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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

ABSTRACT

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/toxicity , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Insect Repellents , Insecticides/toxicity , Esterification , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 899-908, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153431

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experiments were performed investigating citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) as a repellent to honeybee Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Egypt, it was conducted in laboratory in the Department of Entomology and Pesticides Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, to check long-term survival of honeybee when exposed to different nano insecticides alone or combined with citronella at the same examination box for each. In this study, we used a modeling approach regarding survival data of caged worker bees under chronic exposure to four insecticides (Chloropyrophos, Nano-chloropyrophos Imidacloprid, Nano-Imidacloprid) each of them was supplemented in a box alone and in combination with citronella. Having three replicates and five concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm). Laboratory bioassay of these insecticides showed that chloropyrophos and nano chloropyrophos were the most toxic at their high dose (500 ppm) with LT50 of 120.98 and 122.02 followed by 132.14 and 136.5 minutes for Imidacloprid and Nano-Imidacloprid, respectively. No consumption occurred by bees to mixed sugar syrup with insecticides in all treatments when citronella was added. These data highly recommended that adding citronella is very effective when nicotinoid pesticides are used to longevity honeybee life and keep bee safe.


Resumo Foram realizados experimentos para investigar a citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) como repelente de abelhas Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) no Egito, conduzidos no laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia e Ciência de Pesticidas, da Faculdade de Agricultura, da Universidade do Cairo, e verificar a sobrevivência a longo prazo das abelhas quando expostas a diferentes nanoinseticidas isoladamente ou combinados com citronela na mesma caixa de exame para cada um. Neste estudo, usamos uma abordagem de modelagem em relação aos dados de sobrevivência de abelhas operárias enjauladas sob exposição crônica a quatro inseticidas (clorpirifós, nanoclorpirifós, imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida), e cada um deles foi suplementado em uma caixa e em combinação com citronela, tendo três repetições e cinco concentrações (100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm). O bioensaio em laboratório desses inseticidas mostrou que clorpirifós e nanoclorpirifós foram os mais tóxicos em altas doses (500 ppm) com LT50 de 120,98 e 122,02, seguidos por 132,14 e 136,5 minutos para imidacloprida e nanoimidacloprida, respectivamente. Não houve consumo pelas abelhas do xarope de açúcar misto com inseticidas em todos os tratamentos quando a citronela foi adicionada. Esses dados recomendam a adição de citronela, sendo muito eficaz quando pesticidas nicotinoides são utilizados para longevidade das abelhas e para mantê-las seguras.


Subject(s)
Animals , Magnoliopsida , Lamiaceae , Cymbopogon , Insecticides/toxicity , Bees , Longevity
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00482020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1349006

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the resistance of tick populations on 16 family farms that were members of the agricultural producers' cooperative of the São Pedro region of the state of São Paulo (COOPAMSP). Bioassays were conducted on nine commercial products in 2018 and 2019. Their active agents were as follows: deltamethrin, amitraz, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + citronella, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + fenthion, cypermethrin + chlorpyrifos + piperonyl butoxide, dichlorvos + chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorfenvinphos + dichlorvos, and ivermectin. On some farms, a larval packet test (LPT) was also performed. Overall, four acaricides presented mean efficacy greater than 89%, among which two were associations of pyrethroids + organophosphates and two were associations of organophosphates + organophosphates. Deltamethrin, cypermethrin and ivermectin presented mean efficacy lower than 50%. In the bioassays using the LPT, all five farms showed resistance to diazinon, while only one farm presented resistance to cypermethrin. The results were handed over to each farmer with appropriate guidance for treatments. This study demonstrated that the important points to be implemented related directly to use control strategies, based on direct assistance for farmers and diagnosis of tick population sensitivities.


Subject(s)
Ticks , Tick Control , Acaricides , Organophosphates , Biological Assay , Community-Institutional Relations , Cymbopogon , Rhipicephalus , Diazinon , Fenthion
4.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-6, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1150926

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar a atividade antifúngica de uma solução à base de glucoprotamina (GLU) e de óleo essencial (OE) de Cymbopogon citratus. Candida tropicalis, Claviceps lusitaniae, Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii e Candida parapsilosis foram isoladas das superfícies de um hospital público de Pelotas, RS. A atividade antifúngica da GLU foi analisada nas concentrações de 0,25% a 0,0005%, e para o OE, obtido por Clevenger, foi utilizado nas concentrações de 17.500 µg/mL a 0,034 µg/mL. A análise cromatográfica foi efetuada por meio de CG/MS. A atividade anti-Candidafoi analisada pela técnica de Microdiluição em Caldo para determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e a Concentração Fungicida Mínima (CFM). A inibição pela GLU ocorreu em todas as concentrações testadas, enquanto o OE apresentou resultado de CIM que oscilou de 2846 a 5450 µg/mL, e CFM de 2853 a 5330 µg/mL. Alfa­citral (37,10%), beta­citral (32,77% e beta-mirceno (18,75%) foram considerados como os compostos majoritários do OE. Os dados obtidos neste trabalho destacam a atividade antifúngica da solução à base de GLU e do OE de C. citratus na eliminação dos isolados de Candida spp ambientais. (AU)


