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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4966, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056043

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To validate multilineage score system correlating results of flow cytometry, cytogenetics, cytomorphology and histology from samples of patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin. Methods A retrospective study analyzing laboratory data of 49 patients with suspected myelodysplastic syndrome or cytopenia of unknown origin, carried out between May and September 2017. The inclusion criteria were availability of flow cytometry results, and at least one more method, such as morphology, histology or cytogenetics. Thirty-eight patients were classified as diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes, whereas 11 were classified as normal. Patients were evaluated based on score systems, Ogata score and flow cytometry multilineage score. Results Comparing the scores obtained in the Ogata score and the multilineage score, it was observed that in four cases the Ogata score was zero or 1 point, while the multilineage score was higher than 3 points. In addition, in 12 cases with Ogata score of 2, the multilineage score was greater than 3. Conclusion The flow cytometry multilineage score system demonstrated to be more effective in dysplasia analysis, by assessing the erythroid, monocytic, granulocytic and precursor cell lineages, apart from the parameters evaluated by the Ogata score.


RESUMO Objetivo Validar ficha de escore multilinhagem correlacionando resultados obtidos de citometria de fluxo, citogenética, citomorfologia e histologia de amostras de pacientes com suspeita de síndrome mielodisplásica ou citopenias a esclarecer. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo de análise de dados laboratoriais de 49 pacientes com suspeita clínica de síndrome mielodisplásica ou citopenias a esclarecer realizado entre maio e setembro de 2017. Os critérios de inclusão foram a disponibilidade de resultados de citometria de fluxo e de, pelo menos, outra metodologia, entre morfologia, histologia, ou citogenética. Trinta e oito pacientes foram classificados como diagnosticados com síndromes mielodisplásicas enquanto 11 foram classificados como normais. Os pacientes foram avaliados utilizando sistemas de escore, escore de Ogata e ficha multilinhagem. Resultados Comparando as pontuações obtidas no escore de Ogata e na ficha multilinhagem, observou-se que, em quatro casos, o score de Ogata foi zero ou 1 ponto, enquanto, pela ficha multilinhagem, a pontuação foi superior a 3 pontos. Além disso, em 12 casos com escore de Ogata 2, a pontuação pela ficha multilinhagem foi superior a 3. Conclusão A ficha multilinhagem demonstrou ser mais eficaz na análise de displasia por avaliar as linhagens eritroide, monocítica, granulocítica e células precursoras, além dos parâmetros avaliados no escore de Ogata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Flow Cytometry/standards , Reference Standards , Biopsy , Bone Marrow Cells/pathology , Monocytes/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis/standards , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Granulocytes/pathology , Middle Aged
2.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 35(3): e1067, jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093277

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El mieloma múltiple (MM) es una enfermedad que va precedida por una fase previa conocida como gammapatía monoclonal de significado incierto (GMSI); en esta última existen varias anormalidades citogenéticas, que permiten la progresión a MM, entre estas encontramos reordenamientos primarios del gen de la cadena pesada de la inmunoglobina (IGH), además de células hiperdiploides. Desarrollo: Las alteraciones cromosómicas en el MM se pueden clasificar en dos grupos principales: las que involucran las translocaciones del locus IGH ubicado en el cromosoma 14q32 y cuyos principales reordenamientos se dan entre las regiones cromosómicas 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21 y, un segundo grupo caracterizado por los desequilibrios genómicos. Los pacientes con translocaciones de la IGH, muestran un pronóstico diferente en dependencia del tipo de reordenamiento cromosómico. La t(4;14)(p16;q32) y t(14;16)(q32;q23) se asocian a un mal pronóstico, mientras que los pacientes con t(11;14) (q13;q32) tiene un buen pronóstico de la enfermedad en ausencia de otras anormalidades genéticas. En el grupo con desequilibrio genómico se encuentran deleciones, amplificaciones, y células con números anormales de cromosomas (hiperdiploidas y no hiperdiploides); casi siempre asociadas a mal pronóstico ya que muchas de estas alteraciones involucran perdida de material genómico relacionado con el control de ciclo celular y progresión de la enfermedad, como son las deleciones de los cromosomas 1,13 y 17. Los pacientes con trisomías de los cromosomas impares 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 suelen tener un mejor pronóstico y una tasa mayor de sobrevivencia(AU)


