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2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic conditions. However, little is known about how CDK5 impair β-cell function. Myricetin, a natural flavonoid, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effect of myricetin on high glucose (HG)-induced β-cell apoptosis and explored the relationship between myricetin and CDK5. METHODS: To address this question, we subjected INS-1 cells and isolated rat islets to HG conditions (30 mM) in the presence or absence of myricetin. Docking studies were conducted to validate the interaction between myricetin and CDK5. Gene expression and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Activation of CDK5 in response to HG coupled with the induction of ER stress via the down regulation of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b) gene expression and reduced the nuclear accumulation of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) leads to β-cell apoptosis. Docking study predicts that myricetin inhibit CDK5 activation by direct binding in the ATP-binding pocket. Myricetin counteracted the decrease in the levels of PDX1 and SERCA2b by HG. Moreover, myricetin attenuated HG-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells and rat islets and reduce the mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) loss. CONCLUSION: Myricetin protects the β-cells against HG-induced apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress, possibly through inactivation of CDK5 and consequent upregulation of PDX1 and SERCA2b.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Calcium-Transporting ATPases , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Down-Regulation , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gene Expression , Genes, Homeobox , Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Insulin-Secreting Cells , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Reverse Transcription , Up-Regulation
3.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 558-564, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Synaptic vesicle mobilization and neurite outgrowth regulation molecules were examined in modulation of effects of methylphenidate (MPH) in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We compared the changes in the protein expression level of Cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and molecular substrates of Cdk5; tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), syntaxin 1A (STX1A) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25). Comparisons were made in prefrontal cortex of vehicle (distilled water i.p. for 7 days)-treated SHRs, vehicle-treated Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKYs) and MPH (2 mg/kg i.p. for 7 days) treated SHRs. RESULTS: The Cdk5 level of vehicle-treated SHRs was significantly decreased compared to the Cdk5 level of vehicle-treated WKY rats, but was restored to the expression level of vehicle-treated WKYs in MPH-treated SHR. The ratio of p25/p35 was significantly decreased in MPH-treated SHR compared to vehicle-treated SHR. Moreover, TrkB, STX1A and SNAP25 of vehicle-treated SHRs were significantly decreased compared to vehicle-treated WKY rats, but were restored to the expression level of vehicle-treated WKYs in MPH-treated SHR. CONCLUSION: The results show that Cdk5, TrkB, STX1A, and SNAP25 were involved in the modulation of MPH effects in prefrontal cortex of SHRs and play important role in treatment of ADHD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Methylphenidate , Neurites , Phosphotransferases , Prefrontal Cortex , Rats , Rats, Inbred WKY , Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins , Synaptic Vesicles , Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 , Syntaxin 1 , Tropomyosin , Water
5.
Clinics ; 74: e938, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The inflammatory response is a key mechanism of neuronal damage and loss during acute ischemic stroke. Hypothermia has shown promise as a treatment for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the molecular signaling pathways in ischemic stroke after hypothermia treatment. METHODS: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) was overexpressed or silenced in cultured cells. Nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was assessed by measurement of the luciferase reporter gene. An ischemic stroke model was established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats using the suture-occluded method. Animals were assigned to three groups: sham operation control, ischemic stroke, and ischemic stroke + hypothermia treatment groups. Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels in the culture supernatant and blood samples were assessed by ELISA. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: In HEK293 cells and primary cortical neuronal cultures exposed to hypothermia, CDK5 overexpression was associated with increased IL-1β, caspase 1, and NF-κB levels. In both a murine model of stroke and in patients, increased IL-1β levels were observed after stroke, and hypothermia treatment was associated with lower IL-1β levels. Furthermore, hypothermia-treated patients showed significant improvement in neurophysiological functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, hypothermia offers clinical benefit, most likely through its effects on the inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Brain Ischemia/therapy , NF-kappa B/blood , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Inflammation/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/blood , Brain Ischemia/blood , Blotting, Western , Acute Disease , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(3): 388-397, jul.-set. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cerebral ischemia is the third cause of death risk in Colombia and the first cause of physical disability worldwide. Different studies on the silencing of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) have shown that reducing its activity is beneficial in ischemic contexts. However, its effect on neural cell production after cerebral ischemia has not been well studied yet. Objective: To evaluate CDK5 silencing on the production of neurons and astrocytes after a focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Materials and methods: We used 40 eight-week-old male Wistar rats. Both sham and ischemia groups were transduced at CA1 hippocampal region with an adeno-associated viral vector using a noninterfering (shSCRmiR) and an interfering sequence for CDK5 (shCDK5miR). We injected 50 mg/kg of bromodeoxyuridine intraperitoneally from hour 24 to day 7 post-ischemia. We assessed the neurological abilities during the next 15 days and we measured the immunoreactivity of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX), NeuN, and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) from day 15 to day 30 post-ischemia. Results: Our findings showed that CDK5miR-treated ischemic animals improved their neurological score and presented increased BrdU+ cells 15 days after ischemia, which correlated with higher DCX and lower GFAP fluorescence intensities, and, although mature neurons populations did not change, GFAP immunoreactivity was still significantly reduced at 30 days post-ischemia in comparison with untreated ischemic groups. Conclusion: CDK5miR therapy generated the neurological recovery of ischemic rats associated with the induction of immature neurons proliferation and the reduction of GFAP reactivity at short and longterm post-ischemia.