This study aimed at evaluating the antifungal activity of glucoprotamine solution (GLU) and the essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus (EO). Candida tropicalis, Claviceps lusitaniae, Meyerozyma(Pichia) guilliermondii and Candida parapsilosis were isolated from the samples, which were collected from the surfaces of a public hospital located in Pelotas, RS. The antifungal activity of GLU was detected at the concentrations from 0.25% to 0.0005%, while the EO, by Clevenger, was used at concentrations from 17.500 µg mL to 0.034 µg/mL. Chemical analysis was determined by GC/MS. The anti-Candida activity was performed by using Broth Microdilution technique to determine the Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) and the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The inhibition by GLU occurred at all of the tested concentrations, whereas the EO showed MIC ranging from 2.846 to 5.450 µ/mL and the CFM from 2.853 to 5.330 µg/mL. Alfa­citral (37.10%), beta­citral (32.77%) and beta-mirceno (18.75%) were the majority compounds in the EO. The data obtained in the present study highlight the effectiveness of the solution based on GLU and EO for eliminating the environmental isolates of Candida spp. (AU)


Subject(s)
Yeasts , Oils, Volatile , Cymbopogon , Environmental Pollution , Hospitals , Antifungal Agents
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 522-527, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042515

ABSTRACT

Abstract The anthelmintic resistance stimulated the search for strategies for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes, including the use of free essential oils or its nanoemulsion. This study evaluated the anthelmintic efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (CcEO) and C. citratus essential oil nanoemulsion (CcEOn). Pysicochemical analyses were performed. The in vitro effect was determined using the egg hatch test (EHT) on Haemonchus contortus and in vivo effect was evaluated in sheep infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The animals were treated with CcEO (500 mg/kg) or CcEOn (450 mg/kg) for the fecal egg count (FEC) and the determination of worm burden. The main component of CcEO was citral. The CcEO content in the nanoemulsion was 20% (v/v), and the mean particle size was 248 nm. In EHT, CcEO and CcEOn (1.25 mg/mL) inhibited larval hatching by 98.4 and 97.1%, respectively. Three animals treated with CcEO died whereas in the group treated with CcEOn one animal died. The FEC and total worm burden of the treated groups did not differ from the negative control (p>0.05). The CcEOn showed efficacy only on H. contortus (p<0.05). In conclusion, nanoencapsulation reduced toxicity and increased efficacy on H. contortus.


Resumo A resistência anti-helmíntica estimulou a busca por estratégias de controle de nematoides gastrintestinais, incluindo óleos essenciais livres ou em nanoemulsão. Este estudo avaliou a eficácia anti-helmíntica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (OECc) e da nanoemulsão do óleo essencial de C. citratus (nOECc). Análises físico-químicas foram realizadas. O efeito in vitro foi determinado no teste de eclosão de ovos (TEO) sobre Haemonchus contortus e o efeito in vivo foi avaliado em ovinos infectados com nematoides gastrintestinais. Os animais foram tratados com OECc (500 mg/kg) ou nOECc (450 mg/kg) para determinação do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e carga parasitária. O principal constituinte do OECc foi citral. O conteúdo de OECc na nanoemulsão foi 20% e o tamanho médio de partícula foi 248 nm. No TEO, OECc e nOECc (1,25 mg/mL) inibiram 98,4 e 97,1% da eclosão larvar, respectivamente. Três animais tratados com o OECc morreram, enquanto um animal do grupo tratado com a nOECc morreu. O OPG e a carga parasitária total dos grupos tratados não diferiram do controle negativo (p>0.05). A nOECc apresentou eficácia somente sobre H. contortus (p<0.05). Como conclusão, o nanoencapsulamento reduziu a toxicidade e aumentou a eficácia sobre H. contortus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/drug effects , Sheep , Feces/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/classification
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056863

