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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764039

ABSTRACT

Tannic acid (TA) is a water-soluble polyphenol compound found in various herbal plants. We investigated the chemopreventive effects of TA on FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. In an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, TA showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 50 µM. Cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence imaging demonstrated that under low-dose (25 µM) treatment, FaDu cells were arrested in G2/M phase, and as the dose of TA was increased, apoptosis was induced with the increase of cell population at sub-G1 phase. The expressions of various cyclins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK-1 and CDK-2), were down-regulated at low doses of TA, whereas apoptotic effectors such as cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were expressed in a dose-dependent manner in Western blotting. In addition, TA-induced apoptosis of FaDu cells might be mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with the upregulation of p-AKT/p-PKB (phosphorylated protein kinase B) and p-ERK. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that TA is a potential candidate agent for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Cell Cycle , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Tannins , Up-Regulation
2.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 414-424, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763764

ABSTRACT

Mitochondria continuously fuse and divide to maintain homeostasis. An impairment in the balance between the fusion and fission processes can trigger mitochondrial dysfunction. Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), with excessive mitochondrial fission in dopaminergic neurons being one of the pathological mechanisms of PD. Here, we investigated the balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD. We found that MPTP induced shorter and abnormally distributed mitochondria. This phenomenon was accompanied by the activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission protein, through increased phosphorylation at S616. Thereafter, we assessed for activation of the components of the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascades, which are known regulators of Drp1(S616) phosphorylation. MPTP induced an increase in p25 and p35, which are required for CDK5 activation. Together, these findings suggest that the phosphorylation of Drp1(S616) by CDK5 is involved in mitochondrial fission in the substantia nigra of a non-human primate model of MPTP-induced PD.


Subject(s)
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Dopaminergic Neurons , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Primates , Substantia Nigra
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 31: 17-23, Jan. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022036

ABSTRACT

Background: CDC25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was first identified in the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle-defective mutant. Although CDC25 is involved in the cell cycle of ovarian granulosa cells, the CDC25 signaling pathway has not been clarified fully. To explore the role of CDC25C in the cell cycle of goat ovarian granulosa cells, a CDC25C-overexpressing vector, pCMV-HA-CDC25C, was constructed and transfected into granulosa cells from adult and young white goats from Jiangsu Nantong. RT-PCR was used to measure CDC25C, CDK1, and WEE1 gene expression levels, and flow cytometry was used to distinguish ovarian granulosa cells in different phases of the cell cycle. Progesterone and estradiol levels in transfected ovarian granulosa cells were also measured. Results: In adult goat follicular granulosa cells transfected with pCMV-HA-CDC25C, CDC25C expression increased significantly, which greatly increased the relative gene expression levels of both CDK1 and WEE1. Additionally, progesterone and estradiol levels were increased in goat follicular granulosa cells overexpressing CDC25C. And the cell cycle results showed that transfection of pCMV-HA-CDC25C leads to a higher proportion of cells in S phase compared to the no vector-transfected groups. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the overexpression of CDC25C may increase the gene expression levels of both WEE1 and CDK1 in S phase and accelerate the transition of cells from G1 phase to S phase.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Goats , Cell Cycle/physiology , cdc25 Phosphatases/genetics , cdc25 Phosphatases/metabolism , Granulosa Cells/enzymology , Progesterone/analysis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Transfection , Cell Cycle/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Apoptosis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/genetics , Estradiol/analysis , Fertilization , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescence , Granulosa Cells/metabolism
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719222