Resumen Introducción. La isquemia cerebral es la tercera causa de riesgo de muerte en Colombia y la primera causa de discapacidad física en el mundo. En diversos estudios en los que se silenció la cinasa 5 dependiente de la ciclina (CDK5) se ha demostrado que la reducción de su actividad es beneficiosa frente a la isquemia. Sin embargo, su efecto sobre la neurogénesis después de la isquemia no se ha dilucidado suficientemente. Objetivo. Evaluar el silenciamiento de la CDK5 en la neurogénesis y la gliogénesis después de la isquemia cerebral focal en ratas. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron 40 machos de rata Wistar de ocho semanas de edad. Los grupos de control y los isquémicos sometidos a transducción en la región del hipocampo CA1, se inyectaron intraperitonealmente por estereotaxia con 50 mg/kg de bromodesoxiuridina (BrdU) a partir de las 24 horas y hasta el día 7 después de la isquemia, con un vector viral asociado a adenovirus usando una secuencia no interferente (SCRmiR) y una interferente (CDK5miR). Se evaluó la capacidad neurológica durante los quince días siguientes y se detectó la capacidad de inmunorreacción para la BrdU, la proteína doblecortina (DCX), los núcleos neuronales (NeuN), y la proteína fibrilar acídica de la glía (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, GFAP) a los 15 y 30 días de la isquemia. Resultados. Los animales isquémicos tratados con CDK5miR mejoraron su puntuación neurológica y presentaron un incremento de la BrdU+ a los 15 días de la isquemia, lo cual se correlacionó con una mayor intensidad de la DCX+ y una menor de la GFAP+. No hubo modificación de los NeuN+, pero sí una reducción significativa de la GFAP+ a los 30 días de la isquemia en los animales tratados comparados con los animales isquémicos no tratados. Conclusión. La terapia con CDK5miR generó la recuperación neurológica de ratas isquémicas asociada con la inducción de la neurogénesis y el control de la capacidad de reacción de la proteína GFAP a corto y largo plazo después de la isquemia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Genetic Therapy , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Neuroglia/physiology , RNA, Small Interfering/therapeutic use , RNA Interference , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/antagonists & inhibitors , Neurogenesis/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Genetic Therapy/methods , Brain Ischemia/genetics , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Astrocytes/pathology , Carotid Stenosis , Rats, Wistar , Dependovirus/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , DNA Replication , Drug Evaluation , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/genetics , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Doublecortin Protein , Ligation , Neurons/pathology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301062

