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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887869

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the function and mechanism of related genes in the occurrence and development of liver cancer, and the possibility of key genes as potential biomarkers and prognostic indicators for the treatment of liver cancer.Methods We selected 4 datasets(GSE57957, GSE121248, GSE36376 and GSE14520)from the GEO database.With


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Carrier Proteins , Computational Biology , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Regulatory Networks , Glycoproteins , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Prognosis , Protein Interaction Maps
2.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 220-231, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353228

ABSTRACT

El uso de inhibidores de calcineurina, en particular de tacrolimus como terapia inmunosupresora se ha generalizado a nivel mundial, permitiendo mejorar la tasa de sobrevida del injerto y la calidad de vida del paciente trasplantado. Con el acceso a los estudios de farmacogenética, los grupos de trasplante a nivel mundial se han visto motivados a realizar estudios genéticos que permitan interpretar la influencia de polimorfismos de genes como mTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, y FOXP3, sin embargo, los más estudiados en la población trasplantada para optimizar la dosis de tacrolimus y ciclosporina son los polimorfismos del citocromo p450, CYP3A4 y CYP3A5.El objetivo de la presente revisión narrativa es examinar publicaciones recientes que estudien la relación entre el polimorfismo de CYP3A4/5 y el metabolismo de tacrolimus en pacientes trasplantados renales.Se revisó literatura reciente extraída de los sitios NCBI PubMed y PharmGKB.org en la que se hubiera investigado la influencia de los polimorfismos de CYP3A4/5 en el metabolismo de tacrolimus en trasplantados renales. Se identificó variaciones genéticas de CYP3A4/5 en pacientes trasplantados tratados con tacrolimus que permitirán a los médicos trasplantólogos dosificar de manera precisa el inmunosupresor. El uso de análisis farmacogenéticos permite determinar las variables genéticas del CYP3A4/5, y por lo tanto la toma de decisiones personalizadas en la dosis de inicio y de mantenimiento del inmunosupresor tacrolimus para alcanzar los niveles óptimos y con ello disminuir el riesgo de rechazo, de infecciones asociadas a inmunosupresión, y de toxicidad por el medicamento.


The use of the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as immunosuppressive therapy, has become widespread world-wide, improving the graft's survival rate and the quality of life of the transplanted patient. With access to pharmacogenetic studies, transplant groups worldwide have been motivated to conduct genetic studies to inter-pret the influence of polymorphisms of genes such asmTOR, PPP3CA, FK BP1A, FKBP2, and FOXP3, however the most studied in the transplanted population to optimize the dose of tacrolimus and cyclosporine are those of cytochrome p450,CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The objective of this narrative review is to examine recent publications studying the relationship betweenCYP3A4/5polymorphism, and tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplant patients. Literature extracted from the NCBI PubMed site and PharmGKB.org, from the past five years, which investigated the influence ofCYP3A4/5polymorphism on tacrolimus metabolism in renal transplants had been reviewed. Genetic variations ofCYP3A4/5 were identified in transplant patients treated with tacrolimus that will allow transplant physicians to dose the immunosuppressant accurately. The use of pharmacogenetic analyses makes it possible to determine the genetic polymorphisms ofCYP3A4/5, and therefore the decision-making cus-tomized at the starting and maintenance dose of the tacrolimus immunosuppressant to achieve optimal levels and thereby reduce the risk of rejection, immunosuppression-associated infections, and drug toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Kidney Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/drug effects , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Prescription Drugs/toxicity , Calcineurin Inhibitors
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879530

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the association of CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms with the risk of myocardial infarction.@*METHODS@#Five hundred patients with myocardial infarction and 500 healthy controls were randomly selected. Fluorescent PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the polymorphisms and myocardial infarction. Quanto software was used to evaluate the statistical power.@*RESULTS@#The two groups had significant difference in the frequency of AG, GG genotypes and A allele of the CYP2C19 gene rs4986893 locus and the AA, AG, GG genotypes and G allele of the CYP3A5 gene rs776746 locus ( P<0.05), but not in the frequency of genotypes and alleles of CYP2C19 gene rs4244285 and rs12248560 loci, and the AA genotype of the rs4986893 locus. After correction for age, gender, and body mass index, Logistic regression indicated that the AG genotype and A allele of the CYP2C19 gene rs4986893 locus, and the GG genotype and G allele of CYP3A5 gene rs776746 locus are associated with susceptibility of myocardial infarction, while rs4986893 GG genotype and AA and AG genotypes of rs776746 may confer a protective effect. Based on the sample size and allele frequency, analysis with Quanto software suggested that the result of this study has a statistical power of 99%.@*CONCLUSION@#CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 gene polymorphisms may increase the risk for myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
4.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 49(2): 84-95, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115648

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: In the last 20 years of clinical practice, the senior author has identified these 2 rare cases in which the patients needed extremely high doses of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 to reach and maintain serum therapeutic concentrations. Methods: The high metabolic ability of these 2 patients was demonstrated by the low concentration-to-dose ratios (C/D ratios) of several drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Results: Case 1 was characterized by a history of high carbamazepine doses (up to 2,000 mg/day) and needed 170 mg/day of diazepam in 2 days to cooperate with dental cleaning. The high activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme was manifested by fast metabolism for quetiapine and diazepam, which took more than 1 year to normalize after the inducer, phenytoin, was stopped. Case 2 was also very sensitive to CYP3A4 inducers as indicated by very low C/D ratios for carbamazepine, risperidone and paliperidone. The carbamazepine (2,800 mg/day) and risperidone (20 mg/day) dosages for this second patient are the highest doses ever seen for these drugs by the senior author. Risperidone induction appeared to last for many months and metabolism was definitively normal 3 years after stopping carbamazepine. On the other hand, olanzapine C/D ratios were normal for induction. Conclusions: The literature has never described similar cases of very high doses of drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. We speculate that these 2 patients may have unusual genetic profiles at the nuclear receptor levels; these receptors regulate induction of drugs.