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Growth hormone transduction defect (GHTD) is characterized by severe short stature, impaired STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-3) phosphorylation and overexpression of the cytokine inducible SH2 containing protein (CIS) and p21/CIP1/WAF1. To investigate the role of p21/CIP1/WAF1 in the negative regulation of the growth hormone (GH)/GH receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)/EGF Receptor pathways in GHTD. METHODS: Fibroblast cultures were developed from gingival biopsies of 1 GHTD patient and 1 control. The protein expression and the cellular localization of p21/CIP1/WAF1 was studied by Western immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively: at the basal state and after induction with 200-μg/L human GH (hGH) (GH200), either with or without siRNA CIS (siCIS); at the basal state and after inductions with 200-μg/L hGH (GH200), 1,000-μg/L hGH (GH1000) or 50-ng/mL EGF. RESULTS: After GH200/siCIS, the protein expression and nuclear localization of p21 were reduced in the patient. After successful induction of GH signaling (control, GH200; patient, GH1000), the protein expression and nuclear localization of p21 were reduced. After induction with EGF, p21 translocated to the cytoplasm in the control, whereas in the GHTD patient it remained located in the nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: In the GHTD fibroblasts, when CIS is reduced, either after siCIS or after a higher dose of hGH (GH1000), p21’s antiproliferative effect (nuclear localization) is also reduced and GH signaling is activated. There also appears to be a positive relationship between the 2 inhibitors of GH signaling, CIS and p21. Finally, in GHTD, p21 seems to participate in the regulation of both the GH and EGF/EGFR pathways, depending upon its cellular location.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Blotting, Western , Cell Cycle , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Cytoplasm , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fibroblasts , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Growth Hormone , Humans , Phosphorylation , RNA, Small Interfering , Transducers
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129229

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The p15(Ink4b) gene exerts its influence as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and is frequently associated with hematological malignancies. Inactivation of this gene through DNA methylation has been found to be the most prevalent epigenetic alteration reported, with a high frequency in all French-American-British subtypes of acute myeloid leukemias, including acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this study,we investigated the prognostic significance of p15 gene promoter hypermethylation and its expression in APL patients of Kashmir (North India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: p15 gene promoter hypermethylation was conducted by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, while its subsequent expression analysis was carried out by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Of the 37 patients, 16 (43.2%) were found to have methylated p15 genes. Of these 16 cases, seven (43.8%) were methylated partially and nine (56.2%) were found to have complete methylation. Moreover, nine of the 37 patients (24.3%) who presented with leukocytosis at their baseline had complete p15 gene methylation as well (p < 0.05). Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a complete loss of p15 expression in nine patients with complete methylation coupled with leukocytosis (p=0.031), while seven patients with partial methylation showed decreased p15 expression. Six patients relapsed during the maintenance phase of treatment and were found to have a completely methylated p15 gene and no p15 mRNA. CONCLUSION: Complete methylation and loss of p15 gene expression causes susceptibility to relapse and decreased survival in APL patients. Thus, p15 promoter hypermethylation is a prospective prognostic indicator and a reliable clinical aid in assessment of patients with APL.


Subject(s)
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocytosis , Methylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129215

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The p15(Ink4b) gene exerts its influence as an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases and is frequently associated with hematological malignancies. Inactivation of this gene through DNA methylation has been found to be the most prevalent epigenetic alteration reported, with a high frequency in all French-American-British subtypes of acute myeloid leukemias, including acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In this study,we investigated the prognostic significance of p15 gene promoter hypermethylation and its expression in APL patients of Kashmir (North India). MATERIALS AND METHODS: p15 gene promoter hypermethylation was conducted by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, while its subsequent expression analysis was carried out by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Of the 37 patients, 16 (43.2%) were found to have methylated p15 genes. Of these 16 cases, seven (43.8%) were methylated partially and nine (56.2%) were found to have complete methylation. Moreover, nine of the 37 patients (24.3%) who presented with leukocytosis at their baseline had complete p15 gene methylation as well (p < 0.05). Semiquantitative RT-PCR showed a complete loss of p15 expression in nine patients with complete methylation coupled with leukocytosis (p=0.031), while seven patients with partial methylation showed decreased p15 expression. Six patients relapsed during the maintenance phase of treatment and were found to have a completely methylated p15 gene and no p15 mRNA. CONCLUSION: Complete methylation and loss of p15 gene expression causes susceptibility to relapse and decreased survival in APL patients. Thus, p15 promoter hypermethylation is a prospective prognostic indicator and a reliable clinical aid in assessment of patients with APL.