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To perform chemical analysis and to evaluate the anti-biofilm and hemolytic effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus. Material and Methods: Gaseous chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer was performed for chemical characterization of the essential oil. To verify the antimicrobial action, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) were determined. From MIC, MBC and MFC data, concentrations were established to verify the anti-biofilm effect and for the hemolysis test on human erythrocytes. A multispecies biofilm was developed in vitro and mouthwash applications were simulated to determine the inhibition of biofilm formation or its removal. Results were analyzed through ANOVA statistical test, complemented by the Tukey test, considering a significance level of 5% Results: The major component of the essential oil is citral. MIC verified for Streptococcus mutans was 1mg / mL, while for Candida albicans, it was 125 μg/mL, presenting microbicidal effect for both microorganisms tested. The essential oil was able to inhibit biofilm formation (p<0.001), presenting non-toxic hemolysis percentage in concentration below 500 μg/mL Conclusion: The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus is antimicrobial, antibiofilm and non-toxic to human erythrocytes, representing a natural product with potential for use in Dentistry.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Oils, Volatile , Biofilms , Cymbopogon , Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Streptococcus mutans , In Vitro Techniques , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Analysis of Variance , Chromatography , Statistics, Nonparametric
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18063, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039055

ABSTRACT

Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus are noteworthy among the several existing plant species displaying medicinal properties, due to the potential pharmacological activity of these species, including antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-trypanosomal activities. The objective of this study was to carry out in vitro toxicity tests of plant extracts from both species and analyze potential antiviral activity against Human mastadenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5). Two cell lines (A549 and VERO) were used and mitochondrial and lysosomal viability were determined by the MTT and neutral red assay, respectively, after two exposure times (24 hours and six days). The aim of these assays was to counteract the behavior of the extracts against the different cell lines and determine their non-toxic concentration range, in order to evaluate possible antiviral activity against HAdV-5. Plaque reduction and inhibition index of viral titer assays were performed using the maximum non-cytotoxic concentrations (MNCC) of each extract. The results indicate MNCC at 625 µg/mL for all extracts, except for Cymbopogon nardus obtained with 80% ethanol (CN80), which showed toxicity at concentrations higher than 312.5 µg/mL. CN80 was the only extract that displayed potential activity against HAdV-5, at a concentration of 75 µg/mL, becoming a candidate for extract fraction purification and/or the isolation of substances related to the observed antiviral activity


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Mastadenovirus/isolation & purification , Cymbopogon/toxicity , Antiviral Agents/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Cell Survival
8.
Odontología (Ecuad.) ; 20(2): 5-13, 20181231.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-980724

ABSTRACT

Las plantas con propiedades terapéuticas utilizadas en la asistencia sanitaria tradicional han sido estudiadas ampliamente en los últimos años y constituyen una alternativa importante frente a diferentes tratamientos odontológicos.Objetivo: De-terminar el efecto inhibitorio del aceite esencial de Cymbopogon Citratus (CC) a diferentes concentraciones sobre cepas de Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg). Materiales y métodos: Estudio experimental, in vitro. La muestra fue constituida por 24 cajas Petri con cultivos de Pg ATCC® 33277™ en Agar Mueller Hinton, cada una con 5 discos correspondiente a los 5 grupos de estudio siendo: G1 aceite esencial de CC al 100%; G2 aceite esencial de CC al 50%; G3 aceite esencial de CC al 75%; G4 clorhexidina 0,12% (control positivo); G5 suero fisiológico (control negativo). A las 24 horas de incubación se efectúo la medición de los halos utilizando la regla Antibiotic Zone Scale (mm) con los parámetros de sensibilidad deter-minados por la escala de Duraffourd et al., 1986 siendo: Nula (-) < 8mm, Sensible (+) >8mm ≤14mm, Muy sensible (++) >14 ≤ 20mm y Sumamente sensible (+++) > 20mm. Se utilizó para el análisis los test de ANOVA y Tukey con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: El aceite esencial de CC mostró un halo de inhibición de 14mm, 12mm y 10mm a concentraciones de 100%, 50% y 75% respectivamente. La Clorhexidina 0,12% se observó valores de inhibición de 17mm. Se observó diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre los grupos (< 0.001). Conclusión: El aceite esencial de CC al 100%, 50% y 75% demostraron ser sensibles, frente a la Porphyromona Gingivalis.