RESUMEN Introducción: Durante sus últimos 20 años de práctica, el último autor ha identificado estos 2 infrecuentes casos que necesitaban dosis extremadamente altas de medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4 para alcanzar y mantener concentraciones séricas terapéuticas. Métodos: La gran capacidad metabólica de estos 2 pacientes se demostró por los bajos cocientes entre concentración y dosis (C/D) de varias medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4. Resultados: El caso 1 se caracterizaba por una historia de altas dosis de carbamazepina (1.500 mg/día) y la necesidad de tomar 170 mg de diazepam en 2 días para facilitar una limpieza dental. La gran actividad de la isoenzima CYP3A4 se manifestó por una gran capacidad metabólica de quetiapina y diazepam, cuya normalización tardó más de 1 año tras la toma de un inductor, fenitoína. El caso 2 tambien era muy sensible a la inducción, lo cual se demuestra por los bajos cocientes C/D de carbamazepina, risperidona y paliperidona. Las dosis de carbamazepina (2.800 mg/día) y risperidona (20 mg/día) de este segundo paciente son las más altas nunca vistas por el último autor. La inducción de risperidona duró muchos meses y su metabolismo era normal 3 años después de interrumpir la carbamazepina. El cociente C/D de olanzapina era normal para la inducción. Conclusiones: Nunca se habían descrito casos similares de dosis tan altas de medicaciones metabolizadas por el CYP3A4. Se especula con que estos pacientes podrían tener unos perfiles genéticos inusuales en los receptores nucleares que regulan la inducción de medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers , Triacetoneamine-N-Oxyl , Carbamazepine , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Risperidone , Diazepam , Dosage , Quetiapine Fumarate , Paliperidone Palmitate , Olanzapine , Methods
5.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 47: e20202384, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136578

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 têm sido apontados enquanto fatores influenciadores na eficácia farmacológica com tacrolimo em pacientes em terapia imunossupressora no pós-transplante hepático. O presente estudo objetiva realizar uma revisão da literatura acerca da influência dos polimorfismos genéticos do citocromo P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) na eficácia terapêutica com tacrolimo em indivíduos pós-transplante hepático. Revisão da literatura. Foi utilizada a combinação dos descritores "tacrolimo", "transplante de fígado", "inibidores do citocromo P-450 CYP3A" e "polimorfismo genético", nas bases de dados: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus e Scielo, sendo avaliados apenas estudos publicados entre 2009 e 2019 em inglês, português ou espanhol. Ao todo foi feita a sumarização de seis estudos, cada um avaliando uma diferente população. Inicialmente, foram abordados os aspectos farmacológicos do tacrolimo, incluindo detalhes sobre sua farmacodinâmica, farmacocinética e toxicidade. Na seção seguinte, foi realizada a avaliação de estudos que tratam da relação entre os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 e a eficácia farmacológica com o tacrolimo, incluindo as especificações étnicas e as limitações gerais dos estudos. Os polimorfismos genéticos do CYP3A5 têm apontado para alterações no metabolismo do tacrolimo de acordo com um recorte étnico e populacional, com destaque para os alelos *1 e *3*3, refletindo na necessidade de ajuste de dose ou até mesmo nas taxas de rejeição do órgão.


ABSTRACT Genetic polymorphisms of CYP3A5 have been pointed out as factors that influenciates tacrolimus immunosuppressive efficacy in post liver transplant patients. This study aims to review the literature on the influence of cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) genetic polymorphisms of tacrolimus in post-liver transplant patients. This study is a literature review. A combination of the descriptors "tacrolimus", "liver transplant", "cytochrome P-450 CYP3A inhibitors" and "genetic polymorphism" were used in the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Scielo, being evaluated only studies between 2009 and 2019 in English, Portuguese or Spanish. A total of six studies, each from a different population were summarized. Initially, the pharmacological aspects of tacrolimus were discussed, including details on its pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and toxicity After that, we analyzed the studies that correlates CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms and tacrolimus efficacy, including the ethnical specifications and the general limittions of the studies. The CYP3A5 polymorphisms have pointed to alterations in the metabolism of tacrolimus according to the ethnic and populational genotype, specially the *1 and *3*3 alleles, reflecting in the need for dose adjustment and also in post liver transplant rejection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Liver Transplantation , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Immunosuppressive Agents
6.
Intestinal Research ; : 218-226, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus (TAC) is known to be largely influenced by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5. Patients starting TAC require careful dose adjustment, owing to the wide range of optimal dosages, depending on their CYP3A5 expression status. Here, we evaluated whether individualization of TAC dosages based on CYP3A5 SNPs would improve its therapeutic efficacy in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Twenty-one patients were prospectively treated, with their initial dosage adjusted according to their CYP3A5 status (0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 mg/kg/day for CYP3A5*3/*3, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*1/*1, respectively). Their clinical outcomes were compared with those of patients treated with a fixed dose (0.1 mg/kg/day). RESULTS: The first blood trough level of CYP3A5 expressors, CYP3A5*1/*3 or CYP3A5*1/*1, and the overall rate in achieving the target blood trough level within a week in the individualized-dose group were significantly higher than those in the fixed-dose group (5.15±2.33 ng/mL vs. 9.63±0.79 ng/mL, P=0.035 and 12.5% vs. 66.7%, P=0.01). The remission rate at 2 weeks in the expressors was as high as that in the nonexpressors, CYP3A5*3/*3, in the individualized-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized TAC treatment is effective against ulcerative colitis regardless of the CYP3A5 genotype.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genotype , Humans , Pharmacokinetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prospective Studies , Tacrolimus , Ulcer
7.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 40(11): 699-704, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977791

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Epidemiological studies have shown evidence of the effect of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and have suggested a relationship of the disease with variations in genes involved in estrogen synthesis and/or metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism (rs2740574) and the risk of developing breast cancer. Methods In the present case-control study, the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism was determined in 148 women with breast cancer and in 245 women without the disease. The DNA of the participants was extracted from plasma samples, and the gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The presence of the polymorphism was determined using restriction enzymes. Results After adjusting for confounding variables, we have found that the polymorphism was not associated with the occurrence of breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.151; 95% confidence interval: 0.714-1.856; p= 0.564). We have also found no association with the presence of hormone receptors, with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression, or with the rate of tumor cell proliferation. Conclusion We have not observed a relationship between the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism and the occurrence of breast cancer.


