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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816620

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a variable prognosis. Several prognostic factors of ACC have been previously reported, but a proteomic analysis has not yet been performed. This study aimed to investigate prognostic biomarkers for ACC using a proteomic approach.METHODS: We used reverse-phase protein array data from The Cancer Proteome Atlas, and identified differentially expressed proteins in metastatic ACCs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted by age and staging was used for survival analysis, and the C-index and category-free net reclassification improvement (cfNRI) were utilized to evaluate additive prognostic value.RESULTS: In 46 patients with ACC, cyclin B1, transferrin receptor (TfR1), and fibronectin were significantly overexpressed in patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate models, high expression of cyclin B1 and TfR1 was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 6.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 36.7; and HR, 6.59; 95% CI, 1.14 to 38.2; respectively), whereas high fibronectin expression was not (HR, 3.92; 95% CI, 0.75 to 20.4). Combinations of high cyclin B1/high TfR1, high cyclin B1/high fibronectin, and high TfR1/high fibronectin were strongly associated with mortality ([HR, 13.72; 95% CI, 1.89 to 99.66], [HR, 9.22; 95% CI, 1.34 to 63.55], and [HR, 18.59; 95% CI, 2.54 to 135.88], respectively). In reclassification analyses, cyclin B1, TfR1, fibronectin, and combinations thereof improved the prognostic performance (C-index, 0.78 to 0.82–0.86; cfNRI, all P values <0.05).CONCLUSION: In ACC patients, the overexpression of cyclin B1, TfR1, and fibronectin and combinations thereof were associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Biomarkers , Cyclin B1 , Cyclins , Fibronectins , Humans , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Protein Array Analysis , Proteome , Proteomics , Receptors, Transferrin , Transferrin
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 13(4): 497-503, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056491

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los concentrados plaquetarios han emergido como un potencial material regenerativo, utilizado de forma aislada o como andamiaje para otros materiales de injerto. Son extractos de sangre, obtenidos después de procesar una muestra de sangre completa, mediante centrifugación. El primer reporte data de 1970, con un CP utilizado como pegamento para mejorar cicatrización de heridas de piel. En 1998, se usaron en cirugía oral y maxilofacial. Desde entonces, se han desarrollado diferentes técnicas y una variedad de preparaciones. Entre ellas, cabe destacar el plasma rico en plaquetas, fibrina rica en plaquetas y leucocitos (L-PRF) y plasma rico en factores de crecimiento (PRGF). El desarrollo de estos biomateriales, se debe en parte, a la posibilidad de alterar la concentración de mediadores químicos liberados en una lesión que provoque la formación de un coágulo, que pueda madurar conforme transcurran las fases del proceso inflamatorio y concluya con la regeneración íntegra del tejido dañado. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue describir las principales vías de señalización intracelular que se activan en presencia del L-PRF en cirugía oral, y sus efectos en la regulación del ciclo celular.


ABSTRACT: Platelet concentrates (PC) have emerged as a potential regenerative material, used in isolation or as scaffolding for other graft materials. They are blood extracts, obtained after processing a sample of whole blood, by centrifugation. The first report dates from 1970, with a PC used glue to improve the healing of skin wounds. In 1998, they were used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Since then, different techniques and a variety of preparations have been developed. These include platelet-rich plasma, fibrin rich in platelets and leukocytes (L-PRF) and plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). The development of these biomaterials, is due in part to the possibility of altering the concentration of chemical mediators released in a lesion that causes the formation of a clot, which can mature as the phases of the inflammatory process pass and conclude with the complete regeneration of the damaged tissue. The aim of this manuscript was to describe the main intracellular signaling pathways that are activated in the presence of LPRF in oral surgery, and its effects on the regulation of the cell cycle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Centrifugation , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Platelet-Rich Fibrin , Periapical Periodontitis , Bone Regeneration , Signal Transduction , Cyclins , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 509-516, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to verify the induction and mechanism of selective apoptosis in G361 melanoma cells using anti-HER2 antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (GNP-HER2). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following GNP-HER2 treatment of G361 cells, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured by WST-1 assay, Hemacolor staining, Hoechst staining, immunofluorescence staining, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and Western blotting.