Introduction: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a disease that is preceded by a previous phase known as monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS); in this latter there are several cytogenetic abnormalities, which allow the progression to MM, among these we find primary rearrangements of the heavy chain gene of the immunoglobin (IGH), in addition to hyperdiploid cells. Development: Chromosomal alterations in MM can be classified into two main groups, those involving the translocations of the IGH locus located on chromosome 14q32 and whose main rearrangements occur between the chromosomal regions 11q13, 16q23, 4p16.3, 6p21, and a second group which is characterized by genomic imbalances. Patients with translocations of the IGH, show a different prognosis depending on the type of chromosomal rearrangement, the t(4; 14)(p16; q32) and t(14; 16)(q32; q23) are associated with a poor prognosis while patients with t(11; 14)(q13; q32) have a good prognosis of the disease in the absence of other genetic abnormalities. Within the genomic imbalances we find deletions, amplifications, and cells with abnormal numbers of chromosomes (hyperdiploids and not hyperdiploid), these almost always associated with poor prognosis since many of these alterations involve loss of genomic material related to cell cycle control and progression of the disease, such as deletions of chromosomes 1,13 and 17. Patients with trisomies of odd chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19,21 usually have a better prognosis and a higher survival rate(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prognosis , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Paraproteinemias/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , Disease Progression , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Bortezomib/therapeutic use
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(1): 1-5, feb. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002580

ABSTRACT

La leucemia aguda es la enfermedad oncológica más frecuente en la infancia. La leucemia linfoblástica aguda representa el 75% y la mieloblástica aguda el 25% de ellas. La eritroleucemia es una entidad infrecuente, representando menos del 5% de las leucemias mieloblásticas agudas. Su definición ha variado a lo largo del tiempo. La OMS en 2017 define el subtipo de eritroleucemia cuando el porcentaje de eritroblastos representa el 80% de la celularidad total de la médula ósea. El presente trabajo, de tipo analítico, retrospectivo, tuvo como finalidad revisar los hallazgos de morfología, citometría de flujo, citogenética, respuesta al tratamiento y evolución de los casos previamente definidos como eritroleucemia, en nuestro centro, en los últimos 25 años y reclasificar aquellos que no cumplían con los nuevos criterios de la OMS 2017. Entre enero de 1990 y diciembre de 2015, se diagnosticaron 576 casos de leucemia mieloblástica aguda siendo 11 (1.9%) de ellos clasificados como eritroleucemia. Resultaron evaluables 10 casos. La distribución por sexo fue 1:1 y la edad mediana fue 5 (rango: 0.9-14) años. Seis pacientes presentaban antecedentes de síndrome mielodisplásico. Según los nuevos criterios, ninguno de los casos analizados puede ser actualmente definido como eritroleucemia. De acuerdo a la recategorización, fueron definidos como leucemias de subtipos de mal pronóstico, como leucemia aguda indiferenciada, sin diferenciación y megacarioblástica. Solo dos pacientes se encuentran libres de enfermedad, probablemente debido a estos subtipos desfavorables, sumado al antecedente frecuente de mielodisplasia.


Acute leukemia is the most frequent malignant disease in childhood. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia represents 75% and acute myeloblastic leukemia 25% of them. Erythroleukemia is a rare entity, corresponding to less than 5% of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Its definition has changed over the time. WHO in 2017 defines erythroleukemia when the percentage of erythroblasts represent 80% of the total cellularity of the bone marrow aspirate. This analytical and retrospective study was performed with the aim of reviewing morphology, flow cytometry and cytogenetic features, response to treatment and outcome of cases previously defined as erythroleukemia in our center during the last 25 years and, in addition to reclassify those cases which do not meet the new WHO 2017 criteria. From January 1990 to December 2015, 576 patients were diagnosed as acute myeloblastic leukemia and 11 (1.9%) of them were classified as erythroleukemia. Ten cases were evaluable. Sex distribution was 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis was 5 (range: 0.9-14) years. Six of them had presented with previous myelodysplastic syndrome. None of the analyzed cases can be currently defined as erythroleukemia, according to the new criteria. When reclassified, the cases were defined as leukemias of subsets with poor prognosis such as acute undifferentiated leukemia, without differentiation and megakaryoblastic leukemia. Only 2 patients remain leukemia-free and this could be explained both by the unfavorable prognosis of these leukemia subtypes, and the antecedent of myelodysplastic syndrome in most of the cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , World Health Organization , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute/classification , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute/diagnosis , Argentina , Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disease Progression , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(1): 61-64, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043152

ABSTRACT

Background: Cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are an important prognostic factor for risk stratification. Aim: To investigate karyotype characteristics and frequency of the high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities t(4;14), t(14;16) and del(17p) in Chilean patients with MM. Material and Methods: We studied 30 patients with MM by conventional cytogenetics (CC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization of plasma cells selected using cytoplasmic immunoglobulin staining (cIg-FISH). Results: Overall, the two techniques in combination allowed us to identify clonal genetic abnormalities in 47% of patients. The t(4;14) abnormality was observed in 19% of patients, del(17p) was observed in 10% of patients, and t(14;16) was not detected. Conclusions: Our results showed frequencies of high-risk abnormalities similar to those reported abroad. Cytogenetic studies should be performed routinely for all MM patients at the moment of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chromosome Aberrations , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Reference Values , Chile , Risk Factors , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Risk Assessment/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Karyotype
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 41-47, Mar. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886917