Resumo Objetivo Estudos epidemiológicos têm mostrado evidências da influência dos hormônios sexuais na patogênese do câncer de mama, e têm sugerido uma relação entre a doença e variações em genes envolvidos na síntese e/ou metabolização de estrógenos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a associação entre o polimorfismo do gene CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) e o risco de desenvolvimento da neoplasia mamária. Métodos No presente estudo de caso-controle, a frequência de polimorfismo do gene CYP3A4*1B foi determinada em 148 mulheres com câncer de mama, e em 245 mulheres sem a doença. O DNA das participantes foi extraído do plasma, e o gene foi amplificado por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase, enquanto o polimorfismo foi determinado por enzimas de restrição. Resultados O polimorfismo, após o ajuste para variáveis de confusão, não foi associado à ocorrência de câncer de mama (razão de possibilidades = 1,151; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 0,714-1,856; p= 0,564). Também não observamos associação com a presença de receptores hormonais, superexpressão do receptor tipo 2 do fator de crescimento epidérmico humano (HER2, na sigla em inglês), ou com a taxa de proliferação celular do tumor. Conclusão Não observamos relação entre o polimorfismo do gene CYP3A4*1B e a ocorrência de câncer de mama.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polymorphism, Genetic , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/genetics , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The renal function of individuals is one of the reasons for the variations in therapeutic response to various drugs. Patients with renal impairment are often exposed to drug toxicity, even with drugs that are usually eliminated by hepatic metabolism. Previous study has reported an increased plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate and decreased plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxy (OH)-cholesterol in stable kidney transplant recipients, implicating indoxyl sulfate as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibiting factor. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of renal impairment severity-dependent accumulation of indoxyl sulfate on hepatic CYP3A activity using metabolic markers. METHODS: Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in this study; based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), they were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment. The plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate was quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Urinary and plasma markers (6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol, 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone, 4β-OH-cholesterol) for hepatic CYP3A activity were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total plasma concentration of cholesterol was measured using the enzymatic colorimetric assay to calculate the 4β-OH-cholesterol/cholesterol ratio. The correlation between variables was assessed using Pearson's correlation test. RESULTS: There was a significant negative correlation between MDRD eGFR and indoxyl sulfate levels. The levels of urinary 6β-OH-cortisol/cortisol and 6β-OH-cortisone/cortisone as well as plasma 4β-OH-cholesterol and 4β-OH-cholesterol/cholesterol were not correlated with MDRD eGFR and the plasma concentration of indoxyl sulfate. CONCLUSION: Hepatic CYP3A activity may not be affected by renal impairment-induced accumulation of plasma indoxyl sulfate.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Indican , Kidney , Metabolism , Plasma , Spectrum Analysis , Transplant Recipients
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773631

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg) was performed in rats. The immune boosting effect of Rh2 was assessed in rats by measuring IL-12 level after treated by Rh2 alone or co-administered with piperine. The results indicated that piperine significantly increased the permeability of Rh2 and inhibited the metabolism of Rh2. The pharmacokinetic study results showed that the AUC of Rh2 was significantly increased in combination with piperine at high dose (20 mg·kg) when compared to the control group, with relative bioavailability of 196.8%. The increase of Rh2 exposure led to increased serum levels of IL-12. In conclusion, piperine may be used as a bioenhancer to improve pharmacological effect of Rh2 when given orally.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alkaloids , Animals , Benzodioxoles , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginsenosides , Pharmacokinetics , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773598