Subject(s)
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , DNA Methylation , Epigenomics , Gene Expression , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Leukocytosis , Methylation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263984

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of solanine on the growth of human prostate cancer cell xenograft in nude mice.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human prostate cancer Du145 cells were injected into the subcutaneous layers on the back of nude mice. After a week, the mice bearing subcutaneous tumor graft were randomly divided into solanine treatment group and saline control group for treatment for 3 weeks. The tumor grafts were then harvested to evaluate the inhibition rate. The mRNA and protein expressions of cell cycle-related genes in the tumors were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and tumor cell apoptosis was detected using TUNEL method.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The tumor growth rate in solanine-treated group was significantly slower than that in the control group (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expressions of C-myc, cyclin D1, cyclin E1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 were significantly inhibited by solanine. Solanine significantly up-regulated p21 mRNA and protein expression in the tumors and induced a higher apoptosis rate of the tumor cells than saline (P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The tumor-inhibition effect of solanine is probably mediated by regulating the expressions of genes related with G1/S cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Metabolism , Cyclins , Metabolism , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , S Phase , Solanine , Pharmacology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264042

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the role of F10 gene in regulating cell cycles of choriocarcinoma cells and the underlying mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using untreated cells as the control, JAR cells with F10 gene silencing or stable F10 over-expression were examined for cell cycle changes by flow cytometry (FCM) and for expressions of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) with Western blotting and immunofluorescence technique.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>JAR cells over-expressing F10 gene showed reduced duration of cell cycle compared with untreated and with cells after F10 gene silencing. In F10-over-expressing cells, Western blotting revealed significantly up-regulated expressions of cyclin A2, B1, D1, E and CDK2, 6, and 7, but not CDK4, as compared with the control cells and cells with F10 gene silencing (P<0.05), and these results were consistent with those by immunofluorescence assay.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>F10 gene may accelerate cell cycle progression and promote cell proliferation by up-regulating the expressions of cyclin A2, B1, D1, E and CDK 2, 4, 6, 7 in choriocarcinoma cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Choriocarcinoma , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Metabolism , Cyclins , Metabolism , Factor X , Genetics , Female , Gene Silencing , Humans , Pregnancy
9.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(2): 132-139, 02/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741181

ABSTRACT

The effects of tamoxifen (TAM) on anxiety and depression-like behavior in ovariectomized (OVX) and naïve female rats were investigated. The animals were divided into Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham and OVX groups. Tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) was administered for 4 weeks. In the forced swimming test, the immobility times in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were higher than in the Sham group. In the open field, the numbers of central crossings in the OVX and Sham-TAM groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, and the number of peripheral crossings in the OVX group was lower than the number in the Sham group. In the elevated plus maze, the numbers of entries to the open arm among the animals in the Sham-TAM and OVX groups were lower than the number in the Sham group, while the number of entries to the open arm in the OVX-TAM group was higher than the number in the OVX group. It was shown that deletion of ovarian hormones induced anxiety and depression-like behavior. Administration of tamoxifen in naïve rats led to anxiety and depression-like behavior that was comparable with the effects of ovarian hormone deletion. It can be suggested that tamoxifen antagonizes the effects of ovarian hormones. It also seems that tamoxifen has anxiolytic effects on ovariectomized rats.


Foram investigados os efeitos do tamoxifeno (TAM) no comportamento semelhante a ansiedade de depressão de ratas ooforectomizadas (OVX) e controles. Os animais foram divididos em Sham-TAM, OVX-TAM, Sham e OVX groups. Tamoxifeno (1 mg/kg) foi administrado por quatro semanas. No teste de natação forçada, os tempos de imobilidade nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram maiores que aqueles do grupo Sham. No campo aberto, os números de cruzamento no centro nos grupos OVX e Sham-TAM foram menores que aquele do grupo Sham, e o número dos cruzamentos na periferia no grupo OVX foi menor que o número no grupo Sham. No labirinto elevado, os números de entradas com braços abertos entre os animais nos grupos Sham-TAM e OVX foram menores do que aqueles do grupo Sham, enquanto o número de entradas com os braços abertos no grupo OVX-TAM foi maior que aquele no grupo OVX. Foi observado que a deleção dos hormônios ovarianos induziu comportamento similar a ansiedade e depressão. A administração de tamoxifeno em ratos controle induziu a um comportamento que era comparável aos efeitos da deleção do hormônio ovariano. Pode ser sugerido que o tamoxifeno antagoniza os efeitos dos hormônios ovarianos. Parece também que o tamoxifeno tem efeito ansiolítico nas ratas ooforectomizadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Dendrites/drug effects , Dendrites/metabolism , Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors/pharmacology , Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects , Nucleus Accumbens/enzymology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Microscopy, Confocal , Neurons/drug effects , Neurons/metabolism , Purines/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250380