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVES</b>To explore the protective effects of Tongmai Yizhi Decoction (, TYD), a Chinese herb complex prescription against the impairment of cognitive functions and memory loss in amyloid beta 1-40 (Aβ) peptide and ibotenic (IBO)-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) model rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The in vivo model was established by injecting Aβand IBO into left hippocampal CA1 area of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat to mimic AD. Totally 32 SD rats were divided into 4 groups, including sham operation group, AD model group, TYD group [AD rats treated with TYD at the dosage of 19.44 g/(kg•d) for 4 weeks] and huperzine A group [AD rats treated with huperzine A at the dosage of 40.5 μg/(kg•d) for 4 weeks]. Spatial learning and memory level was detected by Morris Water Maze test. Histological morphology in the hippocampus was tested by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) protein and gene expression level were investigated by Western blot analysis and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Aβ1-40 and IBO treatment induced longer escape latency of rats, compared with sham operation group from day 25 (P<0.01). However, TYD and huperzine A obviously shortened the escape latency from day 26 (P<0.01). Moreover, the effect of TYD was similar to huperzine A (P>0.05). Furthermore, HE staining also showed that TYD and huperzine A reversed the neuropathological changes in the hippocampus triggered by Aβ1-40 and IBO. TYD and huperzine A effectively reduced the expression levels of Cdk5 protein and gene located in rat hippocampus, compared with the AD model group (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>TYD could be a promising neuroprotective agent for protecting neuron from AD injury through inhibiting Cdk5 expression.</p>


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Animals , Cognition , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Hippocampus , Male , Maze Learning , Memory , Neuroprotective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-243404

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effects of polydatin on learning and memory and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) kinase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control group, chronic alcoholism group, low and high polydatin group. The rat chronic alcoholism model was established by ethanol 3.0 g/(kg · d) (intragastric administration). The abstinence scoring was used to evaluate the rats withdrawal symptoms; cognitive function was measured by Morris water maze experiment; Cdk5 protein expression in the hippocampus was detected by immunofluorescence; Cdk5 kinase activity in the hippocampus was detected by liquid scintillation counting method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The abstinence score, escape latency, Cdk5 kinase activity in chronic alcoholism group rats were significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). The abstinence score, escape latency in high polydatin group rats were significantly lower than those of chronic alcoholism group (P < 0.05); Cdk5 kinase activity in high and low polydatin group rats was significantly lower than that of chronic alcoholism group( P < 0.05); immunofluorescence showed that the Cdk5 positive cells of chronic alcoholism group were significantly increased compared with control group (P < 0.05), and the Cdk5 positive cells of polydatin groups were significantly decreased compared with chronic alcoholism group ( P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Polydatin-reduced the chronic alcoholism damage may interrelate with regulation of Cdk5 kinase activity.</p>


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Animals , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glucosides , Pharmacology , Hippocampus , Learning , Memory , Rats , Stilbenes , Pharmacology
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1873-1878, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335692

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Fetal insulin hypothesis was proposed that the association between low birth weight and type 2 diabetes is principally genetically mediated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether common variants in genes CDKAL1, HHEX, ADCY5, SRR, PTPRD that predisposed to type 2 diabetes were also associated with reduced birthweight in Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs7756992/rs10946398 in CDKAL1, rs1111875 in HHEX, rs391300 in SRR, rs17584499 in PTPRD, rs1170806/rs9883204/rs4678017/rs9881942/rs7641344/rs6777397/rs6226243 in ADCY5) were genotyped in 1174 unrelated individuals born in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1921 to 1954 by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays, of which 645 had normal glucose tolerance, 181 had developed type 2 diabetes and 348 impaired glucose regulation. Associations of these 12 genetic variants with birthweight and glucose metabolism in later life were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Birthweight was inversely associated with CDKAL1-rs10946398 (β = -41 g [95% confidence interval [CI]: -80, -3], P = 0.034), common variants both associated with increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism and decreased insulin secretion index later in life. After adjusting for sex, gestational weeks, parity and maternal age, the risk allele of CDKAL1-rs7756992 was associated with reduced birthweight (β = -36 g [95% CI: -72, -0.2], P = 0.048). The risk allele in SRR showed a trend toward a reduction of birthweight (P = 0.085).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study identified the association between type 2 diabetes risk variants in CDKAL1 and birthweight in Chinese Han individuals, and the carrier of risk allele within SRR had the trend of reduced birthweight. This demonstrates that there is a clear overlap between the genetics of type 2 diabetes and fetal growth, which proposes that lower birth weight and type 2 diabetes may be two phenotypes of one genotype.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases , Genetics , Aged , Alleles , Asians , Genetics , Birth Weight , Genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics , Homeodomain Proteins , Genetics , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , Receptor-Like Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Class 2 , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , tRNA Methyltransferases
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175270