Plants with therapeutic properties used in traditional healthcare have been studied in recent years and are an important alternative to different dental treatments. Objective: To determine the inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon Citratus (CC) at different levels on the Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg) strain. Materialsandmethods: Experimental study, in vitro. The sample consisted of 24 Petri dishes with cultures of Pg ATCC® 33277 ™ in Mueller Hinton Agar, each with 5 discs corresponding to the 5 study groups being: G1 essential oil of 100% CC; G2 50% CC essential oil; G3 75% CC essential oil; G4 chlorhexidine 0.12% (positive control); G5 physiological saline (negative control). At 24 hours of incubation, the halos are measured using the Antibiotic Zone Scale (mm) with the sensitivity parameters determined by the Duraffourd scale et al, 1986 being: Null (-) <8 mm, Sensitive (+) > 8 mm ≤14 mm, Very sensitive (++) > 14 ≤ 20mm and Extremely sensitive (+++)> 20mm. It was used for the ANOVA and Tukey tests analysis with a level of significance of 5%. Results: The CC essential oil showed a halo of inhibition of 14 mm, 12 mm and 10 mm at concentrations of 100%, 50% and 75% respectively. Chlorhexidine 0.12% haunted values of 17mm inhibition. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (<0.001). Conclusion: The essential oil of CC 100%, 50% and 75% proved to be sensitive, against the Porphyromona Gingivalis.


Plantas com propriedades terapêuticas utilizadas nos cuidados se saúde tradicionais têm sido estudadas extensivamente nos últimos anos e são uma alternativa importante para diferentes tratamentos dentários. Objetivo: Determinar o efeito inibitó-rio do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon Citratus (CC) em diferentes concentrações em cepas de Porphyromonas Gingivalis(Pg). Materiais e métodos: Estudo experimental, in vitro. A amostra foi constituída por 24 placas de Petri com culturas de Pg ATCC® 33277 ™ em Ágar Mueller Hinton, cada uma com 5 discos correspondentes aos 5 grupos de estudo sendo: G1 óleo essencial de 100% CC; G2 50% de óleo essencial de CC; G3 75% de óleo essencial de CC; Clorexidina G4 0,12% (controle positivo); G5 soro fisiológico (controle negativo). Após 24 horas de incubação a medição dos halos foi realizada utilizando a regra Antibiotic Zone Scale (mm) com parâmetros de sensibilidade determinados pela escala de Duraffourd et al, 1986 sendo: nulo. (-) <8 milímetros, sensível (+ )> 8mm ≤14mm, Muito sensível (++)> 14 ≤ 20mm e Extremamen-te sensível (+++)> 20mm. Os testes ANOVA e Tukey com nível de significância de 5% foram utilizados para a análise. Resultados: O óleo essencial de CC apresentou halo de inibição de 14mm, 12mm e 10mm nas concentrações de 100%, 50% e 75%, respectivamente. Valores de inibição de clorexidina 0,12% de 17mm foram observados. Observamos diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos (<0,001). Conclusão: O óleo essencial de 100% CC, 50% e 75% mostrou-se sensível, contra o Porphyromona Gingivalis.


Subject(s)
Periodontal Index , Fibromatosis, Gingival , Phytochemicals , Oils, Volatile , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Cymbopogon
9.
Infectio ; 22(1): 9-12, ene.-mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-892744

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Candida albicans as important opportunistic dimorphic fungi can cause the life threatening infections in humans. In this study, we evaluated the anticandidal activities of six samples of Pelargonium graveolens essential oils against 31 clinical isolates of C.albicans. Materials and methods: The anti-candidal activity was performed by disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution assays. The chemical compositions of essential oils were analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) apparatus. Results: P. graveolens essential oil samples with citronellol (7.7-43.7%) and geraniol (19.3-48.5%) showed the same anti-candidal activity in two different methods. There is no significant difference between the inhibition zone diameters (19.3-24.1 mm), and the MIC and MFC values (1.06-1.48 and 1.5-1.72 µl/ml) of essential oil samples with different percent of citronellol and geraniol. Conclusion: Therefore, P.graveolens essential oils can be used as anti-candidal agent for further studies.


Resumen Objetivos: Candida albicans es un importante hongo dimórfico oportunista que puede llegar a amenazar la vida de pacientes con inmunosupresión. En este estudio se evaluaron las actividades anti-Candida de seis muestras de aceites esenciales de Pelargonium graveolens contra 31 aislamientos clínicos de C. albicans. Materiales y métodos: La actividad anti-Candida se realizó por difusión en disco y ensayos de dilución micro-caldo. La composición química de los aceites esenciales se analizó mediante cromatografía de gases. Resultados: Las muestras de aceite esencial de P. graveolens con citronelol (7,7 a 43,7%) y geraniol (19,3 a 48,5%) mostraron la actividad anti-Candida en dos métodos diferentes. No hubo ninguna diferencia significativa entre los diámetros de la zona de inhibición (19,3-24,1 mm), y valores de MFC (1,06 a 1,48 y de 1,5 a 1,72 l / ml) de muestras de aceites esenciales con diferentes porcentajes de citronelol y geraniol. Conclusión: Los aceites esenciales de P.graveolens se pueden utilizar como agentes anti-Candida para estudios adicionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans , Oils, Volatile , Pelargonium , Patient Isolation , Plants , Immunosuppression/nursing , Geranium , Cymbopogon , Fungi
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 1-16, ene. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914977