Subject(s)
Actins , Apoptosis Inducing Factor , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Caspase 3 , Caspases , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Death , Cyclin A , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Cytochromes c , Cytoplasm , DNA Fragmentation , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Focal Adhesions , Melanoma , Mitochondria , Nanoparticles , Phosphotransferases , ErbB Receptors , Up-Regulation
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activates oncogenes, and leads to β-catenin-mediated hyper-proliferation. β-Carotene reduces ROS levels, inhibits oxidant-mediated activation of inflammatory signaling and exhibits anticancer properties. The present study was carried out to determine if β-carotene inhibits H. pylori-induced cell proliferation and the expression of oncogenes c-myc and cyclin E by reducing the levels of β-catenin and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β). METHODS: Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pre-treated with β-carotene (5 and 10 μM) for 2 hours prior to H. pylori infection and cultured for 6 hours (for determination of the levels of p-GSK3β, GSK3β, and β-catenin) and 24 hours (for determination of cell viability and protein levels of c-myc and cyclin E). Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and protein levels were determined via western blot-based analysis. RESULTS: β-Carotene inhibited H. pylori-induced increases in the percentage of viable cells, phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β), and the levels of β-catenin, c-myc and cyclin E. CONCLUSIONS: β-Carotene inhibits H. pylori-induced hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells by suppressing β-catenin signaling and oncogene expression.


Subject(s)
beta Carotene , beta Catenin , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Oncogenes , Reactive Oxygen Species , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764039

ABSTRACT

Tannic acid (TA) is a water-soluble polyphenol compound found in various herbal plants. We investigated the chemopreventive effects of TA on FaDu hypopharyngeal squamous carcinoma cells. In an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, TA showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 50 µM. Cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence imaging demonstrated that under low-dose (25 µM) treatment, FaDu cells were arrested in G2/M phase, and as the dose of TA was increased, apoptosis was induced with the increase of cell population at sub-G1 phase. The expressions of various cyclins, including cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK-1 and CDK-2), were down-regulated at low doses of TA, whereas apoptotic effectors such as cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 7, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were expressed in a dose-dependent manner in Western blotting. In addition, TA-induced apoptosis of FaDu cells might be mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, with the upregulation of p-AKT/p-PKB (phosphorylated protein kinase B) and p-ERK. Overall, our data support the hypothesis that TA is a potential candidate agent for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Caspase 3 , Caspase 7 , Cell Cycle , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin-Dependent Kinases , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Tannins , Up-Regulation
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760161

ABSTRACT

After FDA approval of cetuximab at 2006, receptor tyrosine kinase, including an epidermal growth factor receptor, blocking agents have been evaluated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Agents targeting PI3K/Akt/mTOR, IL-6/JAK/STAT3, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and cyclin D-CDK-4/6-INK4/Rb pathway have developed. Most of them have failed to demonstrate better treatment outcome in recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC than conventional chemotherapy. Since a pivotal role of PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immunological tumor microenvironment was revealed, the immune checkpoint inhibitors, including pembrolizumab and nivolumab, have opened new paradigm of cancer treatment modality and propagates other immune-based therapies for R/M HNSCC. Various types of combination trials consisting of immunotherapy with other class of immunotherapy, targeted agents, radiation therapy, or conventional chemotherapy have been under investigation to improve treatment outcome. Biomarker studies to find an optimal candidate for the newly developed agents are accompanied. These clinical trials lead to tailored approach based on immunotherapy with precision medicine is expected to lead to promising results.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cetuximab , Cyclins , Drug Therapy , Epithelial Cells , Head , Immunotherapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Neck , Precision Medicine , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Microenvironment
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738591