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chromosome-specific probes have been widely used in molecular cytogenetics, being obtained with different methods. In this study, a reproducible protocol for construction of chromosome-specific probes is proposed which associates in situ amplification (PRINS), micromanipulation and degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). Human lymphocyte cultures were used to obtain metaphases from male and female individuals. The chromosomes were amplified via PRINS, and subcentromeric fragments of the X chromosome were microdissected using microneedles coupled to a phase contrast microscope. The fragments were amplified by DOP-PCR and labeled with tetramethyl-rhodamine-5-dUTP. The probes were used in fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure to highlight these specific regions in the metaphases. The results show one fluorescent red spot in male and two in female X chromosomes and interphase nuclei.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , DNA Primers/genetics , Primed In Situ Labeling/methods , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , DNA Probes/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Microdissection/methods
6.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 33(1): 1-8, ene.-mar. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-901069

ABSTRACT

La biología molecular (BM) es una ciencia que ha revolucionado el desarrollo científico en los últimos años. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología (IHI) también ha evolucionado progresivamente conforme al avance tecnológico y adecuándose cada vez más al contexto científico internacional. Su historia se remonta al año 1966, con la creación del IHI y posteriormente del laboratorio de BM. En el año 2012, el departamento de BM y el laboratorio de citogenética, pasaron a formar parte de lo que hoy es el Centro de Tecnologías de Avanzada, un área con tecnología de punta que ha permitido actualizar la mayoría de las técnicas moleculares que se empleaban previamente, lo que garantiza mayor rapidez y confiabilidad de los resultados. Se introdujeron y perfeccionaron técnicas como la extracción y cuantificación de ácidos nucleicos, la electroforesis capilar y el FISH (del inglés: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) y se adquirieron modernas máquinas termocicladoras para la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR , siglas en inglés), materiales y reactivos. Con este esfuerzo mancomunado en estos 50 años, se han podido beneficiar hasta la fecha: 5 460 pacientes, estudiados en el laboratorio de BM, donde se determinan actualmente 10 marcadores moleculares, 12 estudios de FISH; además del cariotipo convencional y los estudios de quimerismo. Se ha alcanzado una media anual de 317 pacientes estudiados, en los últimos 5 años. Se cuenta con profesionales de alta calificación, lo que ha posibilitado liderar y colaborar en proyectos de investigación nacionales e internacionales, publicar innumerables artículos científicos, obtener premios relevantes y formar a los residentes de la especialidad de Hematología. Las perspectivas comprenden la incorporación de la PCR en tiempo real y la secuenciación para completar un nivel de diagnóstico a la altura de cualquier prestigioso centro internacional y así poder ofrecer un servicio de calidad a los pacientes(AU)


Molecular biology (MB) is a science that has revolutionized scientific development in recent years. It has also increasing progressively at the Institute of Hematology and Immunology (IHI) as adapting to technological advances and international scientific context. Its history dates back to 1966, with the IHI creation and subsequently the MB laboratory. Since then they have been many achievements in the field of diagnosis and research in Hematology. In 2012, the MB department with the cytogenetic laboratory was part of the Center for Advanced Technologies; an area with modern technology that has allowed change old studies by updated molecular techniques, ensuring greater speed and reliability of results. Techniques such as extraction and quantification of nucleic acids (NA), capillary electrophoresis and the FISH (Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization) were introduced, and modern thermocyclers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), materials and reagents were acquired too. In these 50 years, 5 460 patients have been benefited to date. We study about 10 molecular markers, 12 FISH study, in addition to conventional karyotyping and chimerism studies in the MB lab at this moment. It has gone an annual average of 317 patients in the last 5 years. We have highly qualified professionals, which has made possible to lead and collaborate on national and international research, publishing numerous scientific articles, obtain relevant prizes of science and technology forum and directly contribute to the residents' formation in Hematology. Our future perspectives include the new technologies incorporation such as real-time PCR and sequencing, to complete a similar diagnostic level to any prestigious international center so we can provide quality service to our patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Hematology/methods , Molecular Biology/history , Molecular Biology/methods , Cuba
9.
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 50(2): 124-130, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712713