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes after silencing of β-catenin in multiple myeloma transduced with β-catenin shRNA. The DNA microarray dataset GSE17385 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 3 samples of MM1.S (human multiple myeloma cell lines) cells transduced with control shRNA and 3 samples of MM1.S cells transduced with β-catenin shRNA. Then the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by using Limma. Their underlying functions were analyzed by employing Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses. Moreover, DEGs annotation was conducted based on the databases of tumor associated genes, tumor suppressed genes and the transcriptional regulation from patterns to profiles. Furthermore, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationship was obtained from STRING and the protein-protein interaction network and the functional modules were visualized by Cytoscape. Then, the pathway enrichment for the DEGs in the functional module was performed. A total of 301 DEGs, including 124 up-regulated and 117 down-regulated DEGs, were screened. Functional enrichment showed that CCNB1 and CDK1 were significantly related to the function of cell proliferation. FOS and JUN were related to innate immune response-activating signal transduction. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that CCNB1 and CDK1 were most significantly enriched in the pathway of cell cycle. Besides, FOS and JUN were significantly enriched in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. FOXM1 was identified as a transcription factor. Moreover, there existed interactions among CCNB1, FOXM1 and CDK1 in PPI network. The expression of FOS, JUN, CCNB1, FOXM1 and CDK1 may be affected by β-catenin in multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cyclin B1 , Genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Genetics , Forkhead Box Protein M1 , Forkhead Transcription Factors , Genetics , Gene Expression Profiling , Methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Gene Silencing , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , Genetics , Oncogene Proteins v-fos , Genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun , Genetics , beta Catenin , Genetics
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 631-637, nov.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733342

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Analizar la percepción que el prestador de servicios de salud y el adulto mayor (AM) tienen sobre el maltrato al AM en los servicios públicos de salud, en ciudades seleccionadas de México. Material y métodos. De 2009 a 2012 se realizó un estudio con diseño cualitativo y estrategia de triangulación de fuentes de datos; se efectuaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 13 prestadores y a 12 ancianos para recuperar su experiencia en el tema. El análisis utilizó procedimientos de la Teoría Fundamentada. Resultados. El maltrato contra el AM es una práctica naturalizada por el personal y por el anciano, la cual se manifiesta de formas diversas. Conclusiones. La institucionalización, profesionalización histórica y falta de conciencia sobre las necesidades de los AM demandan cambios de planeación, organización y supervisión del Sistema de Salud. El personal requiere intervenciones de formación, capacitación y cambio de actitudes/comportamiento, para otorgar atención integral, digna, humana y de respeto a los Derechos Humanos de los AM.


Objective. To analyze the health care providers (HCP) and elderly patients' perceptions about abuse of the elderly by health personnel of public health services, in selected cities in Mexico. Materials and methods. A qualitative study and a strategy of data triangulation were performed during 2009 and 2012; 13 HCPs and 12 elders were interviewed, in order to obtain their experience regarding elder abuse. Grounded Theory proceedings were used for the analysis. Results. Elder abuse is a naturalized practice, from HCP and elderly people's point of view; these perceptions are showed in different ways. Conclusion. Institutionalization, historical professionalization and lack of consciousness about needs of the elderly (sociocultural and economic), require changes in planning, organization and monitoring process in the Health System; training and educational interventions on staff and exchange attitudes and behavior are necessary in order to offer a health care that is comprehensive, decent, human and with respect for the human rights.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Cyclins/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Phenylacetates/pharmacology , Antisense Elements (Genetics) , Breast Neoplasms , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cell Division/drug effects , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/genetics , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Cyclins/genetics , Fibroblasts/cytology , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Fibroblasts/enzymology , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic/physiology , Mice, Knockout , Phosphorylation , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Retinoblastoma Protein/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/cytology , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Tumor Cells, Cultured/enzymology , Up-Regulation/drug effects
12.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-12, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950760

