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Blotting, Western , Culture Media , Cyclic AMP , Dopamine Agonists , Dopamine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Growth Hormone , Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Animal , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Rare Diseases , Receptors, Dopamine , Receptors, Somatostatin , Response Elements , Somatostatin
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774509

ABSTRACT

To explore the anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombotic mechanisms of Trichosanthis Fructus combined with aspirin based on network pharmacology and the validation of arteriovenous by pass model in rats. The databases of Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP),Drug Repositioning and Adverse Drug Reaction Chemical-Protein Interactome(DRAR-CPI),Universal Protein Resource(Uniprot) and the Database for Annotation,Visualization,and Integrated Discovery(DAVID) were used to predict protein targets and analyze biological pathway and signal pathway in the combination of Trichosanthis Fructus with aspirin. The effects of pretreatment with Trichosanthis Fructus pellets,aspirin pellets and their combination on thromboxane B2(TXB2),6-keto prostaglandin F1α(6-keto-PGF1α) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate(c AMP) in rat thrombotic model were studied. Through the study of network pharmacology,12 components of aspirin and Trichosanthis Fructus,including hydroxygenkwanin,quercetin and adenosine,were found to show the anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis mechanisms through9 common protein targets,such as SRC,RAC1,MAPK14,MAPK1,AKT1,and 14 common signaling pathways,such as VEGF signaling pathway. After the intervention with Trichosanthis Fructus pellets combined with aspirin pellets,the vascular endothslia growth factor(VEGF) signaling pathway can be activated to inhibit platelet aggregation and improve vascular endothelial function,and show the anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis mechanisms,which verify the results of the network pharmacology,and explain the anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombotic mechanisms of the combination of Trichosanthis Fructus pellets with aspirin pellets.


Subject(s)
6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha , Metabolism , Animals , Aspirin , Pharmacology , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fruit , Chemistry , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Rats , Signal Transduction , Thrombosis , Drug Therapy , Thromboxane B2 , Metabolism , Trichosanthes , Chemistry
7.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 631-639, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a fundamental regulatory system involved in various biological events. ICG-001 selectively blocks the interaction of β-catenin with its transcriptional co-activator cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CBP). Recent studies have provided convincing evidence of the inhibitory effects of ICG-001 on Wnt-driven disease models, such as organ fibrosis, cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and asthma. However, the effects of ICG-001 in atopic dermatitis (AD) have not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether β-catenin/CBP-dependent signaling was contributed in the pathogenesis of AD and ICG-001 could be a therapeutic agent for AD. METHODS: We examined the effects of ICG-001 in an AD-like murine model generated by repeated topical application of the hapten, oxazolone (Ox). ICG-001 or vehicle alone was injected intraperitoneally every day during the development of AD-like dermatitis arising from once-daily Ox treatment. RESULTS: Ox-induced AD-like dermatitis characterized by increases in transepidermal water loss, epidermal thickness, dermal thickness accompanied by increased myofibroblast and mast cell counts, and serum levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, and decreases in stratum corneum hydration, were virtually normalized by the treatment with ICG-001. Elevated serum levels of periostin tended to be downregulated, without statistical significance. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that β-catenin/CBP-dependent signaling might be involved in the pathogenesis of AD and could be a therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Chemokine CCL17 , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cyclic AMP , Dermatitis , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fibrosis , Mast Cells , Mice , Myofibroblasts , Oxazolone , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Water
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-214131

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We studied the effects of alcohol administration on the corpus cavernosum (CC) using an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CC sections and the aortic ring of rabbits were used in an organ bath study. After acute alcohol administration, changes in blood alcohol concentration and electrical stimulation induced intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) percentage were compared in rats. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in the CC were measured using immunoassays. After chronic alcohol administration, ICP/MAP percentage, cAMP and cGMP were compared in rats. Histological changes were examined using the Masson trichrome stain and the Sircol collagen assay. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. RESULTS: Alcohol relaxed the CC in a dose-dependent manner, and the relaxation response was suppressed when pretreated with propranolol, indomethacin, glibenclamide, and 4-aminopyridine. In rats with acute alcohol exposure, the cAMP level in the CC was significantly greater than was observed in the control group (p<0.05). In rats with chronic alcohol exposure, however, changes in cAMP and cGMP levels were insignificant, and the CC showed markedly smaller areas of smooth muscle, greater amounts of dense collagen (p<0.05). Immunohistochemical analysis of eNOS showed a less intense response, and western blotting showed that eNOS expression was significantly lower in this group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Acute alcohol administration activated the cAMP pathway with positive effects on erectile function. In contrast, chronic alcohol administration changed the ultrastructures of the CC and suppressed eNOS expression, thereby leading to erectile dysfunction.