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cytogenetics is the area of genetics that studies chromosomes, including numerical changes, and their relationship to structural imbalances. Among the classical cytogenetics tests, the GTG banding karyotype is the most widely used. The period of culture establishment is a critical step, which can affect the pre-analytical phase of the test. Objective: To evaluate, at different establishment times, culture viability and banding resolution. Material and methods: Collection of 10 ml blood from 10 subjects was carried out for culture analysis. For viability analysis, mitotic index (MI) and banding resolution were assessed. Results: The comparative analysis of MI showed significant difference between times. In the assessment of banding resolution, the mean value of the bands was higher at times zero and 24 hour. Discussion: The MI reflects inhibition of cell cycle progression and/or loss of ability to proliferate. When the pair analysis was performed, a difference between zero and 48 hours was observed. The average number of bands analyzed at times zero and 24 hours did not indicate difference in the quantity and quality of the bands when cultures were grown immediately after blood collection or within 24 hours. At the 48th hour after blood collection significant reduction of band resolution was observed. Conclusion: These data highlight the importance of the biological material quality, as viability is lower when the culture is grown after 24 hours, as well as the banding resolution...


Introdução: Citogenética é a área da genética que estuda os cromossomos, incluindo alterações numéricas, estruturais e sua relação com distúrbios. Nos exames de citogenética clássica, o cariótipo com bandamento GTG é a metodologia mais utilizada, sendo o período de implantação da cultura uma fase crítica, que pode comprometer a fase pré-analítica do exame. Objetivo: Avaliar, em diferentes tempos de implantação, a viabilidade das culturas e o número de bandas. Material e métodos: Foram colhidos 10 ml de sangue de 10 sujeitos para realização das culturas. Para análise da viabilidade, foram utilizados o índice mitótico (IM) e a análise de resolução por bandamento. Resultados: A comparação dos valores do IM demonstrou desigualdade entre os diferentes tempos analisados. Na análise de resolução, o valor médio das bandas foi maior nos tempos zero e 24 horas. Discussão: O IM reflete a inibição da progressão do ciclo celular e/ou a perda da capacidade de proliferação. Quando o IM foi comparado dois a dois, verificou-se a diferença entre os tempos zero e 48 horas. O número médio de bandas analisadas nos tempos de zero e 24 horas mostrou que não houve diferença na quantidade e na qualidade das bandas quando as culturas foram implantadas logo após a coleta do sangue ou em até 24 horas. No tempo de 48 horas, houve significativa redução da resolução. Conclusão: Os dados obtidos reforçam a importância da qualidade do material biológico, visto que a viabilidade decai quando a implantação da cultura é realizada após 24 horas, assim como a resolução das bandas...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Mitotic Index/methods , Karyotyping , Time Factors
10.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 40(1): 79-88, ene.-mar. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-706663

ABSTRACT

Algunos cambios en la morfología de los cromosomas, detectados durante el análisis citogenético, no están asociados con defectos clínicos, representan un dilema para el asesor genético principalmente durante la realización de un estudio prenatal; por esta razón es que una apropiada discriminación entre una variante inocua y una verdadera anomalía resulta crucial para llevar a cabo un asesoramiento genético preciso. Los polimorfismos de la heterocromatina son identificados usualmente por técnicas de bandeo específicas y consideradas como variaciones mendelianas sin una significación clínica. De igual modo, en la literatura se expone la presencia de variantes en regiones eucromáticas que después de un análisis detallado resultan ser de naturaleza benigna. Debido a la importancia de este tema en la actualidad se hace necesario proponer un protocolo a seguir en los laboratorios cada vez que una variante cromosómica sea detectada en el diagnóstico prenatal. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión de la literatura acerca de los pasos que se siguen ante la aparición de una variante cromosómica y las sugerencias que se brindan para un manejo más adecuado.


Some changes in chromosome morphology, which are detected in cytogenetic diagnostics, are not associated with clinical defects presenting a dilemma for the genetic counsellor, especially during prenatal diagnosis; this is the reason why a proper discrimination between innocuous variants and true anomalies is crucial to allow precise counselling. Polymorphisms of heterochromatin are identified usually by specific banding techniques and considered as Mendelian variations without a clinical significance. Likewise, it has been exposed in the literature the presence of variants in euchromatic regions that after a detailed analysis turns out to be of benign nature. Due to the current importance of this issue it is necessary to propose a protocol to follow in our laboratories every time a chromosome variant is detected while performing a prenatal analysis and supported by experienced specialist in our field. The goal of this work is to present a review of the literature about how a finding of a chromosome variant is handled and the suggestions given for a more proper management.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Euchromatin , Heterochromatin , Prenatal Diagnosis
11.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 88 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-750092