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial functions are essential for the survival and function of neurons. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mitochondrial functions are highly associated with mitochondrial morphology, which is dynamically changed by the balance between fusion and fission. Mitochondrial morphology is primarily controlled by the activation of dynamin-related proteins including dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which promotes mitochondrial fission. Drp1 activity is regulated by several post-translational modifications, thereby modifying mitochondrial morphology. Here, we found that phosphorylation of Drp1 at serine 616 (S616) is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in post-mitotic rat neurons. Perturbation of CDK5 activity modified the level of Drp1S616 phosphorylation and mitochondrial morphology in neurons. In addition, phosphorylated Drp1S616 preferentially localized as a cytosolic monomer compared with total Drp1. Furthermore, roscovitine, a chemical inhibitor of CDKs, increased oligomerization and mitochondrial translocation of Drp1, suggesting that CDK5-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1 serves to reduce Drp1's fission-promoting activity. Taken together, we propose that CDK5 has a significant role in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology via inhibitory phosphorylation of Drp1S616 in post-mitotic neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5/metabolism , Dynamins/analysis , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mitochondria/metabolism , Mitosis , Neurons/cytology , Phosphorylation , Rats
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286522

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effect of arsenic on neuronal cell apoptosis and the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1, calpain 2, and cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (cdk5)/p25 and to provide a scientific basis for the research on neurotoxic mechanism of arsenic trioxide (As2O3).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Primary cultured rat neurons were divided into untreated control group, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent control group, and 1, 5, and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups. Eight hours after being treated with As2O3, cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry, the mRNA expression of calpain 1, calpain 2, cdk5, and p35 was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, and the protein expression of calpain 1, calpain 2, cdk5, p35, and p25 was measured by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with those in the untreated control group and DMSO solvent control group, the cell apoptosis rates in the 5 and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups were significantly increased (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of calpain 1 were 6.36±3.26, 7.11±5.13, and 7.47±2.59 in the 1, 5, and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups, respectively, and the mRNA expression levels of cdk5 were 1.27±0.19, 1.54±0.04, and 1.79±0.21 in the 1, 5, and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the untreated group (0.72±0.15 and 1.77±0.87) and those in the DMSO solvent control group (0.96±1.23 and 1.18±0.09) (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of p35 in the 1 and 5 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups were 2.17±0.59 and 2.51±0.51, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the untreated control group (1.26±0.37) (P < 0.05). The protein expression levels of calpain 1 were 0.37±0.10, 0.42±0.13, and 0.51±0.18 in the 1, 5, and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the untreated control group (0.11±0.08) and DMSO solvent control group (0.13±0.07) (P < 0.05). In the 5 and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated groups, the protein expression levels of cdk5 were 0.34±0.12 and 0.37±0.21, while the protein expression levels of p25 were 0.31±0.23 and 0.55±0.16, all of which were significantly higher than those in the untreated control group and DMSO solvent control group (P < 0.05). The protein expression levels of p35 were reduced in the 5 µmol/L As2O3 treated group (0.31±0.23) and 10 µmol/L As2O3 treated group (0.26±0.16), as compared with those in the untreated control group and DMSO solvent control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of calpain 2 showed no significant differences between all groups (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The calpain 1-cdk5/p25 pathway may be involved in the process of As2O3-induced neuronal cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Arsenic Poisoning , Arsenicals , Calpain , Metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Oxides , Toxicity , Rats
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 411-416, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary pathophysiologic abnormality in achalasia is known to be a loss of inhibitory myenteric ganglion cells, which may result from an immune-mediated response or neuronal degeneration. The aim of this study was to identify proteins suggestive of an immune-mediated response or neuronal degeneration in the serum of achalasia patients using a proteomic analysis. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from five symptomatic achalasia patients and five sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Serum proteomic analysis was conducted, and the protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight and a proteomics analyzer. The serum level of C3 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in nine patients with achalasia and 18 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Of the 658 matched protein spots, 28 spots were up-regulated over 2-fold in the serum from achalasia patients compared with that from controls. The up-regulated proteins included complement C4B5, complement C3, cyclin-dependent kinase 5, transthyretin, and alpha 2 macroglobulin. The serum levels of C3 in achalasia patients were significantly higher than those of controls. CONCLUSIONS: The serum proteomic analysis of achalasia patients suggests an immune-mediated response or neuronal degeneration. Further validation studies in larger samples and the esophageal tissue of achalasia patients are required.