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). New therapeutic strategies which have the potential for slowing down the evolution of NAFLD and reducing CVD-related mortality are urgently needed. Statins are well recognized in the treatment of dyslipidemia, but their use in the treatment of NAFLD is limited due to the safety concerns. Ilexgenin A (IA) is one of the main bioactive compounds in 'Shan-lv-cha', an herbal tea commonly used in China. In the present study, we investigated the possible synergistic therapeutic effects of IA and simvastatin (SV) on NAFLD. IA or SV showed beneficial effects on the rats with NAFLD by lowering the liver weight, liver index and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, regulating abnormal metabolism of lipids and ameliorating steatosis in liver. IA significantly enhanced the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation effects of SV. Furthermore, a sensitive, accurate, convenient and reproducible LC-MS method was developed to investigate the effects of IA on the pharmacokinetics of SV. No significant changes were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of SV and simvastatin hydroxy acid in the IA plus SV co-treated group in comparison with those in the group treated with SV alone. The mRNA levels and activity of CYP3A1 were not altered by IA. In conclusion, the results obtained from the present study should be helpful for further clinical application of SV and IA alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lipids , Blood , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Molecular Structure , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Uses , Transcription, Genetic , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
11.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1644-1648, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the relation between the signle nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CYP3A5 gene and MDR1 gene loci and the risk of cytogenetic relapse in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 90 patients with CML treated with imatinib in our hospital were collected.The patients were divided into 2 groups: non-relapse and relapse according to relapse and non-relapse, then the relation between the SNP of CYP3A5 gene and MRD1 gene loci and the risk of cytogenetic relapse in CML patients.@*RESULTS@#The grouping result showed that the patients with non cytogenetic relapse accounted for 41 cases those were enrolled in non-relapse group, and patient-with cytogenetic relapse accounted for 49 cases those were enrolled in relapse group. The follow-up time was 36 months. The detection showed that the incidence of cytogenetic relapse in the patients with CC genotype was significantly higher than that in the patients with TT+CT genotype of C3435T and C1236T at MDR1 gene loci (P<0.05).Compared with the patients with CT+CC genotype in C3435T locus of MDR1 gene, the rate of cytogenetic relapse in the patients with TT genotype decreased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with patients with CT+CC phemotype of C3435T in MDR1 gene locus, the non-relapse survival time of TT genotypes was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Compared with non-relapse group, the incidence of neutropenia (29.27% vs 71.43%) and blood toxicity (39.02% vs 61.22%) in the relapse group increased significantly (P<0.05). The imatinib dose (OR=2 95, 95% CI:1.37~7.76) and the C3435T genotype in MDR1 genes (OR=0.09, 95% CI:0.05~0.72) were the factors affecting the cytogenetic relapse of the patients with CML (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The therapeutic dose of imatinib and the C3435T and C1236T genotypes in MDR1 gene have a certain effect on the cytogenetic relapse of CML patients. C3435T genotypes in the.MDR1 gene showed a certain predictive value for evaluating the risk of cytogenetic relapse, which can be used as a clinical biomarker.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B , Genetics , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Genotype , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Recurrence
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776924

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activities and adverse side effects of ginkgolic acids (GAs), major components in extracts from the leaves and seed coats of Ginkgo biloba L, have been intensively studied. However, there are few reports on their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of GA (17 : 1), one of the most abundant components of GAs, were investigated. Kinetic analysis indicated that human and rat liver microsomes shared similar metabolic characteristics of GA (17 : 1) in phase I and II metabolisms. The drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in GA (17 : 1) metabolism were human CYP1A2, CYP3A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15, which were confirmed with an inhibition study of human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The MTT assays indicated that the cytotoxicity of GA (17 : 1) in HepG2 cells occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that GA (17 : 1) had less cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes than in HepG2 cells and that the toxicity was enhanced through CYP1A- and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salicylates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775371

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to study the six chemical components of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (gallic acid, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, resveratrol, apigenin). By the established pregnane X receptor (human pregnant X receptor, PXR) CYP3A4 mediated drug induced rapid screening technique, the effect of chemical components on the cell activity was detected by MTS cell method, and the value of IC₅₀ was calculated. The dual luciferase reporter system was used to co-transfect PXR reporter gene expression vector containing transcriptional regulation and CYP3A4 with HepG2 cells, with 10 μmol·L⁻¹ rifampicin (RIF) as a positive control, and 10 μmol·L⁻¹ of ketoconazole (TKZ) as negative control. Gallic acid, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, resveratrol(5, 10, 20 μmol·L⁻¹) were used to incubate for 24 h, and the luciferase activity was detected. The results showed that when plasmid pcDNA3.1 was co-transfected with pGL4.17-CYP3A4, gallic acid and resveratrol had an inhibitory effect on the regulation of CYP3A4, and quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol had an inductive effect on CYP3A4; when pcDNA3.14-PXR was co-transfected with pGL4.17-CYP3A4, quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, apigenin, resveratrol had an inductive effect. To sum up, the 6 reported liver injury components had inhibitory or activating effects on CYP3A4. After PXR plasmid was involved, 5 components had an inductive effect on CYP3A4, and the inductive effects of 2 components were significantly different. In this experiment, we found that 2 kinds of potential liver injury components in Polygoni Multiflori Radix had been induced by CYP3A4, which was achieved through PXR regulation. It suggested that attention shall be paid to potential drug interactions when combined with Polygoni Multiflori Radix, so as to improve the safety and efficacy.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver , Phytochemicals , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Polygonum , Chemistry , Pregnane X Receptor , Metabolism
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812421

ABSTRACT

Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) is one of the major bioactive ginsenosides in Panax ginseng. However, the oral bioavailability of Rh2 is low, with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 being reported to be the main factors. The purpose of the present study was to determine the enhancing effect of piperine on the oral bioavailability as well as bioactivity of Rh2. The inhibitory effect of piperine on P-gp and CYP3A4 was determined using a Caco-2 monolayer model and a recombinant CYP3A4 metabolic system, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of oral Rh2 (10 mg·kg) administered alone or in combination with piperine (10 and 20 mg·kg) was performed in rats. The immune boosting effect of Rh2 was assessed in rats by measuring IL-12 level after treated by Rh2 alone or co-administered with piperine. The results indicated that piperine significantly increased the permeability of Rh2 and inhibited the metabolism of Rh2. The pharmacokinetic study results showed that the AUC of Rh2 was significantly increased in combination with piperine at high dose (20 mg·kg) when compared to the control group, with relative bioavailability of 196.8%. The increase of Rh2 exposure led to increased serum levels of IL-12. In conclusion, piperine may be used as a bioenhancer to improve pharmacological effect of Rh2 when given orally.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Alkaloids , Animals , Benzodioxoles , Biological Availability , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ginsenosides , Pharmacokinetics , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Panax , Chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812387

