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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1334-1345, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878635

ABSTRACT

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is a highly conserved and mutation-resistant coronaviral enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in viral replication, making it an ideal target for the development of novel broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drugs. In this study, a codon-optimized Mpro gene was cloned into pET-21a and pET-28a expression vectors. The recombinant plasmids were transformed into E. coli Rosetta(DE3) competent cells and the expression conditions were optimized. The highly expressed recombinant proteins, Mpro and Mpro-28, were purified by HisTrapTM chelating column and its proteolytic activity was determined by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The FRET assay showed that Mpro exhibits a desirable proteolytic activity (25 000 U/mg), with Km and kcat values of 11.68 μmol/L and 0.037/s, respectively. The specific activity of Mpro is 25 times that of Mpro-28, a fusion protein carrying a polyhistidine tag at the N and C termini, indicating additional residues at the N terminus of Mpro, but not at the C terminus, are detrimental to its proteolytic activity. The preparation of active SARS-CoV-2 Mpro through codon-optimization strategy might facilitate the development of the rapid screening assays for the discovery of broad-spectrum anti-coronaviral drugs targeting Mpro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Codon/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
2.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(2): 449-460, 02/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742218

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os motivos das faltas às consultas odontológicas em Unidades de Saúde da Família (USF) e implementar estratégias para sua redução por meio da pesquisa-ação. O estudo foi realizado em 12 USF de Piracicaba/SP, de 01 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2010. A amostra se consistiu de 385 usuários, entrevistados por telefone, sobre os motivos das faltas, além de 12 cirurgiões-dentistas e 12 enfermeiras. Realizaram-se duas oficinas com os profissionais: uma para problematização dos dados coletados nas entrevistas e elaboração de estratégias; e outra após 4 meses, para avaliação. O maior motivo de faltas foi a coincidência do horário de funcionamento das unidades com o de trabalho dos usuários. Dentre as estratégias ressaltou-se a realização de palestras sobre saúde bucal, educação permanente nas reuniões de equipe, capacitação dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, participação em grupos terapêuticos e parcerias entre Equipe de Saúde Bucal e equipamentos sociais da comunidade. A adoção de prontuário único foi a estratégia desafiadora encontrada pelos profissionais. Concluiu-se que as estratégias implementadas levaram à diminuição das faltas em 66,6% e o caráter motivador das oficinas possibilitou a reflexão crítica para o redirecionamento da prática em saúde.


The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for missed appointments in dental Family Health Units (FHU) and implement strategies to reduce same through action research. This is a study conducted in 12 FHUs in Piracicaba in the State of São Paulo from January, 1 to December, 31 2010. The sample was composed of 385 users of these health units who were interviewed over the phone and asked about the reasons for missing dental appointments, as well as 12 dentists and 12 nurses. Two workshops were staged with professionals: the first to assess the data collected in interviews and develop strategy, and the second for evaluation after 4 months. The primary cause for missed appointments was the opening hours of the units coinciding with the work schedule of the users. Among the strategies suggested were lectures on oral health, ongoing education in team meetings, training of Community Health Agents, participation in therapeutic groups and partnerships between Oral Health Teams and the social infrastructure of the community. The adoption of the single medical record was the strategy proposed by professionals. The strategies implemented led to a 66.6% reduction in missed appointments by the units and the motivating nature of the workshops elicited critical reflection to redirect health practices.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Biocatalysis , Computer Simulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Precursors/chemistry , Enzyme Precursors/genetics , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kinetics , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Stability , Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(6): 660-665, nov.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-733346

ABSTRACT

Este artículo fue concebido para analizar la función de la Escuela de Salud Pública de México (ESPM) desde el año 2000 hasta el presente. Uno de sus puntos centrales es el análisis del proceso de reorientación de la labor educativa de la escuela con la finalidad de responder a los retos en materia de salud y educación surgidos a finales del siglo XX. Para exponer cómo ha evolucionado dicho proceso, retomamos tres ejes rectores que caracterizan la labor de la escuela en la actualidad: el cambio de modelo pedagógico, la incorporación de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones, y la profesionalización de la docencia. Con la exposición de este tema, y a través del contraste entre el pasado y el presente, buscamos completar la historia de trabajo ininterrumpido de la Escuela durante sus 92 años de existencia, que ha trascendido los confines del país.