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the possible effects of chronic exposure of low dose benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on trabecular meshwork cells, and to characterize the pathways involved in the effects. METHODS: Trabecular meshwork cells were treated with 0.0005%, 0.00075%, 0.001%, and 0.0025% BAK for 10 minutes; then, the cells were transferred to a new medium for 24 hours. This process was repeated three times. Cell survival was assessed using the MTT assay to determine the non-apoptotic BAK concentration. Senescence-associated (SA)-β-gal staining was performed to compare quantitatively the cellular senescence of BAK-treated cells with the control group. Cells treated with BAK were analyzed by western blot to determine whether the expressions of cell cycle regulators were affected. RESULTS: Two concentrations (0.0005% and 0.00075%) showed persistent cell viability and were chosen for further experiments. After SA-β-gal staining, cells treated with 0.0005% and 0.00075% BAK showed 28% (± 2.08), 37% (± 2.08) increases in cellular senescence expression, respectively, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). To identify the molecular pathways involved in cell cycle arrest via BAK, western blot analysis was performed on trabecular meshwork cells, resulting in decreased expressions of cyclin E/CDK2, and increased expressions of the upper stream control molecules, p53 and p21. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic exposure to low dose BAK accelerated cell senescence through cell cycle arrest. Because senescent cells of the trabecular meshwork can inhibit its outflow pathway function and ultimately worsen the glaucomatous process, long-term usage of topical glaucoma medications containing BAK should be conducted with caution.


Subject(s)
Aging , Benzalkonium Compounds , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Survival , Cyclins , Glaucoma , Rivers , Trabecular Meshwork
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS) is a natural abietane diterpenoid that is mainly found in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae). DHTS exhibits a potential anti-proliferative effect in various human cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of action of DHTS as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-cancer effect of DHTS in terms of cell cycle regulation and the regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in SK-HEP-1 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects of DHTS were evaluated by the sulforhodamine B assay in SK-HEP-1 cells. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. The elucidation of mechanisms of action such as the AMPK/AKT/mTOR and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was assessed by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: DHTS showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against SK-HEP-1 cells. DHTS induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, which was mediated by downregulation of cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK4, CDK2, c-Myc and p-Rb expression and with increased expression of the CDK inhibitor p21. DHTS also activated the AMPK signaling. In addition, DHTS downregulated the Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of DHTS might be associated with the induction of G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and regulation of AMPK/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in SK-HEP-1 cells.


Subject(s)
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Blotting, Western , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cyclin A , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Protein Kinases , Salvia miltiorrhiza
9.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 103-111, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714871

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) is a member of the chloride channel family and plays a critical role in a variety of cellular activities. The aim of the present study is to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of silencing ClC-3 in breast cancer. METHODS: Human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were used in the experiments. Messenger RNA and protein expression were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation was measured by the bromodeoxyuridine method, and the cell cycle was evaluated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protein interaction in cells was analyzed by co-immunoprecipitation. Tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and tumor burden was measured using the Metamorph software. RESULTS: Breast cancer tissues collected from patients showed an increase in ClC-3 expression. Knockdown of ClC-3 inhibited the secretion of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, cell proliferation, and G1/S transition in breast cancer cells. In the mouse xenograft model of human breast carcinoma, tumor growth was significantly slower in animals injected with ClC-3-deficient cells compared with the growth of normal human breast cancer cells. In addition, silencing of ClC-3 attenuated the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, as well as the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2, both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: Together, our data suggest that upregulation of ClC-3 by IGF-1 contributes to cell proliferation and tumor growth in breast cancer, and ClC-3 deficiency suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth via the IGF/IGF receptor/ERK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Bromodeoxyuridine , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Chloride Channels , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Flow Cytometry , Heterografts , Humans , Immunoprecipitation , In Vitro Techniques , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Methods , Mice , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Protein Kinases , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Burden , Up-Regulation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714734