Subject(s)
alpha-Macroglobulins , Complement C3 , Complement System Proteins , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Esophageal Achalasia , Ganglion Cysts , Humans , Neurons , Prealbumin , Proteins , Proteomics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295508

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TCF7L2, CDKAL1, SLC30A8, HHEX with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 479 subjects with DR,248 with DN and 650 without DR or DN were recruited to assess the associations between SNPs of TCF7L2 (rs7903146, rs6585205, rs11196218), CDKAL1 (rs10946398,rs4712527), SLC30A8 (rs13266634, rs3802177, rs11558471) and HHEX (rs1111875, rs7923837) and the development of DR and DN.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were significant differences in genotypic and allele frequencies of rs11558471 (SLC30A8) between DR and control groups (P< 0.05), the odds ratio (OR) values of A and AA were 1.27 and 1.68. The distributions of genotype and allele frequency for rs11196218 (TCF7L2) were significantly different between DN and control group (P=0.0051,OR=1.37). However, the P value after Bonferroni correction showed no significant difference. No significant differences were found in the distributions of rs13266634 and rs3802177 (SLC30A8), rs10946398 (CDKAL1), rs6585205, rs7903146 and rs11196218 (TCF7L2) and rs7923837 (HHEX) between DR and control groups, and nor significant differences were found in distributions of rs6585205 (TCF7L2), rs4712527 (CDKAL1), rs13266634, rs3802177 and rs11558471 (SLC30A8), and 7923837 (HHEX) between DN and control groups, though for all comparison the OR values were greater than 1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Polymorphisms of SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 genes may be associated with the development of DR and DN, respectively. Association between the polymorphisms of CKDAL1, TCF7L2 and HHEX genes and DR, and between the polymorphisms of SLC30A8, HHEX and CDKAL1 genes and DN, cannot be excluded.</p>


Subject(s)
Cation Transport Proteins , Genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Genetics , Diabetic Angiopathies , Genetics , Female , Homeodomain Proteins , Genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein , Genetics , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Zinc Transporter 8 , tRNA Methyltransferases
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-273538

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the expression levels of cdk5, p35 and p53 genes in arsenic trioxide (As2O3O)-induced neuron apoptosis and to explore the potential mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The cultured primary rats' neurons were divided into 5 groups, which were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10 micromol/L As2O3 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 8 h, respectively. The cell viability and cell apoptosis were detected by MTT colouration methods and flow cytometry, respectively. The real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to measured the expression levels of cdk5, p35 and p53 genes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The cell viability inhibition rates were 16.77%, 19.72% and 27.81% in 1, 5, 10 micromol/L As203 groups, respectively. Compared to the untreated group and DMSO group, the cell apoptosis rates were significantly increased in 5 and 10 micromol/L As2O3 groups (P < 0.05). The expression levels of cdk5, p35 and p53 genes increased with the exposure doses of AsO3. However, there were no significant differences in p35 gene expression between different dose subgroups (P > 0.05). There were significant differences in cdk5 and p53 gene expression between different dose subgroups (P < 0.05). The expression levels of cdk5 gene in 5 and 10 micromol/L As2O3 groups were significantly higher than those in untreated group and DMSO group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of p53 gene in 1, 5 and 10 micromol/L As2O3 groups were significantly higher than that in untreated group (P < 0.05). The expression level of p53 gene in 10 mciromol/L As2O3 group was significantly higher than that in DMSO group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Cdk5, p35 and p53 genes may involve in the process of As2O3-induced neural cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Arsenicals , Cells, Cultured , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Oxides , Toxicity , Phosphotransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Genetics , Metabolism
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 295-308, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337746