This article was conceived to analyze the work of the School of Public Health of Mexico (ESPM for is acronym in Spanish) from the year 2000 to the present day. One of the highlights that we will examine is the reorientation of the educational work of the school in order to meet the challenges in health and education that emerged during the end of the twentieth century. In order to explain the evolution of this process, we will describe the three main guiding principles that characterize the present work of the school: the pedagogical model's change, the incorporation of the information and communication technologies, and the professionalization in teaching. The purpose of this work is to define those guiding principles, and to expose, through the contrast between past and present, the complete history of uninterrupted work of the School of Public Health of Mexico during its ninety-two years of existence, that has gone beyond the boundaries of the country.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Mengovirus/enzymology , Viral Proteins , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Capsid/metabolism , Chlorides/pharmacology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ethylmaleimide/pharmacology , HeLa Cells , Iodoacetamide/pharmacology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Molecular Sequence Data , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Peptides/metabolism , Protein Precursors/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Substrate Specificity , Zinc Compounds/pharmacology
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 755-762, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685485

ABSTRACT

Currently, several assays can confirm acute dengue infection at the point-of-care. However, none of these assays can predict the severity of the disease symptoms. A prognosis test that predicts the likelihood of a dengue patient to develop a severe form of the disease could permit more efficient patient triage and treatment. We hypothesise that mRNA expression of apoptosis and innate immune response-related genes will be differentially regulated during the early stages of dengue and might predict the clinical outcome. Aiming to identify biomarkers for dengue prognosis, we extracted mRNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mild and severe dengue patients during the febrile stage of the disease to measure the expression levels of selected genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The selected candidate biomarkers were previously identified by our group as differentially expressed in microarray studies. We verified that the mRNA coding for CFD, MAGED1, PSMB9, PRDX4 and FCGR3B were differentially expressed between patients who developed clinical symptoms associated with the mild type of dengue and patients who showed clinical symptoms associated with severe dengue. We suggest that this gene expression panel could putatively serve as biomarkers for the clinical prognosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antigens, Neoplasm/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Peroxiredoxins/genetics , Receptors, IgG/genetics , Receptors, Interleukin-1/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Severe Dengue/diagnosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Biomarkers , Gene Expression , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Microarray Analysis , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/isolation & purification , Serotyping
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660044

ABSTRACT

Porphyromonas gingivalis es un microorganismo fuertemente asociado con la etiología de la periodontitis. Esta bacteria posee varios factores de virulencia, dentro de los que destacan las gingipaínas, debido a sus múltiples acciones relacionadas con la destrucción de la matriz extracelular del tejido conectivo periodontal, la modulación del sistema inmune del hospedero y la estimulación de la expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias. Estas proteinasas tienen afinidades específicas siendo Arg-gingipaínas (RgpA y RgpB, codificadas por los genes rgpA y rgpB, respectivamente) y Lys-gingipaínas (Kgp, codificada por el gen kgp). Se ha descrito que existen polimorfismos en los genes que codifican para esta proteinasas. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir la frecuencia de los genotipos identificados para los genes rgpA y kgp en aislados clínicos de P. gingivalis, obtenidos desde pacientes con periodontitis. Para ello se utilizó amplificación por PCR de los genes rgpA y kgp, seguido de análisis de restricción. De un total de 47 aislados provenientes de 4 individuos con periodontitis crónica y 2 con periodontitis agresiva, se genotipificaron 38 aislados para el gen rgpA, exhibiendo la totalidad de éstos el patrón electroforético A (100 por ciento). Para el gen kgp se genotipificaron 43 aislados, presentando 28 de ellos (65.2 por ciento) el perfil electroforético kgp-I y 15 aislados (34.8 por ciento) el perfil kgp-II. En los aislados provenientes de un individuo fue posible apreciar ambos genotipos descritos para el gen kgp. Los resultados indican un predominio del patrón electroforético A (rgpA) y que el genotipo kgp-I fue el más frecuentemente encontrado de los genotipos kgp.


Porphyromonas gingivalis is a microorganism strongly associated with the etiology of periodontitis. This periodontal bacterium possesses an array of virulence factors, among which gingipains have a key importance, being involved with extracellular matrix destruction of periodontal tissues, modulation of host immune response and stimulation in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by different types of cells. These proteinases have specific affinities, being Arg-gingipains (RgpA and RgpB, encoded by rgpA and rgpB genes, respectively) and Lys-gingipains (Kgp, encoded by the kgp gene). It has been described that there are polymorphisms in the genes encoding for gingipains. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of rgpA and kgp genotypes in clinical isolates of P. gingivalis obtained from periodontitis patients. For determining the rgpA and kgp genotypes, we used PCR amplification and restriction analysis. From 47 isolates obtained from 4 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 2 subjects with aggressive periodontitis, 38 were typified for rgpA gene and all exhibited the electrophoretic pattern A (100 percent). For kgp gene, we characterized 43 isolates, 28 of them (65.2 percent) with the kgp-I electrophoretic profile and 15 isolates (34.8 percent) with the kgp-II profile. In the isolates belonging to one individual, we found both genotypes of kgp gene. The results indicate a clear predominance of the electrophoretic pattern A (for rgpA gene) and kgp-I genotype was the most frequently found of the kgp genotypes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesins, Bacterial/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Porphyromonas gingivalis/isolation & purification , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genetics , Gene Amplification , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Periodontitis/genetics , Periodontitis/microbiology
7.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. xiii,63 p. ilus, tab, graf, mapas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-574418