ABSTRACT

Environmental exposure to genotoxic agents represents a major health concern for modern society. DNA damage could lead to mutations, which accumulative effect is closely related to degenerative and lethal diseases, such as cancer. Because of their structural and chemical diversity natural products play a fundamental role in pharmaceutical sciences for novel drug discovery. The present review article focuses on pre-clinical studies done with some species from Cuban flora that have been tested with positive antigenotoxic properties against different genotoxins. Special emphasis regarding molecular mechanisms suggested, from antioxidant activity to DNA repair modulation, a critical discussion of the state of art and the perspectives in the use of these plants as a new and promising strategy for genoprotection in the 21st Century are included.


La exposición ambiental a agentes genotóxicos representa un problema de salud significativo en la sociedad actual. El daño al ADN puede generar mutaciones, cuyo efecto acumulativo se encuentra estrechamente relacionado con enfermedades degenerativas y letales como el cáncer. Debido a su diversidad estructural y química los productos naturales juegan un papel fundamental en las ciencias farmacéuticas en el descubrimiento de nuevas drogas. El presente artículo de revisión puntualiza estudios pre-clínicos realizados con determinadas especies de la flora cubana que han sido estudiadas con una respuesta antioxidante positiva frente a diferentes genotoxinas. Se enfatizan especialmente los mecanismos moleculares sugeridos, desde actividad antioxidante hasta modulación de la reparación del ADN, así como una discusión crítica del estado del arte y las perspectivas en el empleo de estas plantas como una estrategia nueva y prometedora para la genoprotección en el siglo 21.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage/drug effects , Phyllanthus/chemistry , Mangifera/chemistry , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cuba
11.
Ambato; s.n; 2018. 1-62 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-998019

ABSTRACT

El empleo de plantas medicinales por su gran disponibilidad y variedad de principios activos con importancia farmacológica, ha sido fuente de investigación para avances científicos. El presente estudio se centró en la obtención de un ingrediente activo antiinflamatorio a partir de los extractos etanólicos de 8 plantas medicinales: Cymbopogon citratus, Mentha sativa L, Cynara scolymus L, Zingiber officinale L, Ocimum basilicum L, Cinnamomum verum J y Camellia sinensis. Las mejores condiciones para el proceso de extracción de los metabolitos vegetales de las plantas empleadas se establecieron a partir de un diseño factorial 22, utilizando dos variables de estudio, concentración del disolvente etanol (ETOH) y tiempo de extracción, empleando la tecnología de spray drying se microencapsularon los extractos etanólicos. Para la determinación de la actividad antiinflamatoria, se sometió a pruebas in vitro mediante el método de estabilización de membrana de los eritrocitos humanos en comparación con el antiinflamatorio testigo utilizado la aspirina. Identificando que el mayor porcentaje de actividad antiinflamatoria lo posee el microencapsulado de la mezcla de las 8 plantas medicinales con un valor de 76,96 %. A partir de espectrofotometría ultravioleta-visible, se cuantificaron dos de los componentes fitoquímicos que le dan la capacidad antiinflamatoria al microencapsulado, polifenoles totales 93,50 ± 1,78 mg AG/g microencapsulado y flavonoides totales 54,80 ± 8,61 mg quercetina/g microencapsulado. Esta investigación mostró un efecto sinérgico de la mezcla de las 8 plantas debido a que se potenció la actividad de los principios activos que les dan la capacidad antiinflamatoria (polifenoles y flavonoides). (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Ocimum basilicum , Ginger , Mentha , Camellia sinensis , Cynara , Cymbopogon , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plant Extracts , Ecuador , Medicine, Traditional
12.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 6(12): 319-323, dic. 30, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118785

ABSTRACT

Aim. to evaluate the antifungal potential of the essential oil of cymbopogon citratus by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for candida albicans (ATCC 90029), candida albicans (CBS 562), candida tropicalis (ATCC 705) and candida tropicalis strains (CBS 94), as well as to analyze the possible mechanism of action of the oil through the addition of sorbitol to the culture medium. methods. for the MIC determination, inocula were previously adjusted through spectrophotometry and 100µL were added to the wells of plates already containing the culture medium and 100µL of the serial dilutions of the oil, incubating them in aerobiosis for 24 hours, with subsequent staining by 1 percent TCT. for the MFC, 50µL of the supernatant from the MIC assay wells were dripped onto petri dishes and incubated in aerobiosis for 24 hours. tests were performed in triplicate and data analysed by descriptive statistics. results. It was determined that the MIC for C. albicans was 125 µg/mL while MIC for C. tropicalis was 250 µg/mL, with the essential oil presenting fungicidal effect for both analyzed yeasts. conclusion. the essential oil of cymbopogon citratus does not act at the cellular wall level and demonstrated an antimicrobial effect on candida albicans and candida tropicalis, therefore acting as a fungicide.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Candida tropicalis/drug effects , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Cymbopogon/adverse effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2971-2974, Oct.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886837