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, and plays multiple roles in neuron development and synaptic plasticity. The active form of Cdk5 is found primarily in the central nervous system (CNS) due to its activator proteins p35 or p39 ubiquitously expressed in neuronal cells. Normally, the transcription and activity of Cdk5 are strictly regulated by several ways. In the physiological condition, Cdk5 plays a key role in the CNS development by phosphorylating the specific serine or threonine site of numerous substrate proteins that are closely associated with the neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission as well as synaptic plasticity. Under pathological conditions, p35 can be truncated into p25, which can strongly and consistently activate Cdk5, change the cellular localization of Cdk5 and lead to neuronal death ultimately. The increasing evidence has showed that Cdk5 is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etc., indicating that Cdk5 may be a potential target in the treatment of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this article, we reviewed the recent progress regarding the roles of Cdk5 in CNS development and neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Central Nervous System , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Physiology , Humans , Huntington Disease , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuronal Plasticity , Physiology , Neurons , Cell Biology , Parkinson Disease , Synaptic Transmission , Physiology
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-340199

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the expression of GSK-3beta, CDK-5 and PP2A and the regulation of them by Abeta(25-35) and ginsenoside Rb1 after neural stem cells (NSCs) are transformed into neurons.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>To culture NSCs from the dentate gyrus of newborn rats(24 h) hippocampus in vitro. NSCs of the third passage were induced towards neurons; the expressions of GSK-3beta(pTyr279,216), PP2A and the regulation of them by Abeta(25-35) and ginsenoside Rb1 were tested by the immunofluorescence cytochemical staining after NSCs had been induced for one week; The expressions of GSK-3beta, CDK-5, PP2A and the regulation of them by Abeta(25-35) and ginsenoside Rb1 were detected with RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Immunofluorescence cytochemisty showed that neural cells from NSCs which had been differentiated after one week could express GSK-3j (pTyr279,216)and PP2A. Abeta(25-35) could enhance the expression of GSK-3beta(pTyr279,216), meanwhile it also restrained the expression of PP2A. Moreover ginsenoside Rb1 could reverse the affect of Abeta(25-35). RT-PCR found that neural stem cells which had been differentiated after one week could express GSK-3beta, CDK-5, PP2A . The expression of GSK-3beta and CDK-5 rose up and the expression of PP2A weakened when they were treated by Abeta(25-35). However, the effect of Abeta(25-35) was restrained when they were pretreated by ginsenoside Rb1.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These observations indicated that NSCs which were cultured and induced in vitro can express GSK-3beta, CDK-5 and PP2A; moreover Abeta(25-35) and ginsenoside Rb1 can regulate the expressions of GSK-3beta, CDK-5 and PP2A. It hints that cells which differentiated from neural stem cells in vitro have protein phosphorylation regulation system of normal cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Toxicity , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Female , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 , Metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Male , Neural Stem Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Peptide Fragments , Toxicity , Protein Phosphatase 2 , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233777

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the expressions of p35 and p25 and Cdk5 kinase activity in cultured rats hippocampal neurons following X-ray exposure to provide experimental evidence for prevention and treatment of radiation encephalopathy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The hippocampal neurons cultured for 12 days were subjected to a single-dose X-ray exposure of 30 Gy. Western blotting was used to detect the p35 and p25 protein levels, and the effect of pretreatment with roscovitine, a Cdk5 inhibitor, on the apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons following the exposure was examined with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The protein level of p35 increased significantly 3.5 and 4 h after the irradiation by 1.51-/+0.13 and 1.45-/+0.14 folds in comparison with the control level, respectively (P<0.01), and the p25 level increased significantly 6 h after irradiation by 1.62-/+0.28 folds (P<0.05). Nuclear condensation occurred in (24.8-/+3.97)% of the neurons 24 h after 30 Gy X-ray exposure, a rate significantly higher than that in the nonexposed cells [(1.82-/+1.08)%, P<0.01) and that in roscovitine-pretreated neurons [(7.74-/+2.27)%, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>X-ray exposure activates Cdk5 by increasing the p35 and p25 expressions in rat hippocampal neurons, and inhibition of Cdk5 activity with roscovitine can significantly protect the neurons from apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cells, Cultured , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Female , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Radiation Effects , Male , Neurons , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Radiation Effects , Phosphotransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303964