ABSTRACT

Introdução O diagnóstico de derrame pleural maligno (DPM) se baseia no achado de células tumorais no líquido ou no tecido pleural. Resultados falsos positivos ou falsos negativos influenciam na escolha da melhor conduta terapêutica a ser tomada, além de alterar substancialmente o prognóstico desses pacientes. A sensibilidade do exame citológico é geralmente inferior a 70%, motivo pelo qual, métodos complementares são frequentemente associados. Fatores como tipo histológico, sítio primário e grau de invasibilidade do tumor são os principais responsáveis por esta variação. Dentre os exames complementares propostos, destacam-se a dosagem de marcadores tumorais no líquido pleural (LP), as técnicas citoquímicas, imunocitoquímicas e de marcadores de proliferação celular em células do LP, a análise da ploidia de DNA por citometria de fluxo (CF) ou estática (CE) e, mais recentemente, as técnicas de citogenética e de biologia molecular, como a técnica de hibridação in situ por fluorescência (FISH) e a técnica de amplificação multiplex por sondas ligação - dependentes (MLPA) estas, capazes de detectar alterações em regiões gênicas consideradas "alvo" para o desfecho neoplásico. Objetivos 1) Padronizar as técnicas de DNA ploidia, FISH e MLPA em amostras frescas de líquido pleural; 2) Testar a eficiência diagnóstica dos métodos da DNA ploidia e da FISH no diagnóstico de derrame pleural maligno e 3) Avaliar alterações no número de cópias no gene EGFR em metástases pleurais utilizando a técnica de MLPA. Métodos Foram incluídos 200 pacientes adultos portadores de derrame pleural (DP) com indicação de toracocentese. O diagnóstico histológico foi o padrão ouro para malignidade. Características clínicas, radiológicas, histológicas e de seguimento clínico foram considerados para a exclusão de malignidade, de maneira que 130 casos foram classificados como malignos e 70 como benignos. As 200 amostras de LP foram submetidas ao exame citológico e à FISH utilizando sondas...


Introduction The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is based on the finding of tumor cells in the pleural fluid or tissue. False positive or false negative results influence the choice of the best therapeutic approach to be used with these patients and substantially change their prognosis. The sensitivity of the cytology is generally lesser than 70%, for which complementary methods are often associated. Factors such as tumor histological type, staging, primary site and potential of invasiveness are responsible for this variation. Among the proposed ancillary tests, we highlight the dosage of tumor markers in pleural fluid (PF), the cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques, including markers of cell proliferation, DNA ploidy analysis by flow cytometry (FC) or static cytometry (EC) and more recently, the cytogenetics and molecular techniques, as the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the multiplex ligation - dependent probe amplification (MLPA), capable of detecting changes in gene regions considered "target" for the neoplastic outcome. Objectives 1) To standardize the techniques of DNA ploidy, FISH and MLPA in fresh samples of pleural fluid; 2) To test the diagnosis efficiency of DNA ploidy and FISH in the diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and 3) To evaluate changes in the copy number of the EGFR gene by using the MLPA technique in cases of pleural metastases. Methods We included 200 adult patients with pleural effusion and clinical indication for thoracentesis. The histological diagnosis was considered the gold standard for malignancy. Clinical follow-up, radiological and histological characteristics were considered for exclusion of malignancy, which ranked de cases as 130 malignant effusions and 70 as benign ones. All cases were submitted to cytology and FISH using centromeric probes for the chromosomes 11 and 17. Analysis of DNA ploidy by FC was performed in 45 cases and the MLPA for epidermal...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Cytodiagnosis , DNA Copy Number Variations , DNA Probes , Flow Cytometry , Genes, erbB-1 , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Body Fluids/cytology , Pleural Effusion, Malignant
12.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 29(2): 114-118, abr.-jun. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-672140

ABSTRACT

Evolución clonal en la leucemia mieloide crónica se denomina a la presencia de alteraciones cromosómicas adicionales al cromosoma Filadelfia. Ocurre aproximadamente en el 30 por ciento de los pacientes en fase acelerada y en el 80 por ciento de los pacientes en crisis blástica. Es considerada un criterio de la fase acelerada de la enfermedad. Aunque se plantea que su presencia implica peor pronóstico, su significado es controversial y está en dependencia de la alteración citogenética específica, su frecuencia en el cariotipo, la asociación con otras alteraciones citogenéticas y clínicas de progresión, relación con el tiempo en que aparece en la evolución de la enfermedad y los tratamientos empleados


Clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia is defined as the presence of a variety of additional, nonrandom chromosomal abnormalities besides the Philadelfia chromosome. It occurs in approximately 30 percent of patients in accelerated phase and 80 percent of patients in blastic phase. It is considered a criterion for accelerated phase. Although it is associated with a poor prognosis, its significance is controversial. It depends on the specific cytogenetic abnormality, its frequency in karyotype study, the association with other progression clinical and cytogenetic alterations, its relationship with the time of appearance during the course of the disease and the therapy used


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Clonal Evolution/genetics , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/complications , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Philadelphia Chromosome , Prognosis
13.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2013; 14 (3): 317-322
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170468

