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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 326-333, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective method of controlling epilepsy, especially temporal lobe epilepsy. Mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) plays an indispensable role in the pathogenesis and progression of epilepsy, but the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS in the chronic stage of epilepsy and the potential underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ATN-DBS on MFS, as well as potential signaling pathways by a kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic model.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to control, epilepsy (EP), EP-sham-DBS, and EP-DBS groups. KA was injected to establish the chronic epileptic model. The left ATN was implanted with a DBS lead and stimulated for 8 weeks. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate MFS and levels of potential molecular mediators in the hippocampus. One-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey post hoc correction, was used to analyze the statistical significance of differences among multiple groups.@*RESULTS@#ATN-DBS is found to significantly reduce seizure frequency in the chronic stage of epilepsy. The number of ectopic granule cells was reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P < 0.0001). Levels of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) in the hippocampus, together with Akt phosphorylation, were noticeably reduced in monkeys that received ATN stimulation (P = 0.0030 and P = 0.0001, respectively). ATN-DBS also significantly reduced MFS scores in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and CA3 sub-regions (all P < 0.0001).@*CONCLUSION@#ATN-DBS is shown to down-regulate the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and Akt phosphorylation and to reduce the number of ectopic granule cells, which may be associated with the reduced MFS in chronic epilepsy. The study provides further insights into the mechanism by which ATN-DBS reduces epileptic seizures.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate , Anterior Thalamic Nuclei , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Deep Brain Stimulation , Epilepsy/therapy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/therapy , Hippocampus , Humans , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal , Signal Transduction
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 21-27, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) as a signaling molecule exists in various types of organisms from early multicellular to animal cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that ABA has an antinociceptive effect in rodents. The present study was designed to assess the possible role of PKA and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) on the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) ABA in male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were cannulated intrathecally and divided into different experimental groups (n=6‒7): Control (no surgery), vehicle (received ABA vehicle), ABA-treated groups (received ABA in doses of 10 or 20 µg/rat), ABA plus H.89 (PKA inhibitor)-treated group which received the inhibitor 15 min prior to the ABA injection. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests were used as acute nociceptive stimulators to assess ABA analgesic effects. p-ERK was evaluated in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord using immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that a microinjection of ABA (10 and 20 µg/rat, i.t.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in tail flick and hot plate tests. The application of PKA inhibitor (H.89, 100 nM/rat) significantly inhibited ABA-induced analgesic effects. Expression of p-ERK was significantly decreased in ABA-injected animals, which were not observed in the ABA+H.89-treated group. Conclusions: Overall, i.t. administration of ABA (10 µg/rat) induced analgesia and p-ERK down-expression likely by involving the PKA-dependent mechanism.


Resumo Objetivo: O ácido fito-hormônio abscísico (ABA) existe como molécula sinalizadora em vários tipos de organismos, de multicelulares a células e tecidos animais. Foi demonstrado que o ABA tem efeito antinociceptivo em roedores. O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar o possível papel da PKA e da ERK fosforilada (p-ERK) nos efeitos antinociceptivos do ABA intratecal (i.t.) em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: Os animais foram canulados por via i.t. e divididos em diferentes grupos experimentais (n=6‒7): controle (sem cirurgia), veículo (veículo ABA recebido), grupos tratados com ABA (recebeu ABA em doses de 10 ou 20 µg/rato), grupo tratado com ABA mais H.89 (inibidor de PKA) que recebeu o inibidor 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Os testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente foram utilizados como estimuladores nociceptivos agudos para avaliar os efeitos analgésicos da ABA. A p-ERK foi avaliada na porção dorsal da medula espinhal por imunotransferência. Resultados: A microinjeção de ABA (10 e 20 µg/rato, i.t.) aumentou significativamente o limiar nociceptivo nos testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente. A aplicação de inibidor de PKA (H.89, 100 nM/rato) inibiu significativamente os efeitos analgésicos induzidos por ABA. A expressão de p-ERK diminuiu significativamente em animais injetados com ABA que não foram observados no grupo tratado com ABA+H.89. Conclusões: No geral, a administração i.t. de ABA (10 µg/rato) induziu a analgesia e expressão negativa de p-ERK provavelmente envolvendo mecanismo dependente de PKA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881035