ABSTRACT

A cruzipaína é a cisteína peptidase mais abundante do Trypanossoma cruzi, o qual é o agente etiológico da doença de Chagas. A cruzipaína é um importante fator de virulência do T. cruzi envolvida em várias etapas cruciais na interação com células de mamíferos. Essa enzima é expressa em níveis variáveis em todas as formas evolutivas e cepas do parasito, sendo abundantemente expressa nas formas epimastigotas, encontradas apenas no inseto vetor. Esse dado nos levou a investigar se a cruzipaína poderia estar envolvida na interação do T. cruzi com células do hospedeiro invertebrado. Para tal, foram analisados os efeitos do pré-tratamento do T. cruzi com um painel de diferentes inibidores de cisteína peptidases ou anticorpos anti-cruzipaína na adesão do parasito ao epitélio intestinal médio posterior dissecado de Rhodnius prolixus. Paralelamente, foi analisado o índice de adesão ao eptélio do T. cruzi que superexpressa a chagasina (pCHAG), um inibidor endógeno da cruzipaína. A taxa de adesão dos parasitos tratados com os inibidores de cisteína peptidase (iodoacetamida, leupeptina, antipaína ou E-64 a 10 (Miu)M, ou cistatina a 1 (Miu)g/mL) foi em média 70por cento inferior em comparação aos parasitos não tratados, com exceção do Ca074me (um inibidor de catepsina B) que não mostrou alteração significativa. O tratamento de parasitos com a cistatina apresentou um efeito dose-dependente sobre a taxa de adesão em realçao aos parasitos não tratados. Além disso, o tratamento de epimastigotas com anticorpos anti-cruzipaína (1:1000)induziu uma redução significativa de 64por cento na adesão.Os parasitos pCHAG apresentaram baixa capacidade de ligação ao epitélio intestinal dissecado de R. prolixus, enquanto o pTEX (plasmídeo sem o gene inserido) não apresentou mudanças significativas na taxa de adesão em relação ao controle. Nós também comparamos a habilidade de vários isolados de T. cruzi na adesão ao intestino do R. prolixus. A cepa G, que naturalmente apresenta...


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Rhodnius , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology
8.
J Biosci ; 2008 Dec; 33(5): 681-90
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110703

ABSTRACT

The full-length cDNA encoding a cysteine protease,designated HbCP1, was isolated for the first time from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbCP1 contained a 1371 bp open reading frame encoding 457 amino acids.The deduced HbCP1 protein,which showed high identity to cysteine proteases of other plant species,was predicted to possess a putative repeat in toxin (RTX) domain at the N-terminal and a granulin (GRAN) domain at the C-terminal.Southern blot analysis indicated that the HbCP1 gene is present as a single copy in the rubber tree.Transcription pattern analysis revealed that HbCP1 had high transcription in laticifer,and low transcription in bark and leaf.The transcription of HbCP1 in latex was induced by ethylene and tapping.Cloning of the HbCP1 gene will enable us to further understand the molecular characterization of cysteine protease and its possible function in the rubber tree.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hevea/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins/chemistry
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(6): 707-711, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-463476

ABSTRACT

The characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated from a cDNA library of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes is described. The sequencing of 93 clones generated new L. (L.) amazonensis ESTs from which 32 percent are not related to any other sequences in database and 68 percent presented significant similarities to known genes. The chromosome localization of some L. (L.) amazonensis ESTs was also determined in L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) major. The characterization of these ESTs is suitable for the genome physical mapping, as well as for the identification of genes encoding cysteine proteinases implicated with protective immune responses in leishmaniasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosome Mapping , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Expressed Sequence Tags , Leishmania/genetics , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Leishmania/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data
10.
Biocell ; 30(3): 479-490, dec. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491547