Subject(s)
4-Aminopyridine , Adenosine Monophosphate , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Baths , Blood Alcohol Content , Blotting, Western , Collagen , Cyclic AMP , Electric Stimulation , Erectile Dysfunction , Glyburide , Guanosine Monophosphate , Immunoassay , Immunohistochemistry , Indomethacin , Male , Models, Animal , Muscle, Smooth , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III , Penile Erection , Propranolol , Rabbits , Rats , Relaxation
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297244

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of baicalin on synaptosomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its regulatory effect on the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 40 SHR rats were randomly divided into five groups: ADHD model, methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment (0.07 mg/mL), and low-dose (3.33 mg/mL), medium-dose (6.67 mg/mL), and high-dose (10 mg/mL) baicalin treatment (n=8 each). Eight WKY rats were selected as normal control group. Percoll density gradient centrifugation was used to prepare brain synaptosomes and an electron microscope was used to observe their structure. Colorimetry was used to measure the activities of ATPase and LDH in synaptosomes. ELISA was used to measure the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal control group, the ADHD model group had a significant reduction in the ATPase activity, a significant increase in the LDH activity, and significant reductions in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the ADHD model group, the methylphenidate hydrochloride group and the medium- and high-dose baicalin groups had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05), a significant reduction in the LDH activity (P<0.05), and significant increases in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the methylphenidate hydrochloride group, the high-dose baicalin group had significantly greater changes in these indices (P<0.05). Compared with the low-dose baicalin group, the high-dose baicalin group had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05); the medium- and high-dose baicalin groups had a significant reduction in the LDH activity (P<0.05) and significant increases in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the medium-dose baicalin group, the high-dose baicalin group had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both methylphenidate hydrochloride and baicalin can improve synaptosomal ATPase and LDH activities in rats with ADHD. The effect of baicalin is dose-dependent, and high-dose baicalin has a significantly greater effect than methylphenidate hydrochloride. Baicalin exerts its therapeutic effect possibly by upregulating the AC/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Metabolism , Adenylyl Cyclases , Physiology , Animals , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Drug Therapy , Cyclic AMP , Physiology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Physiology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Signal Transduction , Synaptosomes , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30374

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to investigate the signaling pathway that mediates cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) degradation, and the effect and underlying mechanisms of the resulting increase in HDAC8 expression on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. cAMP signaling increased HDAC8 expression via a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent pathway in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, treatment with a selective activator of an exchange protein that was activated by cAMP (Epac) increased HDAC8 expression, and Epac2 inhibition abolished the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. ISO and the Epac activator activated Rap1, and Rap1A activation increased HDAC8 expression; moreover, inhibition of Rap1A with a dominant negative Rap1A or by shRNA-mediated knockdown abolished the ISO-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. Activation of cAMP signaling and Rap1A decreased the activating phosphorylation of Akt. Akt inhibition with a pharmacological inhibitor or expression of a dominant negative Akt inhibited the MKK4/JNK pathway and increased HDAC8 expression. The Akt inhibitor-induced increase in HDAC8 expression was abolished by pretreatment with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors. The ISO treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by HDAC8 knockdown. Exogenous HDAC8 expression increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and decreased TIPRL expression, and the knockdown of TIPRL increased the apoptosis of cisplatin-treated cells. The ISO treatment decreased cisplatin-induced transcription of the TIPRL gene in a HDAC8-dependent manner. In conclusion, the Epac–Rap1–Akt pathway mediates cAMP signaling-induced inhibition of JNK-dependent HDAC8 degradation, and the resulting HDAC8 increase augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing TIPRL expression in H1299 lung cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cyclic AMP , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Isoproterenol , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Phosphorylation
11.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 227-239, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22192