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in 2, 5-hexanedione (HD)-induced neuropathy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty male Wistar rats weighted 200 approximately 240 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e. control group, 200 mg/kg HD group and 400 mg/kg HD group (n = 10 for each group). HD was administered to rats by intraperitoneal injection at dosage of 200 or 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week) to establish the intoxicated rats model. The relative contents of CDK5, p35 and p25 were determined in cerebrum, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of rats by Western Blotting.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with that of the control group rats, p35 contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the cytosolic fractions of cerebrum and spinal cord in both the 200 and 400 mg/kg HD intoxicated rats, while in the membrane fractions of spinal cord and sciatic nerve, p35 contents were increased significantly (P < 0.01). The changes of p25 showed the same pattern with p35. P25 contents were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the cytosolic (cerebrum and spinal cord) and membrane (cerebrum) fractions of both HD-treated rats and were elevated (P < 0.01) in the membrane fraction of spinal cord and cytosolic fraction of sciatic nerve. The relative amounts of CDK5 were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the cytosolic and membrane fractions of cerebrum in both the 200 and 400 mg/kg HD intoxicated rats. Except for membrane fraction of sciatic nerve, the significant increased (P < 0.01) of CDK5 were observed in the spinal cord and sciatic nerve of both the 200 and 400 mg/kg HD treated rats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>HD can induce significant changes of CDK5 and its activators p35, p25 in nerve tissues, which may be related to the neuropathy induced by HD.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Hexanones , Poisoning , Male , Nerve Tissue , Metabolism , Nervous System Diseases , Phosphotransferases , Metabolism , Rats , Rats, Wistar
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814144

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and p35 in rat hippocampus during pentetrazole kindling process and their relation with mossy fiber sprouting (MFS), and to investigate the role of Cdk5/p35 in epileptogenesis.@*METHODS@#Altogether 120 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) treated group. The epileptic models were established by the injection of PTZ intraperitoneally while the control rats were injected with an equal dose of saline. At the 3rd day, 1st week, 2nd week, 4th week, and 6th week after daily injection, Timm staining was performed in area CA3 and dentate gyrus, and the mRNA and protein of Cdk5 and p35 were analyzed in the hilus and stratum granulosum of dentate gyrus and area CA1 and CA3 of hippocampus, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of Cdk5 and p35 mRNA were significantly higher in the PTZ treated subgroups of the 3rd day, 1st week, 2nd week, and 4th week than those in the controls. Thereafter, the expression decreased to the level of controls. The expression level of Cdk5 and p35 protein increased from the 3rd day to 2nd week, and then gradually decreased to the level of the controls. Timm scores for PTZ groups were 1 to approximately 4 before kindling and 4~5 after kindling in area CA3.@*CONCLUSION@#Change of Cdk5/p35 expression in the hippocampus may play a role in epileptogenesis by influencing the process of mossy fiber sprouting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Genetics , Metabolism , Epilepsy , Metabolism , Kindling, Neurologic , Metabolism , Male , Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal , Metabolism , Pentylenetetrazole , Toxicity , Phosphotransferases , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 828-832, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-268571

ABSTRACT

This study is to explore the effect of ginsenoside Rb1 on the process of beta-amyloid peptide(25-35) (Abeta(25-35)) -induced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and on the level of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator, p25/p35. Western blotting and/or immunocytochemical staining were used to detect the levels of phosphorylation of tau protein at the sites of Thr205, Ser396, Ser404 in hippocampal neurons, cdk5 and p25/p35. After exposure to Abeta(25-35) (20 micromol x L(-1)) for 12 h, the levels of tau protein phosphorylation at the sites of Thr205, Ser396, Ser404 were enhanced, the level of p25 was increased, but the level of protein cdk5 was not changed markedly. Pretreatment with ginsenoside Rb1 reduced Abeta(25-35) -induced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and decreased the lever of p25, but had no effect on cdk5. Ginsenoside Rb1 can attenuate Abeta(25-35) -induced hyperphosphorylation of tau protein through CDK5 signal pathway.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Metabolism , Fetus , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Hippocampus , Cell Biology , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Metabolism , Neurons , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Phosphorylation , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , tau Proteins , Metabolism
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