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interactions between genes and their products give rise to complex circuits known as gene regulatory networks (GRN) that enable cells to process information and respond to external stimuli. Several important processes for life, depend of an accurate and context-specific regulation of gene expression, such as the cell cycle, which can be analyzed through its GRN, where deregulation can lead to cancer in animals or a directed regulation could be applied for biotechnological processes using yeast. An approach to study the robustness of GRN is through the neutral space. In this paper, we explore the neutral space of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) cell cycle network through an evolution strategy to generate a neutral graph, composed of Boolean regulatory networks that share the same state sequences of the fission yeast cell cycle. RESULTS: Through simulations it was found that in the generated neutral graph, the functional networks that are not in the wildtype connected component have in general a Hamming distance more than 3 with the wildtype, and more than 10 between the other disconnected functional networks. Significant differences were found between the functional networks in the connected component of the wildtype network and the rest of the network, not only at a topological level, but also at the state space level, where significant differences in the distribution of the basin of attraction for the G1 fixed point was found for deterministic updating schemes. CONCLUSIONS: In general, functional networks in the wildtype network connected component, can mutate up to no more than 3 times, then they reach a point of no return where the networks leave the connected component of the wildtype. The proposed method to construct a neutral graph is general and can be used to explore the neutral space of other biologically interesting networks, and also formulate new biological hypotheses studying the functional networks in the wildtype network connected component.


Subject(s)
Schizosaccharomyces/physiology , Cell Cycle/physiology , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases/metabolism , Gene Regulatory Networks/physiology , Models, Biological , Schizosaccharomyces/genetics , Computer Graphics , Computer Simulation , G1 Phase/physiology , Neural Networks, Computer , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Computational Biology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351104

ABSTRACT

Autophagy dysregulation, mitochondrial dynamic abnormality and cell cycle re-entry are implicated in the vulnerable neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to testify the association among autophagy, mitochondrial dynamics and cell cycle in dividing neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. The N2a cells were cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of 3-methyladenine (3-MA). The cell viability was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. They were randomly divided into control group (cells cultured in normal culture medium) and 3-MA group (cells treated with 10 mmol/L 3-MA). The cell cycle was analyzed in the two groups 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after treatment by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of mitofission 1 (Fis1), mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), cell cycle-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and cdc2. The flow cytometry revealed that the proportion of cells in G(2)/M was significantly increased, and that in G0/G1 was significantly reduced in the 3-MA group as compared with the control group. Western blotting showed that the expression levels of Fis1, LC3, and CDK4 were significantly up-regulated in the 3-MA group at the four indicated time points as compared with the control group. Mfn2 was initially decreased in the 3-MA group, and then significantly increased at 6 h or 12 h. Cdc2 was significantly increased in the 3-MA group at 3 h and 6 h, and then dropped significantly at 12 h and 24 h. Our data indicated that 3-MA-induced suppressed autophagy may interfere with the cell cycle progression and mitochondrial dynamics, and cause cell death. There are interactions among cell cycle, mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy in neurons.


Subject(s)
Adenine , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Genetics , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle , Genetics , Cell Division , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cyclin B , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Genetics , Mitochondrial Proteins , Neuroblastoma , Signal Transduction
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 204-208, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297992

ABSTRACT

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) plays critical roles in cell biological functions. Here we investigated the effects of SphK1 inhibitor SKI II on hepatoma HepG2 cell cycle progression and invasion. Cell survival was determined by SRB assay, cell cycle progression was assayed by flow cytometry, the ability of cell invasion was measured by Matrigel-Transwell assay and protein expression was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that SKI II markedly inhibited HepG2 cell survival in a dose-dependent manner, induced G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cell and inhibited cell invasion. SKI II markedly decreased the expressions of G1-phase-related proteins CDK2, CDK4 and Cdc2 and the levels of cell invasion-associated proteins MMP2 and MMP9. The results showed that SKI II inhibited cell cycle progression and cell invasion, implying SphK1 as a potential target for hepatoma treatment.