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). New therapeutic strategies which have the potential for slowing down the evolution of NAFLD and reducing CVD-related mortality are urgently needed. Statins are well recognized in the treatment of dyslipidemia, but their use in the treatment of NAFLD is limited due to the safety concerns. Ilexgenin A (IA) is one of the main bioactive compounds in 'Shan-lv-cha', an herbal tea commonly used in China. In the present study, we investigated the possible synergistic therapeutic effects of IA and simvastatin (SV) on NAFLD. IA or SV showed beneficial effects on the rats with NAFLD by lowering the liver weight, liver index and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, regulating abnormal metabolism of lipids and ameliorating steatosis in liver. IA significantly enhanced the hypolipidemic and anti-inflammation effects of SV. Furthermore, a sensitive, accurate, convenient and reproducible LC-MS method was developed to investigate the effects of IA on the pharmacokinetics of SV. No significant changes were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters of SV and simvastatin hydroxy acid in the IA plus SV co-treated group in comparison with those in the group treated with SV alone. The mRNA levels and activity of CYP3A1 were not altered by IA. In conclusion, the results obtained from the present study should be helpful for further clinical application of SV and IA alone or in combination.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Genetics , Metabolism , Diet, High-Fat , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Lipids , Blood , Liver , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Molecular Structure , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Blood , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Simvastatin , Pharmacokinetics , Therapeutic Uses , Transcription, Genetic , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812346

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological activities and adverse side effects of ginkgolic acids (GAs), major components in extracts from the leaves and seed coats of Ginkgo biloba L, have been intensively studied. However, there are few reports on their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of GA (17 : 1), one of the most abundant components of GAs, were investigated. Kinetic analysis indicated that human and rat liver microsomes shared similar metabolic characteristics of GA (17 : 1) in phase I and II metabolisms. The drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in GA (17 : 1) metabolism were human CYP1A2, CYP3A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15, which were confirmed with an inhibition study of human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The MTT assays indicated that the cytotoxicity of GA (17 : 1) in HepG2 cells occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further investigation showed that GA (17 : 1) had less cytotoxicity in primary rat hepatocytes than in HepG2 cells and that the toxicity was enhanced through CYP1A- and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cells, Cultured , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Metabolism , Ginkgo biloba , Chemistry , Glucuronosyltransferase , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Chemistry , Metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Microsomes, Liver , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Salicylates , Chemistry , Metabolism , Toxicity
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 259-267, April.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839390

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fungi is a well-known model used to study drug metabolism and its production in in vitro condition. We aim to screen the most efficient strain of Cunninghamella sp. among C. elegans, C. echinulata and C. blakesleeana for bromhexine metabolites production. We characterized the metabolites produced using various analytical tools and compared them with mammalian metabolites in Rat liver microsomes (RLM). The metabolites were collected by two-stage fermentation of bromhexine with different strains of Cunninghamella sp. followed by extraction. Analysis was done by thin layer chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of Cytochrome P3A4 (CYP3A4) enzymes in bromhexine metabolism was studied. Fungal incubates were spiked with reference standard – clarithromycin to confirm the role of CYP3A4 enzyme in bromhexine metabolism. Three metabolites appeared at 4.7, 5.5 and 6.4 min retention time in HPLC. Metabolites produced by C. elegans and RLM were concluded to be similar based on their retention time, peak area and peak response of 30.05%, 21.06%, 1.34%, and 47.66% of three metabolites and bromhexine in HPLC. The role of CYP3A4 enzyme in metabolism of bromhexine and the presence of these enzymes in Cunninghamella species was confirmed due to absence of peaks at 4.7, 5.4 and 6.7 min when RLM were incubated with a CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitor – clarithromycin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Bromhexine/metabolism , Cunninghamella/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/metabolism , Microsomes/metabolism
18.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 407 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-846682