ABSTRACT

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is one of the main effective components of bile acid, playing critical roles in apoptosis and immune responses through the TGR5 receptor. In this study, we reveal the interaction between TCDCA and TGR5 receptor in TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells and the regulation of inflammation via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) signal pathway in NR8383 macrophages. In TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells, TCDCA significantly activated cAMP level via TGR5 receptor, indicating TCDCA can bind to TGR5; in NR8383 macrophages TCDCA increased cAMP content compared to treatment with the adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor SQ22536. Moreover, activated cAMP can significantly enhance gene expression and protein levels of its downstream proteins PKA and CREB compared with groups of inhibitors. Additionally, TCDCA decreased tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 through nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity. PKA and CREB are primary regulators of anti-inflammatory and immune response. Our results thus demonstrate TCDCA plays an essential anti-inflammatory role via the signaling pathway of cAMP-PKA-CREB induced by TGR5 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of protein kinase A (PKA) activation on aggregation funetion of platelets in vitro.@*METHODS@#The peripheral blood of healthy adults were collected, and the washed platelets were gained from collected peripheral blood. The washed platelets were treated with PKA activator Forskolin, then the platelet aggregation was induced by using Ristocetin, Thrombin, Collagen and ADP respectively, the platelet aggregation level was detected by the platelet aggregator.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the controls, 5 μmol/L forskolin significantly inhibited ADP and collagen-induced platelet aggregation (P<0.001), and showed mild inhibiting effect on Thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (P<0.05). 2.5-10 μmol/L forskolin significantly inhibited ADP and Collagen -induced platelet aggregation (P<0.001); but not showed significantly inhibitory effects on Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#PKA activation inhibits agonists-induced platelet aggregation.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Humans , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Ristocetin , Thrombin
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826723

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the direct intervention effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on pain memory, and to explore their effects on cAMP/PKA/cAMP pathway in anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC).@*METHODS@#Fifty clean healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an indomethacin group, an EA group and a sham EA group, 10 rats in each group. Except the control group, the pain memory model was established in the remaining four groups by twice injection of carrageenan at foot; 0.1 mL of 2%λ-carrageenan was subcutaneously injected at the left foot of rats; 14 days later, when the pain threshold of rats of each group returned to the basic level, the second injection was performed with the same procedure. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at bilateral "Zusanli" (ST 36) for 30 min; the rats in the indomethacin group was treated with indomethacin intragastric administration with the dose of 3 mg/kg; the rats in the sham EA group was treated with EA without electricity at the point 0.3 mm forward "Zusanli" (ST 36) with the depth of 2 mm for 30 min; the rats in the control group was not given any invention. All the above interventions were performed 5 h, 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection of 2% λ-carrageenan. The left-side paw withdrawal thresholds (PWT) were observed before the first injection, 4 h, 3 d, 5 d after the first injection, before the second injection and 4 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d after the second injection. Three days after the second injection, the number of positive cells of cAMP, p-PKA, p-CREB and the number of positive cells of protein co-expression in the right ACC brain area were detected by immunofluorescence, and the relative protein expression of p-PKA and p-CREB were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the PWTs in the model group decreased significantly 4 h, 3 d and 5 d after the first injection and 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the control group, the positive expression of cAMP, p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the model group increased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of the co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB also increased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the PWTs in the EA group were increased significantly 1 d, 2 d and 3 d after the second injection (<0.05); compared with the model group, indomethacin group and sham EA group, the positive expression of p-PKA and p-CREB in the right ACC brain area in the EA group decreased significantly (<0.05), and the number of positive cells of co-expression of cAMP/p-PKA and p-PKA/p-CREB was decreased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the model group and sham EA group, the positive expression of cAMP in the right ACC brain area was decreased in the EA group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA have a direct intervention effect on pain memory, which have significant advantage over NSAIDs in the treatment of chronic pain. The advantage effect of EA on pain memory may be related to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in ACC area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Therapeutic Uses , Cyclic AMP , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Gyrus Cinguli , Metabolism , Male , Pain Threshold , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774003

