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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2803-2812, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887843

ABSTRACT

Bacitracin is a broad-spectrum antibiotics mainly produced by Bacillus, and is used as veterinary medicine in the fields of livestock and poultry breeding. Insufficient supply of precursor amino acids might be an important factor that hinders high-level microbial production of bacitracin. We investigated the effect of strengthening L-cysteine supply on bacitracin production by an industrial bacitracin producer, Bacillus licheniformis DW2. Overexpression of cysK encoding L-cysteine synthase led to a 9.17% increase of the bacitracin titer. Moreover, overexpression of cysE encoding L-serine acetyltransferase and cysP encoding thiosulfate/sulfate intracellular transporter increased the bacitracin titers by 7.23% and 8.52%, respectively. Moreover, overexpression of a putative cystine importer TcyP led to a 29.19% increase of intracellular L-cysteine, and bacitracin titer was increased by 7.79%. Subsequently, the strong promoter PbacA was used to replace the promoters of genes cysP, cysE and tcyP in strain DW2::ysK, respectively. The resulted strain CYS4 (DW2::cysK-PbacA-(cysP)-PbacA(cysE)- PbacA(tcyP) produced 910.02 U/mL bacitracin, which was 21.10% higher than that of the original strain DW2 (747.71 U/mL). Together with the experiments in 3 L fermenters, this research demonstrated that enhancing intracellular L-cysteine supply is an effective strategy to increase bacitracin production of B. licheniformis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Bacillus licheniformis/genetics , Bacitracin , Cysteine , Metabolic Engineering
2.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 299-307, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827057

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of L-cysteine on colonic motility and the underlying mechanism. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot were used to detect the localization of the HS-generating enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Organ bath system was used to observe the muscle contractile activities. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to record ionic channels currents in colonic smooth muscle cells. The results showed that both CBS and CSE were localized in mucosa, longitudinal and circular muscle and enteric neurons. L-cysteine had a dual effect on colonic contraction, and the excitatory effect was blocked by pretreatment with CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetate acid (AOAA) and CSE inhibitor propargylglycine (PAG); L-cysteine concentration-dependently inhibited L-type calcium channel current (I) without changing the characteristic of L-type calcium channel (P < 0.01); In contrast, the exogenous HS donor NaHS increased I at concentration of 100 μmol/L, but inhibited I and modified the channel characteristics at concentration of 300 μmol/L (P < 0.05); Furthermore, L-cysteine had no effect on large conductance calcium channel current (I), but NaHS significantly inhibited I (P < 0.05). These results suggest that L-cysteine has a potential dual effect on colonic smooth muscle and the inhibitory effect might be directly mediated by L-type calcium channel while the excitatory effect might be mediated by endogenous HS.


Subject(s)
Cystathionine beta-Synthase , Cystathionine gamma-Lyase , Cysteine , Pharmacology , Hydrogen Sulfide , Muscle, Smooth
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190075, 2020. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1101266

ABSTRACT

Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom contains several cysteine-rich peptide toxins that act on different ion channels. Despite extensive studies on its venom and description of cDNA sequences of several of its toxin precursors, the gene structure of these toxins remains unknown. Methods: Genomic regions encoding the precursors of three previously characterized P. nigriventer toxins - PnTx1, PnTx2-5 and PnTx4(5-5) - were amplified by PCR using specific primers. PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. Obtained sequences were compared with their corresponding cDNA sequences. Results: The size of PCR fragments obtained and sequences corresponding to genomic regions encoding for the toxin precursors matched their cDNA sequences. Conclusions: Despite a few nucleotide substitutions in the genomic regions encoding for the toxin precursors when compared with cDNA sequences, the results of the present work indicate that P. nigriventer toxins do not contain introns in their genes sequences.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Spider Venoms , Introns , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Cysteine , Nucleotides
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) has been used as the first conduit of choice in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) because of excellent long-term patency and outcomes. However, no studies have examined substances other than nitric oxide that could be beneficial for the bypass conduit, native coronary artery or ischemic myocardium. This study was conducted to evaluate differences in metabolic profiles between the LITA and ascending aorta using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). METHODS: Twenty patients who underwent CABG using the LITA were prospectively enrolled. Plasma samples were collected simultaneously from the LITA and ascending aorta. GC-TOF-MS based untargeted metabolomic analyses were performed and a 2-step volcano plot analysis was used to identify distinguishable markers from two plasma metabolome profiles. Semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses were performed using GC-TOF-MS and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, after selecting target metabolites based on the metabolite set enrichment analysis. RESULTS: Initial volcano plot analysis demonstrated 5 possible markers among 851 peaks detected. The final analysis demonstrated that the L-cysteine peak was significantly higher in the LITA than in the ascending aorta (fold change = 1.86). The concentrations of intermediate metabolites such as L-cysteine, L-methionine and L-cystine in the ‘cysteine and methionine metabolism pathway' were significantly higher in the LITA than in the ascending aorta (2.0-, 1.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively). Quantitative analysis showed that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was significantly higher in the LITA. CONCLUSION: The plasma metabolome profiles of the LITA and ascending aorta were different, particularly higher plasma concentrations of L-cysteine and H2S in the LITA.