ABSTRACT

Anti-cancer drug resistance is a major problem in colorectal cancer (CRC) research. Although several studies have revealed the mechanism of cancer drug resistance, molecular targets for chemotherapeutic combinations remain elusive. To address this issue, we focused on the expression of cellular prion protein (PrPC) in 5-FU-resistant CRC cells. In 5-FU-resistant CRC cells, PrPC expression is significantly increased, compared with that in normal CRC cells. In the presence of 5-FU, PrPC increased CRC cell survival and proliferation by maintaining the activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins, including cyclin E, CDK2, cyclin D1, and CDK4. In addition, PrPC inhibited the activation of the stress-associated proteins p38, JNK, and p53. Moreover, after treatment of 5-FU-resistant CRC cells with 5-FU, silencing of PrPC triggered apoptosis via the activation of caspase-3. These results indicate that PrPC plays a key role in CRC drug resistance. The novel strategy of combining chemotherapy with PrPC targeting may yield efficacious treatments of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Caspase 3 , Cell Survival , Colorectal Neoplasms , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Fluorouracil , Signal Transduction
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714733

ABSTRACT

A type of breast cancer with a defect in three molecular markers such as the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor is called triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Many patients with TNBC have a lower survival rate than patients with other types due to a poor prognosis. In this study, we confirmed the anti-cancer effect of a natural compound, Gomisin G, in TNBC cancer cells. Treatment with Gomisin G suppressed the viability of two TNBC cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 but not non-TNBC cell lines such as MCF-7, T47D, and ZR75-1. To investigate the molecular mechanism of this activity, we examined the signal transduction pathways after treatment with Gomisin G in MDA-MB-231 cells. Gomisin G did not induce apoptosis but drastically inhibited AKT phosphorylation and reduced the amount of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) and phosphorylated Rb. Gomisin G induced in a proteasome-dependent manner a decrease in Cyclin D1. Consequently, Gomisin G causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In contrast, there was no significant change in T47D cells except for a mild decrease in AKT phosphorylation. These results show that Gomisin G has an anti-cancer activity by suppressing proliferation rather than inducing apoptosis in TNBC cells. Our study suggests that Gomisin G could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of TNBC patients.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Estrogens , G1 Phase , Humans , Phosphorylation , Prognosis , ErbB Receptors , Receptors, Progesterone , Retinoblastoma , Signal Transduction , Survival Rate , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714732

ABSTRACT

Because of the unsatisfactory treatment options for breast cancer (BC), there is a need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this malignancy. One such strategy is chemotherapy using non-toxic dietary substances and botanical products. Studies have shown that Panduratin A (PA) possesses many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, we provide evidence that PA treatment of MCF-7 BC cells resulted in a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with an IC50 of 15 µM and no to little effect on normal human MCF-10A breast cells. To define the mechanism of these anti-proliferative effects of PA, we determined its effect critical molecular events known to regulate the cell cycle and apoptotic machinery. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-FITC staining provided evidence for the induction of apoptosis. PA treatment of BC cells resulted in increased activity/expression of mitochondrial cytochrome C, caspases 7, 8 and 9 with a significant increase in the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting the involvement of a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry showed that PA treatment of cells resulted in G0/G1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Immunoblot analysis data revealed that, in MCF-7 cell lines, PA treatment resulted in the dose-dependent (i) induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1, (ii) downregulation of Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and (iii) decrease in cyclin D1. These findings suggest that PA may be an effective therapeutic agent against BC.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caspases , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Cytochromes c , Down-Regulation , Drug Therapy , Flow Cytometry , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Insurance Benefits , MCF-7 Cells , Phosphotransferases
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716471