ABSTRACT

Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ex-4 or ex9-39. Oxygen-glucose deprivation was also induced in primary neurons, bEnd.3 cells, and BV-2. Ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced expression of GLP-1R. Additionally, higher oxidative stress in SOD2 KO mice decreased expression of GLP-1R. Downregulation of GLP-1R by ischemic injury was 70% restored by GLP-1R agonist, ex-4, which resulted in significant reduction of infarct volume. Levels of intracellular cyclic AMP, a second messenger of GLP-1R, were also increased by 2.7-fold as a result of high GLP-1R expression. Moreover, our results showed that ex-4 attenuated pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E₂ after MCAO. C-Jun NH₂ terminal kinase (JNK) signaling, which stimulates activation of COX-2, was 36% inhibited by i.c.v. injection of ex-4 at 24 h. Islet-brain 1 (IB1), a scaffold regulator of JNK, was 1.7-fold increased by ex-4. GLP-1R activation by ex-4 resulted in reduction of COX-2 through increasing IB1 expression, resulting in anti-inflammatory neuroprotection during stroke. Our study suggests that the anti-inflammatory action of GLP-1 could be used as a new strategy for the treatment of neuroinflammation after stroke accompanied by hyperglycemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain Ischemia , Cyclic AMP , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Glucagon , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 , Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor , Hyperglycemia , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Insulin , Mice , Neurons , Neuroprotection , Neuroprotective Agents , Oxidative Stress , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Reperfusion Injury , Second Messenger Systems , Stroke
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5285, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951689

ABSTRACT

Beta-adrenergic receptor (βAR)-dependent blood vessel relaxation is impaired in older animals and G protein activation has been suggested as the causative mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of βAR subtypes (β1AR, β2AR, and β3AR) and cAMP in maturation-dependent vasorelaxation impairment. Aortic rings from 15 Sprague-Dawley male rats (3 or 9 weeks old) were harvested and left intact or denuded of the endothelium. Vascular relaxation in aortic rings from younger and older groups was compared in the presence of βAR subtype agonists and antagonists along with cAMP and cGMP antagonists. Isolated aortic rings were used to evaluate relaxation responses, protein expression was evaluated by western blot or real time PCR, and metabolites were measured by ELISA. Expression of βAR subtypes and adenylyl cyclase was assessed, and cAMP activity was measured in vascular tissue from both groups. Isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent relaxation in aortic rings with and without endothelium from 9-week-old rats was impaired compared with younger rats. The β1AR antagonist CGP20712A (10-7 M) did not affect isoproterenol or BRL744-dependent relaxation in arteries from either group. The β2AR antagonist ICI-118,551 (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol-dependent aortic relaxation in both groups. The β3AR antagonist SR59230A (10-7 M) inhibited isoproterenol- and BRL744-dependent aortic ring relaxation in younger but not in older rats. All βAR subtypes were expressed in both groups, although β3AR expression was lower in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase (SQ 22536) or protein kinase A (H89) inhibitors prevented isoproterenol-induced relaxation in younger but not in older rats. Production of cAMP was reduced in the older group. Adenylyl cyclase III and RyR3 protein expression was higher in the younger group. In conclusion, altered expression of β3AR and adenylyl cyclase III may be responsible for reduced cAMP production in the older group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Aorta, Thoracic/drug effects , Aorta, Thoracic/physiopathology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilation/physiology , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Aorta, Thoracic/physiology , Time Factors , Gene Expression , Adenylyl Cyclases/physiology , Blotting, Western , Age Factors , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Albuterol/pharmacology , Dobutamine/pharmacology
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1108-1112, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290118

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Adipocytes behave like a rich source of pro-inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) participates in the local chronic inflammatory response, and high-density lipoprotein could counterbalance the proinflammatory function of oxLDL, but the underlying mechanism is not completely understood. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide L-4F on the secretion and expression of MCP-1 in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by oxLDL and to elucidate the possible mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated in the medium containing various concentration of L-4F (0-50 μg/ml) with oxLDL (50 μg/ml) stimulated, with/without protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 (10 μmol/L) preincubated. The concentrations of MCP-1 in the supernatant, the mRNA expression of MCP-1, the levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) were evaluated. The monocyte chemotaxis assay was performed by micropore filter method using a modified Boyden chamber.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>OxLDL stimulation induced a significant increase of MCP-1 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which were inhibited by L-4F preincubation in a dose-dependent manner. PKA inhibitor H-89 markedly reduced the oxLDL-induced MCP-1 expression, but no further decrease was observed when H-89 was used in combination with L-4F (50 μg/ml) (P > 0.05). OxLDL stimulation showed no significant effect on C/EBPα protein level but increased C/EBPβ protein level in a time-dependent manner. H-89 and L-4F both attenuated C/EBPβ protein level in oxLDL-induced 3T3-L1 adipocytes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>OxLDL induces C/EBPβ protein synthesis in a time-dependent manner and enhances MCP-1 secretion and expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. L-4F dose-dependently counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effect of oxLDL, and cyclic AMP/PKA-C/EBPβ signaling pathway may participate in it.</p>