Subject(s)
Aorta , Chromatography, Gas , Coronary Artery Bypass , Coronary Vessels , Cysteine , Cystine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Mammary Arteries , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Myocardium , Nitric Oxide , Plasma , Prospective Studies , Spectrum Analysis
6.
Immune Network ; : e29-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764017

ABSTRACT

The matrix protein 2 of influenza A virus (IFAV) has a relatively conserved ectodomain (M2e) composed of 23 amino acids, and M2e-based vaccines have been suggested to induce broad protective immunity in mice. In this study, we investigated whether N-terminal sequence of M2e (nM2e)-based vaccines with more conserved nM2e could induce influenza viral neutralizing activity. We constructed linear peptide vaccines with an nM2e sequence for PR8 virus (nM2Pr) connected to a probable 17-mer IFAV-derived helper T-cell epitope (ThE: T1, T2, or T3) at its N- or C-terminus. The peptide vaccines induced significant production of nM2e Abs regardless of either type or location of the ThE-epitope in BALB/c mice, while only T3 was effective in C57BL/6 mice. The Abs against nM2Pr-T3 elicited broader binding affinities to the nM2e peptides derived from various IFAVs than those against T3-nM2Pr. In addition, the nM2e-based vaccines efficiently protected the immunized mice from the lethal challenge of PR8 virus. These results suggest that the more conserved nM2e without cysteine will be useful for development of universal peptide vaccines than M2e.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Cysteine , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Influenza A virus , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Mice , Peptides , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit
7.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 172-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739545

ABSTRACT

Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in the brain) is a small GTPase protein that plays an important role in cell signaling for development of the neocortex through modulation of mTORC1 (mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1) activity. mTORC1 is known to control various biological processes including axonal growth in forming complexes at the lysosomal membrane compartment. As such, anchoring of Rheb on the lysosomal membrane via the farnesylation of Rheb at its cysteine residue (C180) is required for its promotion of mTOR activity. To test the significance of Rheb farnesylation, we overexpressed a farnesylation mutant form of Rheb, Rheb C180S, in primary rat hippocampal neurons and also in mouse embryonic neurons using in utero electroporation. Interestingly, we found that Rheb C180S maintained promotional effect of axonal elongation similar to the wild-type Rheb in both test systems. On the other hand, Rheb C180S failed to exhibit the multiple axon-promoting effect which is found in wild-type Rheb. The levels of phospho-4EBP1, a downstream target of mTORC1, were surprisingly increased in Rheb C180S transfected neurons, despite the levels of phosphorylated mTOR being significantly decreased compared to control vector transfectants. A specific mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, also could not completely abolish axon elongation characteristics of Rheb C180S in transfected cells. Our data suggests that Rheb in a non-membrane compartment can promote the axonal elongation via phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and through an mTORC1-independent pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Biological Phenomena , Cysteine , Electroporation , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Hand , Membranes , Mice , Neocortex , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Prenylation , Protein Prenylation , Rats , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776905