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields(PEMFs) on bone formation in rat osteoblasts(ROBs) and explore the mechanism of action of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)/protein kinase A(PKA)/cyclic adenosine effect binding protein(CREB) signaling pathway.Methods The skulls of newborn Wistar rats were harvested,and the ROBs were obtained by multiple enzymatic digestion methods for subculture. After treatment with 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMFs for 3,6,and 9 days,the alkaline phosphatase(ALP) concentration in ROBs was detected;after 0,15,30,60,90,and 120 min,the expression of bone formation-related factor(RUNX2),the protein expression of osteogenesis-associated transcription factor(OSX),the cAMP concentration,as well as the protein expressions of p-PKA,p-CREB,and CREB were detected. The p-CREB nuclear translocation was observed. After interference with IFT88 by RNA interference,the expressions of RUNX2,OSX,p-PKA,and p-CREB protein in ROBs were detected.Results After treatment with PEMFs for 3,6,and 9 days,the ALP activity values in ROBs were 24.356±4.911,37.688±2.151,and 39.922±5.486,respectively,which were significantly higher than 18.531±2.401(P=0.0121),33.675±4.366(P=0.0324),and 36.574±1.339(P=0.0134) in the control groups. RUNX2 and OSX activities in ROBs were significantly higher than untreated group after PEMFs treatment for 30(P=0.0042 and P=0.0058),60(P=0.0097 and P=0.0079),and 90 min(P=0.0083 and P=0.0098). After PEMFs treatment for 30(P=0.0012) and 60 min(P=0.0035),the cAMP concentrations in ROBs were significantly higher than that in untreated group. After PEMFs treatment for 15(P=0.0018),30(P=0.0087),90(P=0.0250),and 120 min(P=0.0350),the p-PKA levels in ROBs were significantly higher than that in the untreated group. After PEMFs treatment for 15(P=0.0075),30(P=0.0017),60(P=0.0074),and 90 min(P=0.0096),the level of p-CREB in the ROBs was significantly higher than in the untreated group. After PEMFs treatment of ROBs for 15 min,CREB phosphorylated and accumulated in the nuclei. PKA and p-PKA were co-localized with primary cilia and stained,and it was found that p-PKA was localized on the primary cilia. After the primary cilia was removed by RNA interference,the protein expression levels of p-PKA(F=78.602,P=0.0270),p-CREB(F=76.082,P=0.0089),RUNX2(F=41.064,P=0.0230) and OSX(F=57.524,P=0.0310) were significantly lower than those of the non-interfered group.Conclusion PEMFs promote bone formation in ROBs by activating the primary cilia-associated cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Electromagnetic Fields , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Myocardial infarction (MI) is caused by extensive myocardial damage attributed to the occlusion of coronary arteries. Our previous study in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) demonstrated that administration of arabinoxylan (AX), comprising arabinose and xylose, protects against myocardial injury. In this study, we undertook to investigate whether psyllium seed husk (PSH), a safe dietary fiber containing a high level of AX (> 50%), also imparts protection against myocardial injury in the same rat model. MATERIALS/METHODS: Rats were fed diets supplemented with PSH (1, 10, or 100 mg/kg/d) for 3 d. The rats were then subjected to 30 min ischemia through ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 3 h reperfusion through release of the ligation. The hearts were harvested and cut into four slices. To assess infarct size (IS), an index representing heart damage, the slices were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). To elucidate underlying mechanisms, Western blotting was performed for the slices. RESULTS: Supplementation with 10 or 100 mg/kg/d of PSH significantly reduces the IS. PSH supplementation (100 mg/kg/d) tends to reduce caspase-3 generation and increase BCL-2/BAX ratio. PSH supplementation also upregulates the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and its target genes including antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (GSTM2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). PSH supplementation upregulates some sirtuins (NAD+-dependent deacetylases) including SIRT5 (a mitochondrial sirtuin) and SIRT6 and SIRT7 (nuclear sirtuins). Finally, PSH supplementation upregulates the expression of protein kinase A (PKA), and increases phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (pCREB), a target protein of PKA. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that PSH consumption reduces myocardial I/R injury in rats by inhibiting the apoptotic cascades through modulation of gene expression of several genes located upstream of apoptosis. Therefore, we believe that PSH can be developed as a functional food that would be beneficial in the prevention of MI.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Arabinose , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Coronary Vessels , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Diet , Dietary Fiber , Functional Food , Gene Expression , Glutathione Transferase , Heart , Infarction , Ischemia , Ligation , Models, Animal , Myocardial Infarction , Psyllium , Rats , Reperfusion , Sirtuins , Superoxide Dismutase , Xylose
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764113