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Animals , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta , Physiology , Chemokine CCL2 , Genetics , Bodily Secretions , Cyclic AMP , Physiology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Physiology , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Pharmacology , Mice , Peptides , Pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Physiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287121

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the effect of Shen-Fu Injection (SFI) and epinephrine on the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) in a pig model with post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in Wu-zhi-shan miniature pigs. After 8 min of untreated VF and 2 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), all animals were randomly administered a bolus injection of saline placebo (SA group, n=10), SFI (0.8 mg/kg, SFI group, n=10) or epinephrine (20 μg/kg, EPI group, n=10). After 4 min of CPR, a 100-J shock was delivered. If the defibrillation attempt failed to attain restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), manual chest compressions were rapidly resumed for a further 2 min followed by a second defibrillation attempt. Hemodynamic variables were recorded, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines were measured. Adenylate cyclase (AC), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the expressions of β1-adrenoceptor (AR) and SERCA 2a were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Cardiac output, left ventricular dp/dtmax and negative dp/dtmax were significantly higher in the SFI group than in the SA and EPI groups at 4 and 6 h after ROSC. The expression of β1-AR and SERCA2a at 24 h after ROSC were significantly higher in the SFI group than in the SA and EPI groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The administration of epinephrine during CPR decreased the expression of SERCA2a and aggravated postresuscitation myocardial function (P<0.01). SFI attenuated post-resuscitation myocardial dysfunction, and the mechanism might be related to the up-regulation of SERCA2a expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Western , Cardiac Output , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Dopamine , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epinephrine , Blood , Heart Ventricles , Metabolism , Hemodynamics , Injections , Male , Myocardium , Pathology , Norepinephrine , Blood , Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1 , Metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Metabolism , Swine , Swine, Miniature , Up-Regulation
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-309132

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To test whether Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) could produce bacterial signal molecule, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and lay the foundation for explorations of its roles in life metabolism and periodontitis immunity of P. gingivalis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>P. gingivalis standard strain ATCC33277 was used as the experimental strain to extract nucleic acids from the bacteria. Then, c-di-AMP was detected using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Subsequently, HPLC was used to validate the sample further.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Based on the signal/noise (S/N) for 3 : 1, the limit of determination of HPLC-MS/MS for peak time of c-di-AMP standard substances was 7.49 min and nucleic acid extractions from P. gingivalis was 8.82 min (S/N > 3). Further confirmation of HPLC showed that nucleic acid extractions from both P. gingivalis and c-di-AMP standard substances pre- sented goal absorbent peaks at 15.7 min, with the same ultraviolet absorbent spectrum.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The nucleic acid extrac- tions from P. gingivalis contained c-di-AMP, which shows that P. gingivalis could produce c-di-AMP.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cyclic AMP , Chemistry , Metabolism , Periodontitis , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Metabolism , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815114

ABSTRACT

To observe the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the metabolism of intestinal fluid and cyclic AMP protein kinase A signaling pathway (cAMP-PKA) and water channel protein 3 (AQP3) in rats with constipation, and to explore the mechanism of VIP in the treatment of constipation.
 Methods: A total of 45 healthy adult rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a model +VIP group. After 4 weeks of VIP treatment, the first black stool time were examined with the ink gastric method; the water content in feces was calculated; the morphological changes in colonic tissues were observed by HE staining. The expression of VIP and AQP3 protein levels in colon tissues were detected by Western blot; and the cAMP, PKA, AQP3 mRNA expression levels were detected by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 
 Results: Compared with the control group, the first black stool time was prolonged, the water content of fecal decreased significantly (both P<0.01); part of the colon mucosa epithelial cells were destructed; the goblet cell volume decreased and quantity was reduced; the contents of AQP3 and VIP in colon tissues were significantly decreased, and the cAMP, PKA and AQP3 mRNA levels were decreased in the model group (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the first black stool time in the model +VIP group was shortened, the fecal water content increased significantly (both P<0.05); the mucosal epithelium integrity improved, the number of goblet cells increased; the content of AQP3 and VIP in colon tissues was increased, and the cAMP, PKA, and AQP3 mRNA levels were elevated (all P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Intravenous injection of VIP can regulate intestinal fluid metabolism and improve the symptoms of constipation in rats, which might be related to the regulation of VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 3 , Physiology , Aquaporins , Blotting, Western , Colon , Chemistry , Pathology , Constipation , Therapeutics , Cyclic AMP , Physiology , Defecation , Epithelial Cells , Pathology , Feces , Chemistry , Goblet Cells , Pathology , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Signal Transduction , Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide , Physiology , Therapeutic Uses
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63261