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Inconsistency in various histopathologic features for predicting nodal metastasis and overall prognosis and a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of tumourigenesis have shifted the focus to a search for more definitive predictive markers. To identify the role of two immunohistochemical (IHC) markers, E-cadherin and cyclin D1, as predictive markers of aggressiveness in HNSCC and to assess clonal expansion of tumour cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 66 cases of HNSCC with neck node dissection were studied. IHC was performed on primary tumour sections and lymph nodes showing metastatic deposits. Histopathological parameters such as tumour grade and TNM stage together with nodal status were compared according to expression of the two markers. Fischer's chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between the two markers and histopathological parameters. RESULTS: Out of 66 cases studied, 37 showed LN metastasis. Most of the patients were male, and the most common tumour site was buccal mucosa. We found a significant association between loss of E-cadherin and node metastasis (P < 0.001) and higher TNM stage (P < 0.001). Cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly associated with only nodal metastasis (P=0.007). No significant association with tumour grade was found for either marker. The subgroup of E-cadherin loss with cyclin D1 overexpression was associated with the maximum incidence of nodal metastasis and higher TNM stage, highlighting the importance of using a combination of these two markers. A significant association was noted between the expression of markers at the primary site and at nodal deposits, indicating clonal expansion. CONCLUSION: A combination of the two markers E-cadherin and cyclin D1 can predict prognosis in HNSCC, although tumour heterogeneity may affect this association in some cases.


Subject(s)
Aggression , Cadherins , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Incidence , Lymph Nodes , Male , Mouth Mucosa , Neck , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , Prognosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands. METHODS: Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63) or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18). The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV), and the results were clinico-pathologically compared. RESULTS: Mixed subtype (12 cases) was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases) showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases) showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cause of Death , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Epidermal Growth Factor , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Korea , Neck , Population Characteristics , ErbB Receptors , Seoul , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are only a limited number of studies on cyclin D1 and p63 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia. This study compared cyclin D1 and p63 expression in leukoplakia and OSCC to investigate the possible correlation of both markers with grade of dysplasia and histological grade of OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included a total of 60 cases, of which 30 were diagnosed with OSCC and 30 with leukoplakia, that were evaluated immunohistochemically for p63 and cyclin D1 expression. Protein expression was correlated based on grades of dysplasia and OSCC. RESULTS: Out of 30 cases of OSCC, 23 cases (76.7%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 cases (100%) were p63 positive. Out of 30 cases of leukoplakia, 21 cases (70.0%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 (100%) were p63 positive (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The overall expression of cyclin D1 and p63 correlated with tumor differentiation, and increases were correlated with poor histological grades, from well-differentiated to poorly-differentiated SCC. Increased cyclin D1 and p63 expression was associated with the severity of leukoplakia. Based on these results cyclin D1 and p63 products can be a useful tool for improved leukoplakia prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Leukoplakia , Prognosis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-128774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are only a limited number of studies on cyclin D1 and p63 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia. This study compared cyclin D1 and p63 expression in leukoplakia and OSCC to investigate the possible correlation of both markers with grade of dysplasia and histological grade of OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included a total of 60 cases, of which 30 were diagnosed with OSCC and 30 with leukoplakia, that were evaluated immunohistochemically for p63 and cyclin D1 expression. Protein expression was correlated based on grades of dysplasia and OSCC. RESULTS: Out of 30 cases of OSCC, 23 cases (76.7%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 cases (100%) were p63 positive. Out of 30 cases of leukoplakia, 21 cases (70.0%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 (100%) were p63 positive (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The overall expression of cyclin D1 and p63 correlated with tumor differentiation, and increases were correlated with poor histological grades, from well-differentiated to poorly-differentiated SCC. Increased cyclin D1 and p63 expression was associated with the severity of leukoplakia. Based on these results cyclin D1 and p63 products can be a useful tool for improved leukoplakia prognosis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Epithelial Cells , Immunohistochemistry , Leukoplakia , Prognosis
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1302-1312, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: TRIM29 overexpression has been reported in several human malignancies and showed correlation with cancer cell malignancy. The aim of the current study is to examine its clinical significance and biological roles in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 cases of bladder cancer tissues were examined for TRIM29 expression by immunohistochemistry. siRNA and plasmid transfection were performed in 5637 and BIU-87 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to examine its biological roles and mechanism in bladder cancer cells. RESULTS: We found that TRIM29 overexpression showed correlation with invading depth (p=0.0087). Knockdown of TRIM29 expression in bladder cancer cell line 5637 inhibited cell growth rate and cell cycle transition while its overexpression in BIU-87 cells accelerated cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. TRIM29 overexpression also inhibited cell apoptosis induced by cisplatin. In addition, we demonstrated that TRIM29 depletion decreased while its overexpression led to upregulated expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and Bcl-2. We also showed that TRIM29 knockdown inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling while its overexpression stimulated the PKC and NF-κB pathways. BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) partly attenuated the effect of TRIM29 on expression of cyclin and Bcl-2. Treatment with PKC inhibitor staurosporine resulted in ameliorated TRIM29 induced activation of NF-κB. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that TRIM29 upregulates cyclin and Bcl family proteins level to facilitate malignant cell growth and inhibit drug-induced apoptosis in bladder cancer, possibly through PKC–NF-κB signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Bays , Blotting, Western , Cell Count , Cell Cycle , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Cyclin D1 , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Plasmids , Protein Kinase C , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Small Interfering , Staurosporine , Transfection , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Urinary Bladder
18.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 127-134, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Biological markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) will help clinicians make objective diagnoses early during the course of dementia. Previous studies have suggested that cell cycle dysregulation begins earlier than the onset of clinical manifestations in AD. METHODS: We examined the lymphocyte expression of cell cycle proteins in AD patients, dementia controls (DC), and normal controls (NC). One-hundred seventeen subjects (36 AD, 31 DC, and 50 NC) were recruited. The cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were measured in peripheral lymphocytes. Cell cycle protein expression in the three groups was compared after adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS: The levels of cell cycle proteins CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B, and cyclin D were significantly higher in AD patients than in the NC subjects. The DC group manifested intermediate levels of cell cycle proteins compared with the AD patients and the NC subjects. The present study indicates that cell cycle proteins are upregulated in the peripheral lymphocytes of AD patients. CONCLUSION: Cell cycle dysregulation in peripheral lymphocytes may present a promising starting point for identifying peripheral biomarkers of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Biomarkers , Cell Cycle Proteins , Cell Cycle , Cyclin B , Cyclin D , Cyclins , Dementia , Diagnosis , Humans , Lymphocytes
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68878