ABSTRACT

While most types of malignancies remain recalcitrant to treatment, application of natural products or their analogs in daily life has offered some hopes as an effective prophylaxis against cancer onset and progression in the past decades. Emerging evidence supports a link between garlic consumption and decreased cancer incidence. Notably, aged garlic extract (AGE) exhibits stronger anti-cancer activities than that of fresh garlic, by virtue of enrichment of several AGE-specific organosulfur compounds, including S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC). In this review, we summarize the up-to-date mechanistic pathways associated with the anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and pro-apoptotic effects of SAMC in various cancer models. Based upon the proven safety and improved understanding on its anti-neoplastic properties, SAMC has gained recognition as a promising daily food supplement for cancer prevention or management.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Apoptosis , Cysteine , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Disease Models, Animal , Garlic , Chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of hyperoxic exposure on the dynamic expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-L-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in the lung tissue of preterm neonatal rats.@*METHODS@#Cesarean section was performed for rats on day 21 of gestation to obtain 80 preterm rats, which were randomly divided into air group and hyperoxia group after one day of feeding. The rats in the air group were housed in room air under atmospheric pressure, and those in the hyperoxia group were placed in an atmospheric oxygen tank (oxygen concentration 85%-95%) in the same room. Eight rats each were selected from each group on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14, and lung tissue samples were collected. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue at different time points after air or hyperoxic exposure. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of HO-1 and GCLC in the lung tissue of preterm rats at different time points after air or hyperoxic exposure.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had a significant reduction in the body weight (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had structural disorder, widening of alveolar septa, a reduction in the number of alveoli, and simplification of the alveoli on the pathological section of lung tissue. Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly lower relative mRNA expression of HO-1 in the lung tissue on day 7 and significantly higher expression on days 10 and 14 (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly lower mRNA expression of GCLC in the lung tissue on days 1, 4, and 7 and significantly higher expression on day 10 (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly higher protein expression of HO-1 in the lung tissue on all days, and the protein expression of GCLC had same results as HO-1, except on day 1 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Hyperoxia exposure may lead to growth retardation and lung developmental retardation in preterm rats. Changes in the protein and mRNA expression of HO-1 and GCLC in the lung tissue of preterm rats may be associated with the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Newborn , Catalytic Domain , Cesarean Section , Cysteine , Female , Glutamates , Heme Oxygenase-1 , Humans , Hyperoxia , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Pregnancy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 875-889, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785500

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Development of an in vitro model for assessing the anti-inflammatory efficacies of naringin (Nar) and naringenin (NG).PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of natural flavonoids as therapeutic drugs against anti-inflammatory processes in the nucleus pulposus (NP) cells using in-vitro and in-silico methods.OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is a common cause of low back pain. Chronic inflammation and degeneration play a significant role in its etiopathology. Thus, a better understanding of anti-inflammatory agents and their role in IVD degeneration and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression is necessary for pain management and regeneration in IVD.METHODS: We performed primary cell culture of NP cells; immunocytochemistry; gene expression studies of cytokines, metalloproteases, extracellular proteins, and apoptotic markers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); cytotoxicity assay (MTT); and molecular docking studies using AutoDock 4.2 software (Molecular Graphics Laboratory, La Jolla, CA, USA) to confirm the binding mode of proteins and synthesized complexes. We calculated the mean±standard deviation values and performed analysis of variance and t-test using SPSS ver. 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).RESULTS: Molecular docking showed that both Nar and NG bind to the selected genes of interest. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis reveals differential gene expression of collagen (COL)9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COL11A2, COMT (catechol-O-methyltransferase), and THBS2 (thrombospondin 2); up regulation of ACAN (aggrecan), COL1A1, COL11A1, interleukin (IL)6, IL10, IL18R1, IL18RAP, metalloprotease (MMP)2, MMP3, MMP9, ADAMTS5 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5), IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor), SPARC (secreted protein acidic and cysteine rich), PARK2 (parkin), VDR (vitamin D receptor), and BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2); down regulation of IL1A, CASP3 (caspase 3), and nine genes with predetermined concentrations of Nar and NG.CONCLUSIONS: The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and regenerative efficiencies of Nar and NG in degenerated human NP cells. Altered gene expressions of cytokines, metalloproteases, extracellular proteins, apoptotic genes were dose responsive. The molecular docking (in silico) studies showed effective binding of these native ligands (Nar and NG) with genes identified as potent inhibitors of inflammation. Thus, these natural flavonoids could serve as anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of low back pain and sciatica.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Caspase 3 , Collagen , Cysteine , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Flavonoids , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukins , Intervertebral Disc , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Ligands , Low Back Pain , Lymphoma , Metalloproteases , Models, Molecular , Pain Management , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Primary Cell Culture , Regeneration , Sciatica , Thrombospondins , Up-Regulation
11.
Rev. Salusvita (Online) ; 38(4): 1127-1149, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117870