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidity in infants and children. We investigated the effects of pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative and type-4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on short-term memory and apoptotic neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following perinatal hypoxic-ischemia in newborn rats. METHODS: We used a step-down avoidance task to evaluate short-term memory and 3ʹ-5ʹ-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay to detect cAMP levels. We evaluated apoptosis using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay for evidence of DNA fragmentation, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 levels, and western blot for Bcl-2 and Bax. RESULTS: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury increased apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus, resulting in impaired short-term memory with decreased cAMP levels. Pentoxifylline treatment improved short-term memory by suppressing apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus with elevated cAMP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Pentoxifylline ameliorated perinatal hypoxic-ischemia in rat pups. This alleviating effect could be ascribed to the inhibition apoptosis due to increased cAMP production by pentoxifylline.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Brain , Caspase 3 , Cell Death , Child , Cyclic AMP , DNA Fragmentation , Hippocampus , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Mortality , Neurons , Pentoxifylline , Rats
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 37(4): 186-191, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate genes differentially expressed in ovaries from lean (wild type) and obese (ob/ob) female mice and cyclic AMP production in both groups. METHODS: The expression on messenger RNA levels of 84 genes concerning obesity was analyzed through the PCR array, and cyclic AMP was quantified by the enzyme immunoassay method. RESULTS: The most downregulated genes in the Obesity Group included adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1, somatostatin, apolipoprotein A4, pancreatic colipase, and interleukin-1 beta. The mean decrease in expression levels of these genes was around 96, 40, 9, 4.2 and 3.6-fold, respectively. On the other hand, the most upregulated genes in the Obesity Group were receptor (calcitonin) activity-modifying protein 3, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, calcitonin receptor, and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1. The increase means in the expression levels of such genes were 2.3, 2.7, 4.8 and 6.3-fold, respectively. The ovarian cyclic AMP production was significantly higher in ob/ob female mice (2,229±52 fMol) compared to the Control Group (1,814±45 fMol). CONCLUSIONS: Obese and anovulatory female mice have reduced reproductive hormone levels and altered ovogenesis. Several genes have their expression levels altered when leptin is absent, especially adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type 1. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar os genes diferencialmente expressos em ovários de camundongos fêmeas magras (tipo selvagem) e obesas (ob/ob) e a produção de AMP cíclico em ambos os grupos. MÉTODOS: A expressão nos níveis de RNA mensageiro de 84 genes relacionados à obesidade foi analisada por PCR Array, e o AMP cíclico foi quantificado por método imunoenzimático. RESULTADOS: Os genes que mais sofreram diminuição da expressão no Grupo Obesidade incluíram o tipo 1 de polipeptídeo ativador da adenilato ciclase, o da somatostatina, da apolipoproteína A4, da colipase pancreática e da beta interleucina 1. A média de redução na expressão desses genes foi de aproximadamente 96, 40, 9, 4,2 e 3,6 vezes, respectivamente. Por outro lado, os genes que mais tiveram aumento na expressão no Grupo Obesidade foram o gene da proteína modificadora da atividade do receptor de calcitonina 3, do proliferador de peroxissomos ativados por proteína alfa, do receptor de calcitonina e do receptor para hormônio liberador de corticotropinas 1. As médias de acréscimo nos níveis de expressão de tais genes foram de 2,3, 2,7, 4,8 e 6,3 vezes, respectivamente. A produção de AMP cíclico ovariana foi significantemente aumentada em camundongos fêmeas ob/ob (2.229±52 fMol) quando comparada ao Grupo Controle (1.814±45 fMol). CONCLUSÕES: Camundongos fêmeas obesas e anovuladoras possuem níveis de hormônio reprodutivo reduzidos e ovulogênese alterada. Vários genes mostram níveis de expressão alterados quando a leptina está ausente, principalmente o tipo 1 de polipeptídeo ativador da adenilato ciclase. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Anovulation/genetics , Anovulation/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/biosynthesis , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese
19.
Clinics ; 70(3): 157-161, 03/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Tai Chi Chuan or ballroom dancing promotes better performance with respect to postural balance, gait, and postural transfer among elderly people. METHODS: We evaluated 76 elderly individuals who were divided into two groups: the Tai Chi Chuan Group and the Dance Group. The subjects were tested using the NeuroCom Balance Master¯ force platform system with the following protocols: static balance tests (the Modified Clinical Tests of Sensory Interaction on Balance and Unilateral Stance) and dynamic balance tests (the Walk Across Test and Sit-to-stand Transfer Test). RESULTS: In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity on a firm surface with open and closed eyes, as well as on a foam surface with closed eyes. In the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Unilateral Stance, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented a lower sway velocity with open eyes, whereas the Dance Group presented a lower sway velocity with closed eyes. In the Walk Across Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented faster walking speeds than those of the Dance Group. In the Sit-to-stand Transfer Test, the Tai Chi Chuan Group presented shorter transfer times from the sitting to the standing position, with less sway in the final standing position. CONCLUSION: The elderly individuals who practiced Tai Chi Chuan had better bilateral balance with eyes open on both types of surfaces compared with the Dance Group. The Dance Group had better unilateral postural balance with eyes closed. The Tai Chi Chuan Group had faster walking speeds, shorter transfer times, and better postural balance in the final standing position during the Sit-to-stand Test. .