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Goserelin is a drug used for chemical castration. In a rat model, we investigated whether surgical and chemical castration affected memory ability through the protein kinase A (PKA)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinases-extracellular signal–regulated kinases (MEK)/extracellular signal–regulated kinases (ERK) pathways in the hippocampus. METHODS: Orchiectomy was performed for surgical castration and goserelin acetate was subcutaneously transplanted into the anterior abdominal wall for chemical castration. Immunohistochemistry was done to quantify neurogenesis. To assess the involvement of the PKA/CREB/BDNF and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in the memory process, western blots were used. RESULTS: The orchiectomy group and the goserelin group showed less neurogenesis and impaired short-term and spatial memory. Phosphorylation of PKA/CREB/BDNF and phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK decreased in the orchiectomy and goserelin groups. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term memory and spatial memory were affected by surgical and chemical castration via the PKA/CREB/BDNF and c-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Wall , Adenosine Monophosphate , Blotting, Western , Castration , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Down-Regulation , Goserelin , Hippocampus , Immunohistochemistry , Memory , Memory, Short-Term , Models, Animal , Neurogenesis , Orchiectomy , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Spatial Memory
9.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 736-746, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775492

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, characterized by amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation in the brain, as well as impaired cognitive behaviors. A sex difference in the prevalence of AD has been noted, while sex differences in the cerebral pathology and relevant molecular mechanisms are not well clarified. In the present study, we systematically investigated the sex differences in pathological characteristics and cognitive behavior in 12-month-old male and female APP/PS1/tau triple-transgenic AD mice (3×Tg-AD mice) and examined the molecular mechanisms. We found that female 3×Tg-AD mice displayed more prominent amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation, and spatial cognitive deficits than male 3×Tg-AD mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of hippocampal protein kinase A-cAMP response element-binding protein (PKA-CREB) and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) also showed sex difference in the AD mice, with a significant increase in the levels of p-PKA/p-CREB and a decrease in the p-p38 in female, but not male, 3×Tg-AD mice. We suggest that an estrogen deficiency-induced PKA-CREB-MAPK signaling disorder in 12-month-old female 3×Tg-AD mice might be involved in the serious pathological and cognitive damage in these mice. Therefore, sex differences should be taken into account in investigating AD biomarkers and related target molecules, and estrogen supplementation or PKA-CREB-MAPK stabilization could be beneficial in relieving the pathological damage in AD and improving the cognitive behavior of reproductively-senescent females.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Metabolism , Pathology , Psychology , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein , Metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Pathology , Humans , Inflammation , Metabolism , Pathology , Psychology , Male , Maze Learning , Physiology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Neurofibrillary Tangles , Metabolism , Pathology , Plaque, Amyloid , Metabolism , Pathology , Psychology , Presenilin-1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Sex Characteristics , Spatial Memory , Physiology , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism , tau Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
10.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170231, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893679