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A adesão da resina composta à dentina ocorre pela formação da camada híbrida. Assim, sua degradação ocasiona a perda da resistência de união na interface resina/dentina, influenciando na longevidade da restauração. Após o condicionamento ácido e aplicação do sistema adesivo na dentina desmineralizada, fibras colágenas não envolvidas por sistema adesivo ficam desprotegidas e suscetíveis ao ataque das metaloproteinases (MMPs). Objetivos: Esta revisão buscou esclarecer o efeito das MMPs na degradação da camada híbrida e os efeitos da clorexidina no processo de adesão. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão da literatura por meio de uma busca bibliográfica nas bases de dados Pubmed/ Medline, Scielo e Google Acadêmico, utilizados estudos publicados nos anos de 2005 a 2018. Foi realizada a busca pelos seguintes descritores: Dentistry, MMPs, Chlorhexidine. Resultados: Estas enzimas, presentes na própria dentina, são reativadas pelo ácido fosfórico ou pelos monômeros ácidos dos adesivos autocondicionantes e iniciam a degradação. A aplicação da clorexidina (CHX) na dentina, após o condicionamento ácido, impede ou retarda a degradação das fibras de colágeno da camada híbrida. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a ligação adesiva à dentina diminui com o passar dos anos devido à ação das MMPs que degradam o colágeno não infiltrado por monômeros adesivos na parte mais profunda da camada híbrida. Além disso, a clorexidina como inibidor terapêutico em sistemas adesivos convencionais é capaz de inibir as MMPs e assim a ligação adesiva à dentina pode ser mantida estável por um período de tempo mais longo.


Introduction: The adhesion of the composite resin to the dentin occurs by the formation of the hybrid layer. Thus, its degradation causes loss of union resistance on interface resin / dentin interface, directly influencing the longevity of the restoration. After the acid etching and the application of the adhesive system into demineralized dentin, collagen fibers not involved by adhesive system get unprotected and susceptibles to attack by metalloproteinases (MMPs). The enzymes, present in the dentin itself, are rehabilitated by phosphoric acid or by the acids monomers of the self-etching adhesives initiating degradation. The application of chlorhexidine (CHX) in the dentin, after acid conditioning, prevents or slows down the degradation of the collagen fibers of the hybrid layer. This literature review sought to clarify the effect of MMPs on the degradation of the hybrid layer and the effects of chlorhexidine on the adhesion process. It was concluded that the adhesive bonding to dentin decreases with the passage of years due in part to the action of MMPs, which degrade collagen not infiltrated by adhesive monomers in the deepest part of the hybrid layer. In addition, the use of chlorhexidine as a therapeutic inhibitor in conventional adhesive systems is capable of inhibiting the MMPs and thus the adhesive bonding to the dentin can be kept stable for a longer period of time.


Subject(s)
Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dentin-Bonding Agents/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Cathepsins/metabolism , Resin Cements/metabolism , Cysteine/metabolism , Fibrillar Collagens/drug effects , Fibrillar Collagens/metabolism
12.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 1130-1134, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Trichotillomania is a relatively common illness whose neurobiology is poorly understood. One treatment for adult trichotillomania, n-acetyl cysteine (NAC), has antioxidative properties, as well as effects on central glutamatergic transmission. Preclinical models suggest that excessive oxidative stress may be involved in its pathophysiology. METHODS: Adults with trichotillomania provided a blood sample for analysis of compounds that may be influenced by oxidative stress [glutathione, angiotensin II, ferritin, iron, glucose, insulin and insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1), and hepcidin]. Participants were examined on symptom severity, disability, and impulsivity. The number of participants with out-of-reference range oxidative stress measures were compared against the null distribution. Correlations between oxidative stress markers and clinical measures were examined. RESULTS: Of 14 participants (mean age 31.2 years; 92.9% female), 35.7% (n=5) had total glutathione levels below the reference range (p= 0.041). Other oxidative stress measures did not have significant proportions outside the reference ranges. Lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale sub-score) (r=0.97, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: A third of patients with trichotillomania had low levels of glutathione, and lower levels of glutathione correlated significantly with higher motor impulsiveness. Because NAC is a precursor for cysteine, and cysteine is a rate limiting step for glutathione production, these results may shed light on the mechanisms through which NAC can have beneficial effects for impulsive symptoms. Confirmation of these results requires a suitable larger follow-up study, including an internal normative control group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiotensin II , Cysteine , Ferritins , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Glutathione , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Insulin , Iron , Neurobiology , Oxidative Stress , Reference Values , Trichotillomania
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718759