ABSTRACT

Para fármacos administrados por via oral, o controle da extensão e da velocidade de absorção depende basicamente de duas importantes etapas: solubilidade do fármaco nos líquidos fisiológicos e sua permeabilidade através das membranas biológicas. Assim, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica (SCB) foi proposto como uma ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos, de novas formulações e para auxiliar nos processos de bioisenção. No entanto, outro fator relacionado à biodisponibilidade e que deve ser considerado nos estudos biofarmacêuticos é o metabolismo. Desta forma, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica de Distribuição de Fármacos (SCBDF) foi proposto com a finalidade de classificar os fármacos de acordo com suas características de solubilidade e de metabolismo de modo que seja possível avaliar e predizer o comportamento do fármaco in vivo. O metabolismo tem sido amplamente investigado, sobretudo as enzimas do citocromo P450, as quais estão presentes também nos enterócitos. Além disso, o SCBDF oferece um suporte quanto à avaliação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade envolvidos nos processos de absorção, interações fármaco-fármaco e interações fármaco-alimento. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade de fármacos antirretrovirais por meio dos modelos ex vivo (câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz) e in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 e microssomas) considerando os aspectos relacionados ao metabolismo intestinal e ao efluxo destes fármacos. Dada a importância da utilização de fármacos antirretrovirais na terapia medicamentosa contra a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) e que estes medicamentos são normalmente administrados cronicamente, a compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade é de suma importância, uma vez que estes não estão totalmente esclarecidos e poucas informações são encontradas na literatura. Além disso, a biodisponibilidade de fármacos como estavudina, lamivudina e zidovudina indica variação na permeabilidade, necessitando de uma investigação científica mais aprofundada dos processos absortivos. Assim, segmentos de jejuno provenientes de ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados para a avaliação da permeabilidade intestinal dos referidos antirretrovirais considerando a avaliação de efluxo pela glicoproteína-P e o metabolismo intestinal pela CYP3A. De maneira complementar, estudos in vitro com o emprego de membranas artificiais paralelas (PAMPA) e culturas celulares de MDCK-MDR1 foram realizados com a finalidade de auxiliar na elucidação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Além disso, a avaliação do metabolismo dos referidos fármacos foi realizada com o emprego de microssomas a fim de verificar se tais substâncias são substratos de enzimas da família CYP3A e, assim, verificar o impacto do metabolismo intestinal na absorção. Os resultados de permeabilidade obtidos em PAMPA foram: 0,74±0,11 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, 0,25±0,12 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e 1,14±0,25 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo ex vivo com o emprego de câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados foram: 1,56±0,32 x 10-5 cm/s para a estavudina, 1,26±0,27 x 10-5 cm/s para a lamivudina e 2,54±0,49 x 10-5 cm/s para a zidovudina. Portanto, com base nos resultados obtidos a partir dos dois métodos empregados, sugere-se que 30 outro mecanismo de transporte que não envolva a permeabilidade por difusão transcelular passiva possa estar relacionado à permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Com relação aos estudos de efluxo, os resultados obtidos a partir dos experimentos realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz demonstraram o aumento significativo da permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de P-gp foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 42,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 37,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 56,6 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Em culturas celulares MDCK-MDR1, os resultados de permeabilidade foram utilizados para a obtenção das razões entre as direções B→A e A→B. Os valores de Papp na condição inibida para os fármacos estudados apresentaram razão menor do que 1. Já a razão B→A/A→B para cada fármaco nos ensaios sem inibidor apresentou-se igual ou maior que 2, evidenciando a interação fármaco-transportador. Com base nisso, o modelo ex vivo com o emprego de segmentos intestinais em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz apresentou-se adequado na avaliação do mecanismo de efluxo dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que foi confirmado com os estudos realizados em MDCK-MDR1. Assim, os fármacos antirretrovirais estudados apresentaram interação significativa com a P-gp. Em relação aos estudos de metabolismo realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados demonstraram grande variação na permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de CYP3A foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 23,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 27,3 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 40,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo que emprega microssomas, os resultados de metabolização na ausência e na presença de inibidor de CYP3A foram: de 16,56% para 19,79% para a estavudina, de 14,56% para 15,55% para a lamivudina e de 17,85% para 16,48% para a zidovudina. Com base nisso, sugerese o emprego de microssomas para a determinação de metabolismo, uma vez que o método ex vivo empregado demonstrou grande variação entre os valores obtidos. Desta forma, observou-se que, para cada fármaco, não houve influência significativa no metabolismo pré-sistêmico relacionado às enzimas do complexo CYP3A, o que indica que a absorção oral das referidas substâncias não é limitada por tais enzimas. Portanto, a utilização dos diferentes métodos empregados no desenvolvimento do presente trabalho permitiu compreender os mecanismos envolvidos no transporte dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que se torna de grande relevância nas etapas de desenvolvimento farmacêutico de novas moléculas e na compreensão de eventos clínicos ainda não esclarecidos atualmente


For orally administered drugs, control of the extent and rate of absorption depends on two important steps: solubility of the drug in physiological liquids and their permeability across biological membranes. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has been proposed as a tool for the development of new drugs, new formulations and aid in the biowaiver processes. However, another factor related to bioavailability that should be considered in biopharmaceutic studies is the metabolism. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) has been proposed for drug classification according to their solubility and metabolism characteristics, so it is possible to evaluate and predict the in vivo behavior of a compound. Metabolism has been extensively investigated, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are also expressed in enterocytes. Besides, BDDCS provides support in evaluating the permeability mechanisms involved in the absorption processes, drug-drug interactions and drug-food interactions. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of permeability of antiretroviral drugs through the ex vivo (Franz cells) and in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 and microsomes) models considering aspects related to the intestinal metabolism and efflux of these drugs. Given the importance of the use of antiretroviral drugs in drug therapy against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and that these drugs are usually administered in a long-term way, understanding the mechanisms involved in the permeability is of a great importance, since they are not totally elucidated and no information is found in the literature. In addition, drugs as stavudine, lamivudine and zidovudine indicate variation in the permeability, which require further scientific investigation of absorptive processes. Thus, jejunum segments from rats were used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of these antiretroviral drugs, considering the evaluation of efflux by P-glycoprotein and intestinal metabolism by CYP3A. In a complementary manner, in vitro studies using parallel artificial membranes (PAMPA) and cell cultures MDCK-MDR1 were performed to aid in the elucidation of the permeability mechanisms of antiretroviral drugs. Also, the evaluation of the metabolism was carried out using microsomes to verify if such substances are substrates of CYP3A, and verify the impact of the intestinal metabolism in the absorption. The permeability results obtained in PAMPA were: 0.74±0.11x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, 0.25±0.12x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine and 1.14±0.25x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In ex vivo method using the intestinal segments in Franz cells, the results were: 1.56±0.32x10-5 cm/s for stavudine, 1.26±0.27x10-5 cm/s for lamivudine and 2.54±0.49x10-5 cm/s for zidovudine. Thus, based on the results obtained from these two methods, it is suggested that the antiretroviral drugs present other transport mechanism that is different from transcellular passive diffusion. For efflux studies, results obtained from experiments performed in Franz cells shown the increase of the permeability of the three antiretroviral drugs when the P-gp inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 to 42,5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 37.5x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and 25.4x10-6 to 56.6x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In MDCK-MDR1, the permeability results were used for obtaining ratio values between the directions B→A and A→B. The Papp values obtained with 33 inhibitor shown a ratio less than 1. For ratio B→A/A→B for each drug in experiments without inhibitor, the values obtained was equal or greater than 2, which shows the interaction between drug and transporter. Based on that, the ex vivo model using intestinal segments in Franz cells seems to be adequate for evaluation of efflux mechanism of antiretroviral drugs, which was confirmed by MDCK-MDR1 studies. Thus, the antiretroviral drugs presented interaction with P-gp. For metabolism studies in intestinal segments in Franz cells, a wide range of standard deviation was observed for the three antiretroviral drugs when the CYP3A inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 cm/s to 23.5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 27.3x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and from 25.4x10-6 cm/s to 40.5x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In experiments in microsomes, the results of metabolization in the absence and presence of CYP3A inhibitor were: from 16.56 to 19.79% for stavudine, from 14.56 to 15.55% for lamivudine and from 17.85 to 16.48% for zidovudine. Based on that, it is suggested the use of microsomes for metabolism evaluation, since the ex vivo method presented high variability between the results obtained. For each drug, no significative influence in pre-systemic metabolism related to CYP3A enzymes was observed, which indicates that the oral absorption of the drugs is not limited by these enzymes. The use of different methods in this work allowed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transport of antiretroviral drugs, which is of a great relevance in drug development and in the understanding of clinical events currently not clarified