ABSTRACT

Abstract We previously reported that elevated extracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels increase bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression in human dental pulp (hDP) cells. However, it is unknown whether extracellular Ca2+ affects the expression of other growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). Objective: The present study aimed to examine the effect of extracellular Ca2+ on FGF2 gene expression in hDP and immortalized mouse dental papilla (mDP) cells. Materials and Methods: Cells were stimulated with 10 mM CaCl2 in the presence or absence of cell signaling inhibitors. FGF2 gene expression was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation status of signaling molecules was examined by Western blotting. Results: Extracellular Ca2+ increased FGF2 gene expression in mDP and hDP cells. Gene expression of the calcium-sensing receptor and G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A, both of which are extracellular Ca2+ sensors, was not detected. Ca2+-mediated Fgf2 expression was reduced by pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 inhibitor PD98059 but not by pretreatment with the protein kinase C inhibitor GF-109203X or p38 inhibitor SB203580. Extracellular Ca2+ increased PKA activity and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Ca2+-induced PKA activity decreased by pretreatment with PD98059. Conclusions: These findings indicate that elevated extracellular Ca2+ levels led to increased Fgf2 expression through ERK1/2 and PKA in mDP cells and that this mechanism may be useful for designing regenerative therapies for dentin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Gene Expression/drug effects , Calcium/pharmacology , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/drug effects , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/drug effects , Dental Papilla/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/drug effects , Time Factors , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/analysis , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2/genetics , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/analysis , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771694

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of Zhenwu Tang on AVP-V2R-AQP2 pathway in NRK-52E cells . Forty eight male SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups with 6 animals in each group. Distilled water or 22.68 g·kg⁻¹·d⁻¹ Zhenwu Tang(calculated by raw drug dosage meter) was given by gavage. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture, and the medicated serum was centrifuged from the blood by 3 000 r·min⁻¹. NRK-52E cells were treated with different medicated serum or dDAVP. The condition of cell proliferation was detected by RTCA. The distribution of V2R and AQP2 in cells were detected by immunofluorescence. The expression of V2R, PKA and AQP2 were detected by Western blot and AQP2 mRNA level was detected by real-time PCR. Results showed that the level of AQP2 mRNA(<0.01) and protein expression of V2R, PKA and AQP2(<0.05, <0.01, <0.05) of Z7d group which was treated with Zhenwu Tang medicated serum for 24 h were significantly higher than that of normal rat serum group. And the expression level of V2R, p-AQP2 and AQP2(<0.01, <0.05, <0.01) of Z7d+dDAVP group were significantly increased comparing to normal rat serum group. The results indicate that the applying of Zhenwu Tang medicated serum could increase the expression level of V2R, PKA and AQP2 which exist in AVP-V2R-AQP2 pathway in NRK-52E, and there is synergistic effect between Zhenwu Tang medicated serum and dDAVP. So the pathway of AVP-V2R-AQP2 may be one of the mechanism for which Zhenwu Tang regulate balance of water transportation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aquaporin 2 , Metabolism , Cell Line , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Kidney , Cell Biology , Male , RNA, Messenger , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Vasopressin , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716442