Subject(s)
CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4 , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Metabolism , G1 Phase , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 , Metabolism , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) , Thiazoles , Pharmacology
15.
In. Lopes, Ademar; Chammas, Roger; Iyeyasu, Hirofumi. Oncologia para a graduação. São Paulo, Lemar, 3; 2013. p.96-104. (Oncologia para a graduação).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691984
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229229

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p16INK4a plays an important role in the development of malignant tumors, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. The p16 gene is involved in the p16/cyclin-dependent kinase/retinoblastoma (Rb) gene pathway of cell cycle control. The p16 protein is considered a negative regulator of this pathway. The p16 gene encodes an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 which regulate the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene and G1 to S phase transition in the cell cycle. However, the p16 gene can lose its functionality through point mutations, loss of heterozygosity or methylation of its promoter region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the authors analyzed the correlation between various clinicopathological findings-patient age, gender and smoking, disease recurrence, tumor size, stage, and differentiation- and p16 protein expression or p16 promoter hypermethylation in 59 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. RESULTS: The results revealed p16 protein expression and p16 promoter hypermethylation in 28 cases (47.5%) and 21 cases (35.6%), respectively, of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, neither p16 protein expression nor p16 promoter hypermethylation had any statistical influence on clinicopathological findings or survival rate. CONCLUSION: This data, and a review of the literature, suggest that p16 promoter hypermethylation cannot yet be used as an independent prognostic factor influencing carcinogenesis, but must be considered as an important factor along with other genetic alterations affecting the pRb pathway.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Epigenomics , Genes, p16 , Genes, Retinoblastoma , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Head , Humans , Loss of Heterozygosity , Methylation , Neck , Phosphorylation , Point Mutation , Prognosis , Recurrence , S Phase , Smoke , Smoking
17.
Journal of Lung Cancer ; : 33-37, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68957

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cyclins, and their associated cyclin dependent kinases, regulate progression of the cell cycle through the G1 phase and into the S-phase during the DNA replication process. Cyclin E regulation is an important event in cell proliferation. Despite its importance, abnormalities of these genes and their protein products have yet to be found in lits asoociation with lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationships between expression of cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and cyclin E and clinicopathologic factors were investigated in 103 cases with non-small cell carcinomas, using immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: The positive immunoreactivity was observed in 51 cases (50%) for cyclin A, 33 cases (32%) for cyclin B1, 83 cases (81%) for cyclin D1, 19 cases (18%) for cyclin D3, and 11 cases (11%) for cyclin E. Expression of cyclin E was significant for lymph node metastasis (p=0.004, Chi-square test). There was no relationship between cyclin A, B1, D1, and E and histological typing, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, or pathological tumor, node and metastasis staging. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the expression of cyclin E played a role, to some degree, in the lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin A , Cyclin B1 , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin D3 , Cyclin E , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Cyclins , DNA Replication , G1 Phase , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819646

ABSTRACT

The control of Leishmania infection relies primarily on chemotherapy till date. Resistance to pentavalent antimonials, which have been the recommended drugs to treat cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is now widespread in Indian subcontinents. New drug formulations like amphotericin B, its lipid formulations, and miltefosine have shown great efficacy to treat leishmaniasis but their high cost and therapeutic complications limit their usefulness. In addition, irregular and inappropriate uses of these second line drugs in endemic regions like state of Bihar, India threaten resistance development in the parasite. In context to the limited drug options and unavailability of either preventive or prophylactic candidates, there is a pressing need to develop true antileishmanial drugs to reduce the disease burden of this debilitating endemic disease. Notwithstanding significant progress of leishmanial research during last few decades, identification and characterization of novel drugs and drug targets are far from satisfactory. This review will initially describe current drug regimens and later will provide an overview on few important biochemical and enzymatic machineries that could be utilized as putative drug targets for generation of true antileishmanial drugs.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines , Therapeutic Uses , Amphotericin B , Therapeutic Uses , Antigens, Protozoan , Allergy and Immunology , Antimony Sodium Gluconate , Therapeutic Uses , Antiprotozoal Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Caspase Inhibitors , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Drug Discovery , Enzyme Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Folic Acid Antagonists , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Leishmaniasis , Drug Therapy , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Microbodies , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases , Metabolism , Paromomycin , Therapeutic Uses , Pentamidine , Therapeutic Uses , Phosphorylcholine , Therapeutic Uses , Polyamines , Metabolism , Protease Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses , Sterols , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Metabolism , Topoisomerase Inhibitors , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-814737