Subject(s)
/metabolism , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Dictyostelium/enzymology , Dictyostelium/genetics , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , /genetics , Dictyostelium/growth & development , Dictyostelium/metabolism , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Folic Acid/pharmacology , /deficiency , /genetics , /metabolism , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/deficiency , GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go/genetics , Mutation , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Signal Transduction , Spores, Protozoan/enzymology , Spores, Protozoan/genetics , Vitamin B Complex/pharmacology
20.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 30(1): 77-83, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-742899

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that thymoquinone has protective effects against ischemia reperfusion injury to various organs like lungs, kidneys and liver in different experimental models. Objective: We aimed to determine whether thymoquinone has favorable effects on lung, renal, heart tissues and oxidative stress in abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (n=10), control (n=10) and thymoquinone (TQ) treatment group (n=10). Control and TQ-treatment groups underwent abdominal aorta ischemia for 45 minutes followed by a 120-min period of reperfusion. In the TQ-treatment group, thymoquinone was given 5 minutes. before reperfusion at a dose of 20 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal route. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidative status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in blood serum were measured and lung, kidney, and heart tissue histopathology were evaluated with light microscopy. Results: Total oxidative status and oxidative stress index activity in blood samples were statistically higher in the control group compared to the sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for TOS and OSI). Control group injury scores were statistically higher compared to sham and TQ-treatment groups (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Thymoquinone administered intraperitoneally was effective in reducing oxidative stress and histopathologic injury in an acute abdominal aorta ischemia-reperfusion rat model. .


Introdução: Estudos prévios demonstraram que a timoquinona tem efeitos protetores contra a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão em vários órgãos como pulmão, rins e fígado em diferentes modelos experimentais. Objetivo: Determinar se timoquinona tem efeitos positivos em tecidos do pulmão, rim e coração e no estresse oxidativo em lesão de isquemia/perfusão da aorta abdominal. Métodos: Trinta ratos foram divididos em três grupos: sham (n=10), controle (n=10) e tratamento com timoquinona (TQ) (n=10). Os grupos controle e de tratamento com TQ foram submetidos à isquemia da aorta abdominal durante 45 minutos, seguido por um período de 120 minutos de reperfusão. No grupo de tratamento com TQ, a timoquinona foi administrada 5 minutos antes da reperfusão, dose de 20 mg/kg através da via intraperitoneal. A capacidade total antioxidante, estado oxidativo total (TOS) e o índice de estresse oxidativo (OSI) no soro do sangue foram medidos, e a histopatologia dos tecidos do pulmão, rim e coração foram avaliados com microscopia de luz. Resultados: Estado oxidativo e índice de estresse oxidativo total em amostras de sangue foram estatisticamente mais altos no grupo controle em relação aos grupos sham e tratamento com TQ (P<0,001 para TOS e OSI). Escores de lesões no grupo controle foram estatisticamente mais altos em relação aos grupos sham e tratamento com TQ (P<0,001 para todas as comparações). Conclusão: A timoquinona administrada por via intraperitoneal foi eficaz na redução do estresse oxidativo e lesão histopatológica em modelo de rato de isquemia/reperfusão aguda da aorta abdominal. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Endothelial Cells/enzymology , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/pharmacology , Microvessels/cytology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Lipoproteins, LDL/pharmacology
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