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects and molecular mechanisms of the Schisandra chinensis fruit extract (SC) and its major compound gomisin A (GA), on the contractility of rabbit penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (PCCSM). MATERIALS/METHODS: PCCSM was exposed to SC or GA after appropriate pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker. Subsequently, we evaluated the cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate by radioimmunoassay, protein expression level of neuronal NOS (nNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) by western blot, and the interaction of SC or GA with udenafil and rolipram. RESULTS: Both SC and GA induce PCCSM relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with NOS blocker, guanylate cyclase blocker, adenylyl cyclase blocker or protein kinase A blocker result in significantly decreased relaxation. SC and GA also induce the levels of cyclic nucleotide in the perfusate in a concentration-dependent manner. Perfusion with GA also showed significantly higher levels of eNOS protein. Furthermore, the udenafil and rolipram induced relaxations of PCCSM were enhanced after exposure to SC and GA. Our results indicate that SC and GA induce the relaxation of PCCSM via the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP and cAMP signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The SC and GA are potential alternative treatments for men who want to consume natural products to ameliorate erectile function, or who do not respond to the commercially available medicines.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Biological Products , Blotting, Western , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Erectile Dysfunction , Fruit , Guanosine Monophosphate , Guanosine , Guanylate Cyclase , Humans , Lignans , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Nitric Oxide , Perfusion , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors , Radioimmunoassay , Relaxation , Rolipram , Schisandra
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30374

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to investigate the signaling pathway that mediates cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) degradation, and the effect and underlying mechanisms of the resulting increase in HDAC8 expression on cisplatin-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. cAMP signaling increased HDAC8 expression via a protein kinase A (PKA)-independent pathway in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells. However, treatment with a selective activator of an exchange protein that was activated by cAMP (Epac) increased HDAC8 expression, and Epac2 inhibition abolished the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. ISO and the Epac activator activated Rap1, and Rap1A activation increased HDAC8 expression; moreover, inhibition of Rap1A with a dominant negative Rap1A or by shRNA-mediated knockdown abolished the ISO-induced increase in HDAC8 expression. Activation of cAMP signaling and Rap1A decreased the activating phosphorylation of Akt. Akt inhibition with a pharmacological inhibitor or expression of a dominant negative Akt inhibited the MKK4/JNK pathway and increased HDAC8 expression. The Akt inhibitor-induced increase in HDAC8 expression was abolished by pretreatment with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors. The ISO treatment increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by HDAC8 knockdown. Exogenous HDAC8 expression increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis and decreased TIPRL expression, and the knockdown of TIPRL increased the apoptosis of cisplatin-treated cells. The ISO treatment decreased cisplatin-induced transcription of the TIPRL gene in a HDAC8-dependent manner. In conclusion, the Epac–Rap1–Akt pathway mediates cAMP signaling-induced inhibition of JNK-dependent HDAC8 degradation, and the resulting HDAC8 increase augments cisplatin-induced apoptosis by repressing TIPRL expression in H1299 lung cancer cells.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Cyclic AMP , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Histone Deacetylases , Histones , Isoproterenol , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Phosphorylation
14.
Immune Network ; : 228-236, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22202