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite causing Chagas disease, contains a number of proteolytic enzymes. The recent completion of the genome sequence of the T. cruzi CL Brener clone suggests the presence of 70 cysteine peptidases, 40 serine peptidases (none of them from the chymotrypsin family), about 250 metallopeptidases (most leishmanolysin homologues), 25 threonine peptidases, and only two aspartyl peptidases, none of them from the pepsin family. The cysteine peptidases belong to 7 families of Clan CA, 3 families of Clan CD, and one each of Clans CE and CF In Clan CA, the C1 family is represented by cruzipains 1 and 2, biochemically well characterized, as well as cathepsin B and two other cathepsins. There are a number of homologues to calpains (family C2), probably non-functional, lacking the Ca-binding domain. Family C54 includes the Atg4 proteinases (autophagins), which seem to be involved in the autophagic process. Clan CD includes family C14, the metacaspases. We have expressed the metacaspases TcMCA3 and TcMCA5, and obtained indirect evidence of their participation in programmed cell death induced by fresh human serum in the parasite. More experiments are required to better define their role in apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Apoptosis , Cell-Free System , Genome, Protozoan , Life Cycle Stages , Molecular Sequence Data , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Transfection
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-59380

ABSTRACT

The mammalian trematode Paragonimus westermani is a typical digenetic parasite, which can cause paragonimiasis in humans. Host tissues and blood cells are important sources of nutrients for development, growth and reproduction of P. westermani. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa hemoglobinase of P. westermani was characterized by sequencing analysis, and its localization was investigated immunohistochemically. The phylogenetic tree prepared based on the hemoglobinase gene showed high homology with hemoglobinases of Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma spp. Moreover, recombinant P. westermani hemoglobinase degradaded human hemoglobin at acidic pH (from 3.0 to 5.5) and its activity was almost completely inhibited by E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that P. westermani hemoglobinase was localized in the epithelium of the adult worm intestine implying that the protein has a specific function. These observations suggest that hemoglobinase may act as a digestive enzyme for acquisition of nutrients from host hemoglobin. Further investigations may provide insights into hemoglobin catabolism in P. westermani.


Subject(s)
Sequence Alignment , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Phylogeny , Paragonimus westermani/enzymology , Molecular Sequence Data , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/enzymology , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Astacoidea/parasitology , Antigens, Helminth/genetics , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
12.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 3(3): 342-355, 2004. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-482173

ABSTRACT

Cysteine proteinases (CPs) are synthesized as zymogens and converted to mature proteinase forms by proteolytic cleavage and release of their pro domain peptides. A cDNA encoding a papain-like CP, called hgcp-Iv, was isolated from a Heterodera glycines J2 cDNA library, expressed and utilized to assess the ability of its propeptide to inhibit proteinase in its active form. The hgcp-Iv cDNA sequence encodes a polypeptide of 374 amino acids with the same domain organization as other cathepsin L-like CPs, including a hydrophobic signal sequence and a pro domain region. HGCP-Iv, produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with thioredoxin, degrades the synthetic peptide benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin and is inhibited by E-64, a substrate and inhibitor commonly used for functional characterization of CPs. Recombinant propeptides of HGCP-Iv, expressed in E. coli, presented high inhibitory activity in vitro towards its cognate enzyme and proteinase activity of Meloidogyne incognita females, suggesting its usefulness in inhibiting nematode CPs in biological systems. Cysteine proteinases from other species produced no noticeable activity.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/genetics , Peptides/genetics , Tylenchoidea/enzymology , Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , DNA, Complementary/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Peptides/metabolism , Tylenchoidea/genetics
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(1): 113-121, Jan. 2001. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-281637

ABSTRACT

The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70) and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain


Subject(s)
Animals , Actins/genetics , Chromosome Mapping , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Trypanosoma/genetics , Brazil , Colombia , El Salvador , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genes, Protozoan/genetics , Genetic Variation , Honduras , Karyotyping , Panama , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Trypanosoma/enzymology , Trypanosoma/isolation & purification , Tubulin/genetics , Venezuela
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70152

ABSTRACT

In Korea, there was a big outbreak of aseptic meningitis in 1993. Six clinical isolates of enterovirus were obtained from patients with aseptic meningitis and were identified as echovirus type 9 by serotyping with a pool of neutralizing antisera. For molecular characterization of the isolates, the nucleotide sequences of 5'-noncoding region (NCR), VP4, VP2, VP1, 2A and 2C regions of the isolates were compared with the corresponding regions of echovirus type 9 Hill and Barty strains. Unlike Hill strain, Barty strain contained a C-terminal extension to the capsid protein VP1 with an RGD (argnine-glycine-aspartic acid) motif. To determine whether similar structural features were present in our isolates, their nucleotide sequences including the VP1 region were analyzed. All isolates exhibited the VP1 extension with the RGD motif. We concluded the Korean isolates in the year of 1993 as the echovirus type 9 Barty strain although the isolates showed 15-20% nucleotide sequence differences in the several genomic regions.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Base Sequence , Capsid/genetics , Comparative Study , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Echovirus 9/genetics , Genome, Viral , Humans , Meningitis, Aseptic/virology , Molecular Sequence Data , RNA Helicases/genetics , Genetic Variation
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