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To over-express cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 (CDK2-AP1) gene, and investigate its effect on the proliferation and cell cycle regulation in breast cancer cell line MCF-7.@*METHODS@#CDK2-AP1 gene coding region was cloned into lentivirus vector. Lentivirus particles were infected into MCF-7 cells to upregulate the expression of CDK2-AP1 gene. The expression level of CDK2-AP1 was detected at both mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and Western blot. MTT assay, colony formatting assay, and flow cytometry were performed to detect the change of proliferation and cell cycle in MCF-7 cells. We examined the expression of cell cycle associated genes (CDK2, CDK4, P16Ink4A, and P21Cip1/Waf1) followed by CDK2-AP1 over-expression by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#CDK2-AP1 gene was up-regulated significantly at both mRNA (6.94 folds) and protein level. MTT based growth curve, colony formatting assay and flow cytometry showed that CDK2-AP1 over-expression lentivirus inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with statistical difference (P<0.05). In addition, with CDK2-AP1 over-expression, MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 phase accompanied by apoptosis. Western blot showed that the expression level of P21Cip1/Waf1 and P16 Ink4A was upregulated, while the expression level of CDK2 and CDK4, members of the CDK family, was downregulated.@*CONCLUSION@#CDK2-AP1 gene plays a cancer suppressor role in breast cancer. Its function includes inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and arresting the cell cycle in G1 phase.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cell Cycle , Cell Division , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Down-Regulation , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Protein Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 577-581, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307339

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the essential role and mechanism of TRPC6 gene in the development of gastric cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression of TRPC6 protein was assessed in gastric cancer tissues and normal tissues adjacent to the cancer from 30 patients with gastric cancer. The inhibiting effect of TRPC6 activity on cell growth, cell cycle of a human gastric cancer cell line AGS cells, tumor progression and development of xenografted human gastric cancer in a mouse model was tested using dominant-negative mutant TRPC6 (DNC6). The survival of mice bearing xenografted tumors in the GFP and DNC6 was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The TRPC6 protein in the tumor tissues and para-tumor tissues was (21.60 ± 8.32)% versus (7.14 ± 2.24)%. After transfection of DNC6 virus for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours and 96 hours, the growth inhibition rates of gastric cancer cells were (36.90 ± 1.13)%, (44.06 ± 2.17)%, (52.12 ± 2.76)% and (50.89 ± 1.97)%, respectively. The clone formation rates of control group and DNC6 group were (14.70 ± 3.00)% versus (43.80 ± 7.00)%. After transfection with DNC6 virus for 0, 24, 36 and 48 hours, the G(2)/M phase arrest was (20.34 ± 1.98)%, (24.31 ± 2.37)%, (27.70 ± 2.36)%, (35.10 ± 3.0)% in the DNC6 group and (18.40 ± 2.01)%, (18.0% ± 1.72)%, (17.50 ± 1.74)%, (16.80 ± 1.71)% in the control group, respectively. Inhibition of TRPC6 activity also reduced the subcutaneous tumor volume in the mouse models with xenografted human tumors (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In the preclinical models tested, TRPC6 channels are essential for gastric cancer development via regulation of G(2)/M phase transition.</p>


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Genetics , Animals , CDC2 Protein Kinase , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin B , Metabolism , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Transplantation , Recombinant Proteins , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , TRPC Cation Channels , Metabolism , TRPC6 Cation Channel , Transfection , Tumor Burden
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