ABSTRACT

In the intestinal mucosal surface, microfold cells (M cells) are the representative gateway for the uptake of luminal antigens. At the same time, M cells are the primary infection site for pathogens invading mucosal surface for their infection. Although it is well recognized that many mucosal pathogens exploit the M cells for their infection, the mechanism to infect M cells utilized by pathogens is not clearly understood yet. In this study, we found that M cells expressing complement 5a (C5a) receptor (C5aR) also express Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 and TLR4. Infection of Yersinia enterocolitica, an M cell-invading pathogen, synergistically regulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A (cAMP-PKA) signaling which are involved in signal crosstalk between C5aR and TLRs. In addition, Y. enterocolitica infection into M cells was enhanced by C5a treatment and this enhancement was abrogated by C5a antagonist treatment. Finally, Y. enterocolitica infection into M cells was unsuccessful in C5aR knock-out mice. Collectively, we suggest that exploit the crosstalk between C5aR and TLR signaling is one of infection mechanisms utilized by mucosal pathogens to infect M cells.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Animals , Complement C5a , Complement System Proteins , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Phenobarbital , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a , Toll-Like Receptors , Yersinia enterocolitica , Yersinia
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gastric hypersensitivity contributes to abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Recent studies showed that hormones induced by stress are correlated with visceral hypersensitivity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying gastric hypersensitivity remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was designed to investigate the roles of corticosterone (CORT) on excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating the stomach. METHODS: DRG neurons innervating the stomach were labeled by DiI injection into the stomach wall. Patch clamp recordings were employed to examine neural excitability and voltage-gated sodium channel currents. Electromyograph technique was used to determine the responses of neck muscles to gastric distension. RESULTS: Incubation of acutely isolated DRG neurons with CORT significantly depolarized action potential threshold and enhanced the number of action potentials induced by current stimulation of the neuron. Under voltage-clamp mode, incubation of CORT enhanced voltage-gated sodium current density of the recorded neurons. Pre-incubation of GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, blocked the CORT-induced hyperexcitability and potentiation of sodium currents. However, pre-incubation of H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A, did not alter the sodium current density. More importantly, intraperitoneal injection of CORT produced gastric hypersensitivity of healthy rats, which was blocked by pre-administration of GF109203X but not H-89. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that CORT rapidly enhanced neuronal excitability and sodium channel functions, which is most likely mediated by protein kinase C but not protein kinase A signaling pathway in DRG neurons innervating the stomach, thus underlying the gastric hypersensitivity induced by CORT injection.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Action Potentials , Animals , Corticosterone , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Diagnosis-Related Groups , Dyspepsia , Ganglia , Ganglia, Spinal , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Neck Muscles , Neurons , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Rats , Sodium , Sodium Channels , Spinal Nerve Roots , Stomach , Visceral Pain
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297244

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of baicalin on synaptosomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its regulatory effect on the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 40 SHR rats were randomly divided into five groups: ADHD model, methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment (0.07 mg/mL), and low-dose (3.33 mg/mL), medium-dose (6.67 mg/mL), and high-dose (10 mg/mL) baicalin treatment (n=8 each). Eight WKY rats were selected as normal control group. Percoll density gradient centrifugation was used to prepare brain synaptosomes and an electron microscope was used to observe their structure. Colorimetry was used to measure the activities of ATPase and LDH in synaptosomes. ELISA was used to measure the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the normal control group, the ADHD model group had a significant reduction in the ATPase activity, a significant increase in the LDH activity, and significant reductions in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the ADHD model group, the methylphenidate hydrochloride group and the medium- and high-dose baicalin groups had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05), a significant reduction in the LDH activity (P<0.05), and significant increases in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the methylphenidate hydrochloride group, the high-dose baicalin group had significantly greater changes in these indices (P<0.05). Compared with the low-dose baicalin group, the high-dose baicalin group had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05); the medium- and high-dose baicalin groups had a significant reduction in the LDH activity (P<0.05) and significant increases in the content of AC, cAMP, and PKA (P<0.05). Compared with the medium-dose baicalin group, the high-dose baicalin group had a significant increase in the ATPase activity (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Both methylphenidate hydrochloride and baicalin can improve synaptosomal ATPase and LDH activities in rats with ADHD. The effect of baicalin is dose-dependent, and high-dose baicalin has a significantly greater effect than methylphenidate hydrochloride. Baicalin exerts its therapeutic effect possibly by upregulating the AC/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Metabolism , Adenylyl Cyclases , Physiology , Animals , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Drug Therapy , Cyclic AMP , Physiology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Physiology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Inbred WKY , Signal Transduction , Synaptosomes , Chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175180

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report on a family with Carney complex. Four members of the family underwent a total of 11 open heart operations as well as 9 other operations to treat extrathoracic masses. All the family members met at least 2 major clinical criteria and 1 supplemental criterion. We analyzed their genomic loci, including the protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1 gene. The results revealed no specific mutations, except for a common single nucleotide polymorphism. This case series of Carney complex emphasizes the importance of close longitudinal follow-up because of the high rate of tumor recurrence irrespective of the site. Clinicians should not overlook the specific features of familial myxoma.