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the sedative and anaesthetic effect of the essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum) (EOOB) and lemongrass (Cymbopogum flexuosus) (EOCF) in Nile tilapia juveniles. The fish were transferred to aquaria containing different concentrations of each essential oil: 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 600 μL L-1. The time of sedation ranged from 7 to 31 seconds and the recommended concentration was 10 or 25 μL L-1 for both essential oils. The best times for anaesthesia and recovery were found for the concentrations of 400 μL L-1 for EOOB (135.2 and 199.1 seconds, respectively) and 600 μL L-1 for EOCF (327.1 and 374.8 seconds, respectively). In conclusion, we recommend the use of EOOB and EOCF for the sedation and anaesthesia of Nile tilapia at concentrations of 10-25 (for both), 400 and 600 μL L-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile , Ocimum basilicum/chemistry , Cichlids , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Hypnotics and Sedatives/isolation & purification , Anesthesia , Anesthetics/isolation & purification , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(2): 500-505, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893011

ABSTRACT

Halphabarol, the active principle of Proximol, is the most potent of the four antispasmodics present in the national desert weed Cymbopogon proximus or ''Halfa Bar''. Halphabarol is of great value for the management of renal colic and in the expulsion of ureteric calculi as it causes dilation of the ureter below the site of calculus while active propulsion is maintained. Evaluation the congenital malformation of proximol in pregnant albino rats during gestation period. The virgin female rats were mated with male rats and the pregnant rats were orally administered a human equivalent dose (0.05 mg/kg) of Proximol from 5th-20th gestation day. At day 20 of pregnancy, all rats were anesthetized to obtained maternal and fetal data. The treatment group displayed some disorders, which can be summarized as growth retardation, external anomalies, embryonic resorption, and skeletal malformation. We concluded that the oral administration of Proximol resulted in embryonic abnormalities and skeletal malformations.


Halphabarol, el principio activo de Proximol, es el más potente de los cuatro antiespasmódicos presentes en la maleza desértica nacional "Cymbopogon proximus" o "Halfa Bar". Halphabarol es de gran utilidad para el manejo de cólicos renales y para la expulsión de cálculos ureterales, ya que causa la dilatación del uréter por debajo del sitio de cálculo mientras se mantiene el mecanismo de propulsión activa. Se realizó una evaluación de la malformación congénita por Proximol en ratas albinas gestantes durante el período de gestación. Las ratas fueron apareadas y a las ratas gestantes se les administró oralmente, del 5 al 20 día de gestación, una dosis de Proximol (0,05 mg / kg), equivalente a la dosis humana. Al día 20 de gestación, todas las ratas fueron anestesiadas para obtener datos maternos y fetales. El grupo de tratamiento mostró algunos trastornos, que pueden resumirse como retraso del crecimiento, anomalías externas, resorción embrionaria y malformación esquelética. Concluimos que la administración oral de Proximol resultó en anomalías embrionarias y malformaciones esqueléticas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Congenital Abnormalities/pathology , Cymbopogon , Parasympatholytics/toxicity , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity , Congenital Abnormalities/etiology , Fetus/drug effects , Fetus/pathology , Pregnancy, Animal/drug effects
15.
Comun. ciênc. saúde ; 28(1): 36-39, jan. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-972643