ABSTRACT

Native turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV) is relatively unreactive to maleimide agents, indicating few reactive thiol groups on TYMV. In the present study, we aimed to construct TYMV mutants that have reactive cysteine residues on the surface. To this end, we prepared a library of TYMV mutants where the Thr residue at the C-terminus of coat protein (CP) was replaced by a random sequence of six amino acids that included one cysteine. This library was introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfiltration. The CP sequence of the TYMV RNA isolated from inoculated leaves was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and then used to construct a second library. This process was repeated one more time, and the CP sequences of the TYMV RNA in the inoculated leaves were analyzed. Based on the analysis of over 11,000 CP sequences, the Cys mutants representing most abundant TYMV RNAs were constructed. Analysis of the mutants showed that four Cys mutants were nearly comparable to wildtype with respect to CP and viral RNA levels in N. benthamiana. All these mutants were highly reactive to fluoresceine-5-maleimide. This demonstrates that TYMV can be modified to have additional functional groups on the surface that would be useful for drug delivery.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Brassica napus , Cysteine , RNA , RNA, Viral , Tobacco , Tymovirus
14.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 960-967, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717933

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gaseous molecule with important physiological roles. It is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS). The present study examined the benefits of exogenous H2S on renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, as well as the effects of CGL or CBS inhibition. Furthermore, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the action of H2S in the kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups: a sham, renal IR control, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) treatment, H2S donor, and CGL or CBS inhibitor administration group. Levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated. Histological changes, apoptosis, and expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38) were also evaluated. RESULTS: NaHS attenuated serum BUN and Cr levels, as well as histological damage caused by renal IR injury. Administration of NaHS also reduced oxidative stress as evident from decreased MDA, preserved SOD, and reduced apoptotic cells. Additionally, NaHS prevented renal IR-induced MAPK phosphorylation. The CGL or CBS group showed increased MAPK family activity; however, there was no significant difference in the IR control group. CONCLUSION: Exogenous H2S can mitigate IR injury-led renal damage. The proposed beneficial effect of H2S is, in part, because of the anti-oxidative stress associated with modulation of the MAPK signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine , Cystathionine , Cysteine , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hydrogen , Ischemia , JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Kidney , Male , Malondialdehyde , Oxidative Stress , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reperfusion , Reperfusion Injury , Sodium , Superoxide Dismutase , Tissue Donors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742283