Subject(s)
Carney Complex , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Follow-Up Studies , Heart , Humans , Myxoma , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Recurrence
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165939

ABSTRACT

Insulin resistance is characterized by the reduced ability of insulin to stimulate tissue uptake and disposal of glucose including cardiac muscle. These conditions accelerate the progression of heart failure and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is noteworthy that some conditions of insulin resistance are characterized by up-regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in enhanced stimulation of β-adrenergic receptor (βAR). Over-stimulation of βARs leads to the development of heart failure and is associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in the heart. However, pathological consequences of the cross-talk between the βAR and the insulin sensitivity and the mechanism by which βAR over-stimulation promotes insulin resistance remain unclear. This review article examines the hypothesis that βARs over-stimulation leads to induction of insulin resistance in the heart.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Glucose , Heart Diseases , Heart Failure , Heart , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Insulin , Mortality , Myocardium , Sympathetic Nervous System , Up-Regulation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23491

ABSTRACT

Sleep, which is an essential part of human life, is modulated by neurotransmitter systems, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine signaling. However, the mechanisms that initiate and maintain sleep remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the relationship between melatonin (MT) and dopamine D2-like receptor signaling in pentobarbital-induced sleep and the intracellular mechanisms of sleep maintenance in the cerebral cortex. In mice, pentobarbital-induced sleep was augmented by intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg MT. To investigate the relationship between MT and D2-like receptors, we administered quinpirole, a D2-like receptor agonist, to MT- and pentobarbital-treated mice. Quinpirole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the duration of MT-augmented sleep in mice. In addition, locomotor activity analysis showed that neither MT nor quinpirole produced sedative effects when administered alone. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying quinpirole-augmented sleep, we measured protein levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and cortical protein kinases related to MT signaling. Treatment with quinpirole or MT activated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAPK, and protein kinase C (PKC) in the cerebral cortex, while protein kinase A (PKA) activation was not altered significantly. Taken together, our results show that quinpirole increases the duration of MT-augmented sleep through ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and PKC signaling. These findings suggest that modulation of D2-like receptors might enhance the effect of MT on sleep.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cerebral Cortex , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Dopamine , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Melatonin , Mice , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Motor Activity , Neurotransmitter Agents , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Pentobarbital , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinase C , Protein Kinases , Quinpirole
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727999

ABSTRACT

Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) participates in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, including the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump). Ouabain, used in the treatment of several heart diseases, is known to increase cAMP levels but its effects on the atrium are not understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of ouabain on the regulation of atrial cAMP production and its roles in atrial endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion in isolated perfused beating rabbit atria. Our results showed that ouabain (3.0 micromol/L) significantly increased atrial dynamics and cAMP levels during recovery period. The ouabain-increased atrial dynamics was blocked by KB-R7943 (3.0 micromol/L), an inhibitor for reverse mode of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX), but did not by L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1.0 micromol/L) or protein kinase A (PKA) selective inhibitor H-89 (3.0 micromol/L). Ouabain also enhanced atrial intracellular cAMP production in response to forskolin and theophyline (100.0 micromol/L), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase, potentiated the ouabain-induced increase in cAMP. Ouabain and 8-Bromo-cAMP (0.5 micromol/L) markedly increased atrial ET-1 secretion, which was blocked by H-89 and by PD98059 (30 micromol/L), an inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) without changing ouabain-induced atrial dynamics. Our results demonstrated that ouabain increases atrial cAMP levels and promotes atrial ET-1 secretion via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK signaling pathway. These findings may explain the development of cardiac hypertrophy in response to digitalis-like compounds.


Subject(s)
8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate , Adenosine , Cardiomegaly , Colforsin , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Endothelin-1 , Heart Diseases , Nifedipine , Ouabain , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases
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