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes is a mitochondrial multisystem disorder. This disease has mainly been associated to the mitochondrial DNA mutation A3243G located in the tRNA Leucine gene. In this article, we report the clinical, radiological and molecular results of a 10 years old Child with the classical Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes phenotype. A 10 years old male Japanese child presented with recurrent episodes of headache, nausea and vomiting of 5 years duration and hyperlactic acidemia. These episodes were associated with motor weakness on the right side, with difficulties in language and memory and visual disturbance. Neurological examination revealed generalized muscle weakness with mild right sided hemiparesis. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed infarct like lesions in the left occipital regions and the left medial temporal. The mitochondrial DNA mutations A3243G, T3271C and G13513A were tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. The heteroplasmic A3243G mutation was detected in the blood of the patient and his mother. L-Arginine is reported to be beneficial for the patients and a preventive treatment was given in the form of arginine 500 mg twice per day


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Acidosis, Lactic , Stroke/diagnosis , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Neurologic Manifestations
14.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2012 Oct-Dec 55(4): 501-505
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145645

ABSTRACT

The cri du chat syndrome (CdCS) is a chromosomal deletion syndrome associated with a partial deletion of the short (p) arm of chromosome 5. We describe five children who were diagnosed to have CdCS by conventional cytogenetic analysis. The deletion was at 5p15 in four patients, whereas the fifth had a larger, more proximal deletion at 5p14. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the deletion of the CdCS critical region at 5p15.2. All five children had global developmental delay and dysmorphism with microcephaly. The other clinical features were variable. Since the clinical diagnosis of CdCS may not always be evident because of the phenotypic heterogeneity, cytogenetic analysis is necessary to establish the diagnosis and confirm that the deletion involves the CdCS critical region. This will enable early intervention which plays an important role in improving the outcome.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Chromosome Deletion , Cri-du-Chat Syndrome/diagnosis , Cri-du-Chat Syndrome/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods
15.
Femina ; 40(2)mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-652211

ABSTRACT

Este texto tem como objetivo apresentar uma revisão acerca do estado da arte da citogenética convencional e molecular aplicada ao diagnóstico pré-natal, discutindo as aplicações, vantagens e desvantagens dos diferentes métodos, em suas bases teóricas e históricas. Desde 1960, a citogenética convencional, com a análise microscópica dos cromossomos em divisão, vem sendo utilizada como padrão ouro. Entretanto, mesmo adotando essa abordagem, para uma significativa parcela de casos não é possível estabelecer diagnóstico sindrômico definitivo em cerca de metade dos pacientes que apresentam cariótipo normal, na presença de malformações. Para esse grupo, as técnicas moleculares que envolvem estudos em nível genômico poderiam permitir a identificação de novos microarranjos cromossômicos possivelmente responsáveis pelo fenótipo anormal, contribuindo para a caracterização molecular e estabelecimento de um diagnóstico mais preciso, uma abordagem perinatal mais adequada e um aconselhamento genético mais detalhado. Destaca-se o advento das técnicas de FISH, SKY, CGH e array CGH como promissoras aliadas, de forma complementar ao cariótipo convencional


This paper aims at presenting a review of the state of the art of conventional and molecular cytogenetics applied to prenatal diagnosis, the applications, pros and cons of different techniques and their historical and theoretical background. Since 1960, conventional cytogenetics, based on the analysis of chromosomes has been used as a gold standard. However, for a significant proportion of cases it is not possible to establish definitive syndromic diagnosis in about half of the patients with normal karyotype in the presence of malformations. For this group, molecular techniques at the genomic level might allow the identification of new chromosomal areas potentially responsible for the abnormal phenotype, contributing to the molecular characterization and establishment of a more accurate diagnosis and the most appropriate perinatal approach, including a more detailed genetic counseling. The advent of FISH techniques, SKY, CGH and array CGH will be discussed as promising tools to complement cytogenetic diagnosis based on conventional karyotyping


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Spectral Karyotyping/methods , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis , Chromosome Banding/methods , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes/ultrastructure , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/methods , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics
16.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 38(1): 1-10, ene.-mar. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-617279