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living protozoa that are opportunistic pathogens for humans. Cysteine proteases of Acanthamoeba have been partially characterized, but their biochemical and functional properties are not clearly understood yet. In this study, we isolated a gene encoding cysteine protease of A. castellanii (AcCP) and its biochemical and functional properties were analyzed. Sequence analysis of AcCP suggests that this enzyme is a typical cathepsin L family cysteine protease, which shares similar structural characteristics with other cathepsin L-like enzymes. The recombinant AcCP showed enzymatic activity in acidic conditions with an optimum at pH 4.0. The recombinant enzyme effectively hydrolyzed human proteins including hemoglobin, albumin, immunoglobuins A and G, and fibronectin at acidic pH. AcCP mainly localized in lysosomal compartment and its expression was observed in both trophozoites and cysts. AcCP was also identified in cultured medium of A. castellanii. Considering to lysosomal localization, secretion or release by trophozoites and continuous expression in trophozoites and cysts, the enzyme could be a multifunctional enzyme that plays important biological functions for nutrition, development and pathogenicity of A. castellanii. These results also imply that AcCP can be a promising target for development of chemotherapeutic drug for Acanthamoeba infections.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Cathepsin L , Cathepsins , Cysteine Proteases , Cysteine , Fibronectins , Genes, vif , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lysosomes , Sequence Analysis , Trophozoites , Virulence
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although several recent studies have reported the anti-cancer effects of extracts or components of Citrus unshiu peel, which has been used for various purposes in traditional medicine, the molecular mechanisms for their effects remain unclear. In the present study, the anti-cancer activity of a water-soluble extract of C. unshiu peel (WECU) in MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells at the level of apoptosis induction was investigated. MATERIALS/METHODS: Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Apoptosis was detected using DAPI staining and flow cytometry analyses. Mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, caspase activity and Western blotting were used to confirm the basis of apoptosis. RESULTS: The results indicated that WECU-induced apoptosis was related to the activation of caspase-8, and -9, representative initiator caspases of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways, respectively, and caspase-3 accompanied by proteolytic degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and down-regulation of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family members. WECU also increased the pro-apoptotic BAX to anti-apoptotic BCL-2 ratio, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytoplasm. Furthermore, WECU provoked the generation of ROS, but the reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis by WECU were prevented when ROS production was blocked by antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that WECU suppressed proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells by activating extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways in a ROS-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Caspase 3 , Caspase 8 , Caspases, Initiator , Cell Survival , Citrus , Cysteine , Cytochromes c , Cytoplasm , Down-Regulation , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mitochondria , Oxygen , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Reactive Oxygen Species , Water
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713579

ABSTRACT

Alterations in sulfur amino acid metabolism are associated with an increased risk of a number of common late-life diseases, which raises the possibility that metabolism of sulfur amino acids may change with age. The present study was conducted to understand the age-related changes in hepatic metabolism of sulfur amino acids in 2-, 6-, 18- and 30-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. For this purpose, metabolite profiling of sulfur amino acids from methionine to taurine or glutathione (GSH) was performed. The levels of sulfur amino acids and their metabolites were not significantly different among 2-, 6- and 18-month-old mice, except for plasma GSH and hepatic homocysteine. Plasma total GSH and hepatic total homocysteine levels were significantly higher in 2-month-old mice than those in the other age groups. In contrast, 30-month-old mice exhibited increased hepatic methionine and cysteine, compared with all other groups, but decreased hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine, relative to 2-month-old mice. No differences in hepatic reduced GSH, GSH disulfide, or taurine were observed. The hepatic changes in homocysteine and cysteine may be attributed to upregulation of cystathionine β-synthase and down-regulation of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase in the aged mice. The elevation of hepatic cysteine levels may be involved in the maintenance of hepatic GSH levels. The opposite changes of methionine and SAM suggest that the regulatory role of SAM in hepatic sulfur amino acid metabolism may be impaired in 30-month-old mice.


Subject(s)
Aging , Amino Acids, Sulfur , Animals , Child, Preschool , Cystathionine , Cysteine , Down-Regulation , Glutathione , Homocysteine , Humans , Infant , Male , Metabolism , Metabolomics , Methionine , Mice , Plasma , S-Adenosylhomocysteine , S-Adenosylmethionine , Sulfur , Taurine , Up-Regulation
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD) is relatively common disease. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) has both mucolytic and antioxidant effect, also may be beneficial in inflammatory airway diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inhaled NAC therapy in LPRD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 525 LPRD patients at 12 medical centers. Finally 401 patients subjected to inhaled NAC therapy for 2 months were enrolled in the study. We analyzed the change of Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) and Reflux Finding Score (RFS) after use of NAC for 4 weeks and 8 weeks in addition to the patient's compliance of the treatment. RESULTS: The RSI score significantly decreased from 19.87±6.34 to 12.78±6.93 after 4 weeks and to 10.65±7.47 after 8 weeks. The RFS score also significantly decreased from 9.29±3.4 to 7.17±3.41 after 4 weeks and to 6.1±3.73 after 8 weeks (p<0.05). During the treatment periods, 42 patients (10.4%) reported to have 80 episodes of discomfort. Throat discomfort (33%) and nausea (28%) were most common complaints, but the duration of discomfort was usually less than 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: Inhaled NAC treatment is highly effective for the reduction of both subjective and objective findings in LPRD patients. This study will provide the evidence of new treatment option for patients with LPRD. However, further studies will be needs to assess the real effect of inhaled NAC therapy as a standard treatment regimen of LPRD.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Compliance , Cysteine , Cystine , Humans , Inhalation , Laryngopharyngeal Reflux , Medical Records , Nausea , Pharynx , Retrospective Studies
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(9): 712-725, Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886241