ABSTRACT

A cidreira (Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown), quimiotipo II, é referidapopularmente como cidreira carmelitana, rica em óleo essencial(limoneno e citral) e foi selecionada pelo Comitê Estadual de Fitoterapiapara integrar o elenco de plantas medicinais de uso nas Farmácias Vivasdo Estado do Ceará, fazendo parte da Relação de Plantas Medicinais-REPLAME/CE (Portaria 275/2012), como terapia complementar àscrises de ansiedade e insônia de leves a moderadas. Vários estudostêm relatado ações farmacológicas do citral - uma mistura de dois isômeros: trans-geranial e cis-neral – especialmente atividade sedativa.O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar a caracterização destes marcadores químicos ativos para avaliação da qualidade da matériaprima,intermediário e fitoterápico à base de cidreira (Lippia alba),Quimiotipo II. A metodologia utilizada consistiu em: 1) Caracterização macro e micro morfológica das folhas de L. alba;2) Extração do óleo essencial 3) Preparação do Elixir de L. alba a 8%; 4) Análises por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrômetro de Massas (CG-EM)e Cromatografia em Camada Delgada. Observou-se que a metodologia utilizada pode ser aplicada nos trabalhos de rotina de controle de qualidade de L. alba, quimiotipo II, tanto para caracterização macro e micromorfológica da espécie, como para caracterização do marcadoresquímicos ativos do óleo essencial (citral/neral e geranial). Observouse,ainda, que as técnicas utilizadas para obtenção do extrato fluido edo elixir extraíram estes constituintes ativos do óleo essencial, os quais influenciam na qualidade e atividade destas preparações. O elixir de cidreira pode representar uma alternativa terapêutica simples, segura e de baixo custo para o SUS, em consonância com a Política Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Anxiety , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Cymbopogon , Lippia
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e89, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952126

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and its main compound (citral) against primary dental colonizers and caries-related species. Chemical characterization of the essential oil was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), and the main compound was determined. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. mutans, S. sanguinis and S. sobrinus. Minimum inhibitory and bactericide concentrations were determined by broth microdilution assay for streptococci and lactobacilli reference, and for clinical strains. The effect of the essential oil on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation/disruption was investigated. Negative (without treatment) and positive controls (chlorhexidine) were used. The effect of citral on preformed biofilm was also tested using the same methodology. Monospecies and microcosm biofilms were tested. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used (α=0.05). Cytotoxicity of the essential oil to human keratinocytes was performed by MTT assay. GC/MS demonstrated one major component (citral). The essential oil showed an inhibitory effect on all tested bacterial species, including S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Essential oil of C. citratus (10X MIC) reduced the number of viable cells of lactobacilli and streptococci biofilms (p < 0.05). The essential oil inhibited adhesion of caries-related polymicrobial biofilm to dental enamel (p < 0.01). Citral significantly reduced the number of viable cells of streptococci biofilm (p < 0.001). The essential oil showed low cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes. Based on these findings, this study can contribute to the development of new formulations for products like mouthwash, against dental biofilms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Cymbopogon/chemistry , Dental Caries/microbiology , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Streptococcus/growth & development , Streptococcus/drug effects , Time Factors , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Actinomyces/growth & development , Actinomyces/drug effects , Colony Count, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Keratinocytes/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Lactobacillus acidophilus/growth & development , Lactobacillus acidophilus/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204558

ABSTRACT

The usage of essential oils as antimicrobial agents is gaining attention. Besides, pet turtles were known to harbor a range of pathogenic bacteria while the turtle keeping is a growing trend worldwide.The current study examined the antimicrobial activity of lemon grass oil (LGO) against seven species of Gram negative bacteria namely; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica, Edwardsiella tarda, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis isolated from three popular species of pet turtles. Along with the results of disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) tests, LGO was detected as effective against 6 species of bacteria excluding P. aeruginosa. MIC of LGO for the strains except P. aeruginosa ranged from 0.016 to 0.5% (V/V). The lowest MIC recorded in the E. tarda strain followed by A. hydrophilla, C. freundii, P. mirabilis, and S. enterica. Interestingly, all the bacterial species except E. tarda were showing high multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index values ranging from 0.36 to 0.91 upon the 11 antibiotics tested although they were sensitive to LGO.


Subject(s)
Aeromonas hydrophila , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteria , Citrobacter freundii , Cymbopogon , Diffusion , Edwardsiella tarda , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Guinea Pigs , Mirabilis , Oils, Volatile , Proteus mirabilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Salmonella enterica , Turtles
18.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 235-238, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-55956

ABSTRACT

Colorado potato beetle is a most destructive insect pest of potato throughout the world. Although utilization of chemical insecticides is a main method for management of this pest, their negative side-effects such as threat to humans and the environmental pollution prompted researchers to search for natural alternatives. Recently plant essential oils with low or without side-effects against noun-targeted organisms and with high availability were considered as safe bio-pesticides. In the present study, toxicity of essential oil of Iranian lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, was evaluated against 3th instar larvae and adults of Colorado potato beetle by a leaf dipping method. Results displayed essential oil had notable toxicity against both larvae and adults after 24 and 48 h exposure times. Probit analysis revealed LC₅₀ values (lethal concentration to kill 50% of population) with 95% confidence limits were 10.32 (9.17 – 11.72) and 7.76 (6.80 – 8.74) µl/ml for larvae and 6.27 (4.82 – 8.15) and 4.35 (3.24 – 5.62) µl/ml for adults after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Based on regression analysis, a positive correlation between log concentration of essential oil and insect mortality was achieved. Results indicated C. citratus essential oil can be candidate as a natural alternative to the harmful chemical insecticides in the management of Colorado potato beetle.