ABSTRACT

La utilización de la técnica de hibridación in situ con fluorescencia aplicada al diagnóstico prenatal citogenético es una vía rápida para establecer un nexo entre los genes y los cromosomas sin necesidad de realizar cultivos celulares, permitiendo la detección de anomalías cromosómicas en células en interfase. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los resultados obtenidos en la introducción de este método para el diagnóstico prenatal de aneuploidías en embarazos de alto riesgo. Se examinaron 40 casos prenatales de alto riesgo por la técnica de hibridación in situ, se obtuvieron resultados satisfactorios en 34. Se corroboró con el resultado obtenido de la citogenética convencional en el 97 por ciento de los casos. Se realizó el diagnóstico de aneuploidías de los cromosomas 18, 21 y 13, el 80 por ciento de los núcleos examinados, presentó 3 señales. En los casos normales no existieron discrepancias con la citogenética respecto a los cromosomas sexuales, el número de cromosomas autosómicos (21,13 y 18) y los marcajes observados por FISH. Esta técnica debe ser aplicada en casos de alto riego de aneuploidías de los cromosomas 21, 13, 18 y X, casos con elevada ansiedad materna, y/o cuando una determinada situación clínica así lo demande. Esta técnica debe ser complementada mediante el examen cromosómico de las células fetales


Fluorescence in situ hybridization applied to the cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis is a rapid way to stablish a nexus between genes and chromosomes without celular culture and allows detection of chromosomal abnormalities on interphase cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this method as a tool in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies in high risk pregnancies. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 40 high-risk pregnancies using fluorescence in situ hybridization, 34 had successuful results. The 97 percent the cases were confirmed by conventional cytogenetic results. The diagnosis of 18, 21 and 13 chromosome aneuploidies showed three hybridization signals in 80 percent of the scored nuclei. The results of fluorescence in situ hybridization were in conformity with the results of cytogenetic analysis in all the normal cases (sex and autosomic chromosomes). This technique should be applied in high risk cases of chromosomes aneuploidies (21,18, 13 and X), high maternal anxiety, or when significant clinical situation is present. It should be employed as an adjunctive tool to the examination of fetal chromosomes


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Prenatal Diagnosis/methods , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Pregnancy, High-Risk/genetics
17.
Rev. cuba. med ; 50(4): 341-347, oct.-dic. 2011.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-615448

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leucemia mieloide crónica es una enfermedad mieloproliferativa caracterizada por 3 fases evolutivas. La evaluación citogenética de la enfermedad permite confirmar el diagnóstico y establecer el pronóstico. Objetivo: Reportar los resultados del estudio citogenético de 180 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de leucemia mieloide crónica y correlacionarlos con las 3 fases de dicha neoplasia. Métodos: El análisis cromosómico de las muestras de médula ósea se realizó por las técnicas de bandas G y los cariotipos se clasificaron según los criterios del Sistema Internacional de Nomenclatura Cromosómica. Resultados: El 94 por ciento de los pacientes estudiados presentó la translocación t(9;22), que apareció con mayor frecuencia en los individuos en fase crónica (87,5 por ciento). En contraste, las anomalías cromosómicas secundarias al cromosoma Philadelphia resultaron las más frecuentes en los que estaban en fase acelerada y en crisis blástica (81,5 por ciento y 96 por ciento, respectivamente). Los resultados obtenidos confirman la relación que existe entre las alteraciones cromosómicas y las diferentes fases evolutivas de la leucemia mieloide crónica


Introduction: The chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disease characterized by three progressive phases. Its cytogenetic analysis assessment allows us to verify the diagnosis and to establish the prognosis. Objective: To report the cytogenetic results from 180 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia and correlate them with the three phases of such neoplasia. Methods: The chromosomal analysis of bone marrow samples was performed using the techniques of G bands and the karyotypes were classified according to the criteria of the International System of Chromosomal Nomenclature. Results: The 94 percent of study patients had the translocation t(9:22) more frequent in subjects in chronic phase (87,5 percent). In contrast, the chromosomal anomalies secondary to Philadelphia chromosome were the more frequent ones in those cases in accelerated phase and of blast crisis (81.5 percent and 96 percent), respectively. Results obtained confirm the relation existing among the chromosomal alterations and the different evolution phases of chronic myeloid leukemia


Subject(s)
Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/diagnosis , Philadelphia Chromosome , Chromosome Disorders/blood , Cuba , Epidemiology, Descriptive
18.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 5(2): 74-77, dic. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La reproducción humana es un proceso relativamente ineficaz. Los abortos espontáneos ocurren entre el 15 a 20 por ciento de los embarazos clínicamente reconocidos. El impacto emocional se acentúa debido a la falta de diagnóstico. OBJETIVO: Describir la experiencia del Laboratorio de Citogenética de la Clínica Sanatorio Alemán de Concepción e identificarlas alteraciones más frecuentes y su relación estadística con la edad materna. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: 677 muestras de tejido obtenidas de abortos espontáneos, ocurridos desde julio de1996 a abril de 2009. Es un trabajo de tipo transversal donde las muestras utilizadas son las vellosidades coriónicas, cultivadas en medios estandarizados. RESULTADOS: De las 677 muestras estudiadas, en 259 se obtuvo un cariotipo normal (38,3 por ciento). En 418 muestras se encontraron anomalías cromosómicas, correspondiendo estas a un 61,7 por ciento. Entre los cariogramas alterados se encontraron: 265 trisomías (63,4 por ciento), 83 poliploidías (19,9 por ciento), 48 monosomías (11,5 por ciento) y 22 alteraciones estructurales (5,3 por ciento). La trisomía más frecuente fue la 16 (34,4 por ciento), seguida de la trisomía 21 (13,6 por ciento). Se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de la madre (> 37 años) y la presencia de alteraciones citogenéticas (p<0,0001). DISCUSIÓN: El 61,7 por ciento de los abortos presentó alguna alteración del cariotipo. La trisomía 16 fue la aberración más frecuente concordando con la literatura. La trisomía 21 se presentó en un 13,6 por ciento siendo más frecuente que lo encontrado en series extranjeras. En el grupo mayor de 37 años existe mayor prevalencia de anomalías cromosómicas siendo estadísticamente significativa (p<0,0001).