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/supply & distribution , Evaluation Studies as Topic/classification , Permeability , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Analytical Methods/methods , Biopharmaceutics/classification , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/pharmacology , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/analysis , Spectrophotometry/methods , Validation Study
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 407 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881505

ABSTRACT

Para fármacos administrados por via oral, o controle da extensão e da velocidade de absorção depende basicamente de duas importantes etapas: solubilidade do fármaco nos líquidos fisiológicos e sua permeabilidade através das membranas biológicas. Assim, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica (SCB) foi proposto como uma ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos, de novas formulações e para auxiliar nos processos de bioisenção. No entanto, outro fator relacionado à biodisponibilidade e que deve ser considerado nos estudos biofarmacêuticos é o metabolismo. Desta forma, o Sistema de Classificação Biofarmacêutica de Distribuição de Fármacos (SCBDF) foi proposto com a finalidade de classificar os fármacos de acordo com suas características de solubilidade e de metabolismo de modo que seja possível avaliar e predizer o comportamento do fármaco in vivo. O metabolismo tem sido amplamente investigado, sobretudo as enzimas do citocromo P450, as quais estão presentes também nos enterócitos. Além disso, o SCBDF oferece um suporte quanto à avaliação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade envolvidos nos processos de absorção, interações fármaco-fármaco e interações fármaco-alimento. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade de fármacos antirretrovirais por meio dos modelos ex vivo (câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz) e in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 e microssomas) considerando os aspectos relacionados ao metabolismo intestinal e ao efluxo destes fármacos. Dada a importância da utilização de fármacos antirretrovirais na terapia medicamentosa contra a Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (SIDA) e que estes medicamentos são normalmente administrados cronicamente, a compreensão dos mecanismos envolvidos na permeabilidade é de suma importância, uma vez que estes não estão totalmente esclarecidos e poucas informações são encontradas na literatura. Além disso, a biodisponibilidade de fármacos como estavudina, lamivudina e zidovudina indica variação na permeabilidade, necessitando de uma investigação científica mais aprofundada dos processos absortivos. Assim, segmentos de jejuno provenientes de ratos machos Wistar foram utilizados para a avaliação da permeabilidade intestinal dos referidos antirretrovirais considerando a avaliação de efluxo pela glicoproteína-P e o metabolismo intestinal pela CYP3A. De maneira complementar, estudos in vitro com o emprego de membranas artificiais paralelas (PAMPA) e culturas celulares de MDCK-MDR1 foram realizados com a finalidade de auxiliar na elucidação dos mecanismos de permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Além disso, a avaliação do metabolismo dos referidos fármacos foi realizada com o emprego de microssomas a fim de verificar se tais substâncias são substratos de enzimas da família CYP3A e, assim, verificar o impacto do metabolismo intestinal na absorção. Os resultados de permeabilidade obtidos em PAMPA foram: 0,74±0,11 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, 0,25±0,12 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e 1,14±0,25 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo ex vivo com o emprego de câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados foram: 1,56±0,32 x 10-5 cm/s para a estavudina, 1,26±0,27 x 10-5 cm/s para a lamivudina e 2,54±0,49 x 10-5 cm/s para a zidovudina. Portanto, com base nos resultados obtidos a partir dos dois métodos empregados, sugere-se que 30 outro mecanismo de transporte que não envolva a permeabilidade por difusão transcelular passiva possa estar relacionado à permeabilidade dos fármacos antirretrovirais. Com relação aos estudos de efluxo, os resultados obtidos a partir dos experimentos realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz demonstraram o aumento significativo da permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de P-gp foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 42,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 37,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 56,6 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Em culturas celulares MDCK-MDR1, os resultados de permeabilidade foram utilizados para a obtenção das razões entre as direções B→A e A→B. Os valores de Papp na condição inibida para os fármacos estudados apresentaram razão menor do que 1. Já a razão B→A/A→B para cada fármaco nos ensaios sem inibidor apresentou-se igual ou maior que 2, evidenciando a interação fármaco-transportador. Com base nisso, o modelo ex vivo com o emprego de segmentos intestinais em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz apresentou-se adequado na avaliação do mecanismo de efluxo dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que foi confirmado com os estudos realizados em MDCK-MDR1. Assim, os fármacos antirretrovirais estudados apresentaram interação significativa com a P-gp. Em relação aos estudos de metabolismo realizados em câmaras de difusão vertical tipo Franz, os resultados demonstraram grande variação na permeabilidade dos três antirretrovirais quando o inibidor de CYP3A foi empregado, sendo: de 15,6 x 10-6 para 23,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a estavudina, de 12,6 x 10-6 para 27,3 x 10-6 cm/s para a lamivudina e de 25,4 x 10-6 para 40,5 x 10-6 cm/s para a zidovudina. Já no modelo que emprega microssomas, os resultados de metabolização na ausência e na presença de inibidor de CYP3A foram: de 16,56% para 19,79% para a estavudina, de 14,56% para 15,55% para a lamivudina e de 17,85% para 16,48% para a zidovudina. Com base nisso, sugerese o emprego de microssomas para a determinação de metabolismo, uma vez que o método ex vivo empregado demonstrou grande variação entre os valores obtidos. Desta forma, observou-se que, para cada fármaco, não houve influência significativa no metabolismo pré-sistêmico relacionado às enzimas do complexo CYP3A, o que indica que a absorção oral das referidas substâncias não é limitada por tais enzimas. Portanto, a utilização dos diferentes métodos empregados no desenvolvimento do presente trabalho permitiu compreender os mecanismos envolvidos no transporte dos fármacos antirretrovirais, o que se torna de grande relevância nas etapas de desenvolvimento farmacêutico de novas moléculas e na compreensão de eventos clínicos ainda não esclarecidos atualmente