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the participation of cysteinyl leukotrienes in the pathophysiology of oral mucositis. Methods: Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 60 and 40 mg/kg; i.p., on days 1 and 2, respectively, and with excoriations in jugal mucosa on day 4). Montelukast (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/d; gavage), MK886 (3 mg/kg/d, i.p.), or saline or celecoxib (7.5 mg/kg/d; i.p.) was administered 1 h prior to 5-FU and daily, until the fourth (MK886) or tenth day, when the animals were euthanized and their jugal mucosa was collected for macroscopic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical evaluation. Results: Neither montelukast nor MK-886 prevented the oral mucositis induced by 5-FU, as observed by histopathological evaluation. In addition, we did not find significant differences in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase-2, cyclooxygenase-2, or interleukin (IL)-1β between the experimental and control groups. However, we did observe a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression for all doses of montelukast; we also observed a significant decrease in IL-10 with 40 mg/kg/d and MK 886. Conclusions: Cysteinyl leukotrienes do not play an important role in experimental oral mucositis induced by 5-FU. There is a modulating action specifically on TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Stomatitis/prevention & control , Leukotrienes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Cysteine/metabolism , Stomatitis/chemically induced , Stomatitis/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Fluorouracil
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 33(2): 411-421, mar./apr. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966195

ABSTRACT

Previous studies show that nutritional interventions with anti-oxidants have various healthpromoting effects in several model organisms. Here, we examine the effects of S-allyl cysteine on resistance to environmental stressors and age-related physiological changes using C. elegans as a model system. S-allyl cysteine is a modified amino acid found in aged garlic extracts and known to have strong anti-oxidant activity. The survival of worms under oxidative-stress conditions significantly increased with supplementation of S-allyl cysteine. In addition, pretreatment of S-allyl cysteine significantly increased resistance to both heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. However, lifespan was not affected by S-allyl cysteine treatment. We also examined the effect of S-allyl cysteine on motility of C. elegans and found that S-allyl cysteine can retard the age-related decline of muscle tissue locomotive activity. S-allyl cysteine also significantly suppressed amyloid -induced paralysis in Alzheimer's disease model animals. Taken together, our study indicates that dietary supplementation of S-allyl cysteine can improve health span and suggests that S-allyl cysteine can be used to develop novel health-promoting pharmaceuticals.


Estudos anteriores mostram que intervenções nutricionais com antioxidantes têm vários efeitos promotores da saúde em vários organismos-modelo. Aqui, examinamos os efeitos da S-alil cisteína sobre a resistência a estressores ambientais e alterações fisiológicas relacionadas com a idade usando C. elegans como um sistema modelo. Salil cisteína é um aminoácido modificado encontrado em extratos de alho envelhecido e conhecido por ter forte atividade antioxidante. A sobrevivência de vermes sob condições de estresse oxidativo aumentou significativamente com a suplementação de S-alil cisteína. Além disso, o pré-tratamento com S-alil cisteína aumentou significativamente a resistência tanto ao estresse térmico como à irradiação ultravioleta. No entanto, o tempo de vida não foi afetado pelo tratamento com S-alil cisteína. Nós também examinamos o efeito da S-alil cisteína na motilidade de C. elegans e descobrimos que a S-alil cisteína pode retardar o declínio relacionado à idade da atividade locomotora do tecido muscular. A S-alil cisteína também suprimiu significativamente a paralisia induzida por amilóide em animais-modelo da doença de Alzheimer. Tomados em conjunto, o nosso estudo indica que a suplementação dietética de S-alil cisteína pode melhorar a duração da saúde e sugere que S-alil cisteína pode ser usada para desenvolver novos produtos farmacêuticos de promoção da saúde.


Subject(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans , Cysteine , Garlic , Antioxidants
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