Subject(s)
Adult , Coleoptera , Colorado , Cymbopogon , Environmental Pollution , Humans , Insecticides , Insecta , Larva , Methods , Mortality , Oils, Volatile , Plants , Solanum tuberosum
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16982

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Literature has shown that micro-organisms contaminate gutta percha (GP) during storage and manipulation. Till date herbal extracts are not explored as an alternative medicament for pre-operative chairside disinfection of GP cones. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and efficacy of lemon grass oil (LG), basil oil (BO), and obicure tea extract (OT) in disinfecting GP cones before obturation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of LG, BO, OT, and sodium hypochlorite (control) against common contaminants, namely, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. One hundred and twenty GP cones were contaminated and cut into 2. First half was placed in the broth and incubated; whereas the second was treated with herbal extracts for 1 minute and then incubated for 24 hours in the broth. Any inhibition in bacterial growth was noted with presence/absence of turbidity. Two-way analysis of variance and χ² test were used to assess the effectiveness of herbal extracts to decontaminate GP. RESULTS: LG showed the highest inhibition zones (29.9 ± 6.9 mm) for all tested organisms, followed by OT extract (16.3 ± 1.8 mm), sodium hypochlorite (16.0 ± 1.6 mm), and BO (14.5 ± 5.3 mm). Statistically significant difference was observed between LG and other herbal extracts (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All extracts proved to be potential rapid chairside disinfectants of GP cones with LG showing the highest antimicrobial activity.


Subject(s)
Agar , Candida albicans , Cymbopogon , Diffusion , Disinfectants , Disinfection , Enterococcus faecalis , Gutta-Percha , Methods , Ocimum basilicum , Oils , Sodium Hypochlorite , Staphylococcus aureus , Tea
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 32(2): 288-297, mar./abr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965291

ABSTRACT

Sitophilus species are major pests of stored grain and their control is achieved mainly with the use of chemical insecticides, but the indiscriminate use of these products is resulting in several undesirable factors to man and to the environment. Thus, the use of natural insecticides comes as an option to control the insects, while lessening risks to the environment. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, Rondonópolis campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, in the period from March to September 2012. The experiment was conducted under three different storing conditions. Aqueous extracts were obtained by the addition of Allium sativum L, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Cymbopogon winterianum Jowitt vegetable powders in distilled water, at a ratio of 5 g per 100 ml, and the levels of chemical insecticides were of 0.04 and 0.15 ml/100 ml of water for deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Treatments were added to the corn grains, which were placed in a 2.5 L glass container, mixed by manual shaking and infested with 20 adults of unsexed Sitophilus zeamais. Grains were stored for 60 days. At 30 and 60 days, the following items were analyzed: bugs count, water content in grains and electrical conductivity. The data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. At 30 days, the efficiency of chemical insecticides in the control of Sitophilus zeamais was observed in the three storage environments. Vegetal extracts were not effective in controlling insects. The larger number of insects increased the electrical conductivity and humidity values in the grains.


O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o efeito inseticida de extratos vegetais aquosos e inseticidas químicos sob condições de armazenamento. O experimento foi realizado sob três condições de armazenamento. Os extratos aquosos foram obtidos pela adição dos pós vegetais de Allium sativum L, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. e Cymbopogon winterianum Jowitt. em água destilada na proporção de 5g por 100 ml, e as dosagens dos inseticidas químicos foram de 0,04 e 0,15 ml/100 ml de água para Deltametrina e Clorpirifós respectivamente. Os tratamentos foram adicionados aos grãos de milho acondicionados em recipientes de vidro de 2,5 L, misturados por agitação manual, e infestados com 20 adultos de Sitophilus zeamais não sexados. Os grãos ficaram armazenados durante 60 dias. Analisou-se aos 30 e 60 dias: contagem de insetos, teor de água nos grãos e condutividade elétrica. Os dados foram submetidos à analise de variância, e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5 % de probabilidade. Aos 30 dias, observa-se eficiência dos inseticidas químicos no controle de Sitophilus zeamais nos três ambientes de armazenamento. Os extratos vegetais não são eficientes no controle dos insetos. O maior número de insetos elevam os valores de condutividade elétrica e umidade nos grãos.


Subject(s)
Temperature , Azadirachta , Cymbopogon , Garlic , Insecticides , Insecta
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