For orally administered drugs, control of the extent and rate of absorption depends on two important steps: solubility of the drug in physiological liquids and their permeability across biological membranes. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) has been proposed as a tool for the development of new drugs, new formulations and aid in the biowaiver processes. However, another factor related to bioavailability that should be considered in biopharmaceutic studies is the metabolism. Thus, the Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) has been proposed for drug classification according to their solubility and metabolism characteristics, so it is possible to evaluate and predict the in vivo behavior of a compound. Metabolism has been extensively investigated, especially cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are also expressed in enterocytes. Besides, BDDCS provides support in evaluating the permeability mechanisms involved in the absorption processes, drug-drug interactions and drug-food interactions. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of permeability of antiretroviral drugs through the ex vivo (Franz cells) and in vitro (PAMPA, MDCK-MDR1 and microsomes) models considering aspects related to the intestinal metabolism and efflux of these drugs. Given the importance of the use of antiretroviral drugs in drug therapy against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and that these drugs are usually administered in a long-term way, understanding the mechanisms involved in the permeability is of a great importance, since they are not totally elucidated and no information is found in the literature. In addition, drugs as stavudine, lamivudine and zidovudine indicate variation in the permeability, which require further scientific investigation of absorptive processes. Thus, jejunum segments from rats were used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of these antiretroviral drugs, considering the evaluation of efflux by P-glycoprotein and intestinal metabolism by CYP3A. In a complementary manner, in vitro studies using parallel artificial membranes (PAMPA) and cell cultures MDCK-MDR1 were performed to aid in the elucidation of the permeability mechanisms of antiretroviral drugs. Also, the evaluation of the metabolism was carried out using microsomes to verify if such substances are substrates of CYP3A, and verify the impact of the intestinal metabolism in the absorption. The permeability results obtained in PAMPA were: 0.74±0.11x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, 0.25±0.12x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine and 1.14±0.25x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In ex vivo method using the intestinal segments in Franz cells, the results were: 1.56±0.32x10-5 cm/s for stavudine, 1.26±0.27x10-5 cm/s for lamivudine and 2.54±0.49x10-5 cm/s for zidovudine. Thus, based on the results obtained from these two methods, it is suggested that the antiretroviral drugs present other transport mechanism that is different from transcellular passive diffusion. For efflux studies, results obtained from experiments performed in Franz cells shown the increase of the permeability of the three antiretroviral drugs when the P-gp inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 to 42,5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 37.5x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and 25.4x10-6 to 56.6x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In MDCK-MDR1, the permeability results were used for obtaining ratio values between the directions B→A and A→B. The Papp values obtained with 33 inhibitor shown a ratio less than 1. For ratio B→A/A→B for each drug in experiments without inhibitor, the values obtained was equal or greater than 2, which shows the interaction between drug and transporter. Based on that, the ex vivo model using intestinal segments in Franz cells seems to be adequate for evaluation of efflux mechanism of antiretroviral drugs, which was confirmed by MDCK-MDR1 studies. Thus, the antiretroviral drugs presented interaction with P-gp. For metabolism studies in intestinal segments in Franz cells, a wide range of standard deviation was observed for the three antiretroviral drugs when the CYP3A inhibitor was used: from 15.6x10-6 cm/s to 23.5x10-6 cm/s for stavudine, from 12.6x10-6 cm/s to 27.3x10-6 cm/s for lamivudine, and from 25.4x10-6 cm/s to 40.5x10-6 cm/s for zidovudine. In experiments in microsomes, the results of metabolization in the absence and presence of CYP3A inhibitor were: from 16.56 to 19.79% for stavudine, from 14.56 to 15.55% for lamivudine and from 17.85 to 16.48% for zidovudine. Based on that, it is suggested the use of microsomes for metabolism evaluation, since the ex vivo method presented high variability between the results obtained. For each drug, no significative influence in pre-systemic metabolism related to CYP3A enzymes was observed, which indicates that the oral absorption of the drugs is not limited by these enzymes. The use of different methods in this work allowed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transport of antiretroviral drugs, which is of a great relevance in drug development and in the understanding of clinical events currently not clarified


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Retroviral Agents/analysis , Metabolism , Permeability , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Analytical Methods/methods , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A/analysis , Diffusion Chambers, Culture/statistics & numerical data , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Oral Mucosal Absorption
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160701

ABSTRACT

The incidence of polypharmacy-which can result in drug-drug interactions-has increased in recent years. Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are important polypharmacy modulators. In this study, the effects of bosentan and rifampin on the expression and activities of organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 2C9 and CYP3A4 were investigated in vitro. HEK293 cells and primary human hepatocytes overexpressing the target genes were treated with bosentan and various concentrations of rifampin, which decreased the uptake activities of OATP transporters in a dose-dependent manner. In primary human hepatocytes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 gene expression and activities decreased upon treatment with 20 μM bosentan+200 μM rifampin. Rifampin also reduced gene expression of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporter, and inhibited bosentan influx in human hepatocytes at increasing concentrations. These results confirm rifampin- and bosentan-induced interactions between OATP transporters and CYP450.


Subject(s)
Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Incidence , Organic Anion Transporters , Polypharmacy , Rifampin
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