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Cell Survival , Cyclin E , Cyclins , Diabetic Cardiomyopathies , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Mitochondria , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Stem Cells
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50888

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a pluripotent protein kinase involved in the development of cancers through regulation of numerous oncogenic molecules. Cyclin D1, an important regulator of G1 to S phase transition in various cells, is one of target proteins that GSK3β regulate. Our objective was to assess the expression of GSK3β and cyclin D1 in cervical neoplasm of different histologic grades and to identify their correlation in cervical carcinogenesis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of GSK3β and cyclin D1 was performed in a total of 137 patients with 12 normal, 62 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (31 CIN1 and 31 CIN3) and 63 invasive cancers including 56 squamous cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: The expression of GSK3β increased in parallel with the lesion grade, while that of cyclin D1 decreased with severity of the lesion (P<0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between GSK3β and cyclin D1 expression in overall cervical neoplasia (Φ=-0.413, P<0.001). GSK3β expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (P=0.049). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the expressional increase in GSK3β plays a role in cervical carcinogenesis and has inverse correlation with cyclin D1 expression in this process. In addition, GSK3β expression appears to be associated with the histologic type of cervical cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinogenesis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Cyclin D1 , Cyclins , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Glycogen Synthase , Glycogen , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Protein Kinases , S Phase , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
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