INTRODUCCION: The human reproduction is a relatively inefficient process. In the 15 to 20 percent of the pregnancy clinically diagnosticated finish in spontaneous abortions. The great emotional impact, that in many times is worst by the lack of diagnostic. OBJECTIVE: Describe experience of the Cytogenetic Laboratory of Clínica Sanatorio Alemán of Concepción Chile and determinate the frequency of alteration and his relationship with maternal age. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 677 samples of tissue of spontaneous abortions, taked from July, 1996 to April, 2009. It is a descriptive work; the samples are chorionic villous, cultivated in standard solutions. RESULTS: Of 677 samples in 259 was found a normal cariotype (38.3 percent). In 418 was found some type of chromosome aberrations (61.7 percent). The distribution of the abnormal result is the follow: 265 trisomies (63.4 percent), 83 polyploidy (19.8 percent), 48 monosomy (11.5 percent) and 22 abnormalities structures (5.3 percent). Of the trisomies the most recurrent is 16 trisomy with the 34.4 percent, follow by the 21 trisomy with 13.6 percent and the 22 trisomy with 12.8 percent. In the statistic analysis we found a statistically significant relation between the age of the mother (<38 years) and the development of chromosomal alterations (p<0.0001). DISCUSSION: The 61.7 percent of abortions show some cytogenetic alteration. The 16 trisomies were the most frequent, agreeing with the literature. The trisomy 21 was more common than published to date. In older women is most frequent found chromosome aberrations (p<0.0001).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Chromosome Aberrations/statistics & numerical data , Abortion, Spontaneous/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Age Factors , Chorionic Villi , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping , Maternal Age , Trisomy , Chromosome Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 9(2): 343-350, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593209

ABSTRACT

Color pattern is an important character in the systematics and alpha-taxonomy of electric fishes of the genus Gymnotus. This paper presents evidence of color variation in populations of G. pantanal found in the streams Jacutinga and Pinheirinho, in the upper Paraná River basin, southern Brazil. Color variations were corroborated for morphological and cytogenetic data. Our results show the importance of integrating morphologic and cytogenetic data in the taxonomy of the Gymnotus species.


O padrão de colorido é um caráter muito importante na sistemática e alfa taxonomia de espécies do gênero Gymnotus. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar evidências de variação no padrão de colorido em populações locais de Gymnotus pantanal encontrados nos córregos Jacutinga e Pinheirinho, bacia do alto rio Paraná, sul do Brasil. A variação no padrão de colorido foi corroborada por dados morfológicos e citogenéticos. Nossos resultados demonstram a importância da integração de dados morfológicos e citogenéticos na taxonomia de espécies de Gymnotus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytogenetic Analysis/veterinary , Karyotyping/veterinary , Gymnotiformes/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 9(2): 325-333, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593219

ABSTRACT

The lacustrine system of the middle rio Doce basin is considered a paradigm of Pleistocene geomorphology. In these lakes, two Hoplias malabaricus karyomorphs (2n = 42A and 2n = 42B) live in sintopy in Carioca Lake. Cytogenetic analyses were performed on 65 specimens from 8 lakes (including Carioca Lake) to determine the distribution and relative frequency of these karyomorphs and the degree of cytogenetic divergence caused putatively by recent geographic isolation. All fish were 2n = 42B karyomorphs, except for 1 specimen from the Marola Lake, which was 2n = 42A. Among-population variation was especially high for C-banding patterns. Other characters such as X chromosome size and CMA3/DAPI also varied among populations. Our results suggested that the karyotype of H. malabaricus is able to respond rapidly to geographic isolation, and revealed that heterochromatic variation may represent the lowest hierarchical level of chromosomal evolution.


O sistema lacustre da bacia do médio rio Doce é considerado um paradigma da geomorfologia do Pleistoceno. Nestes lagos, dois cariomorfos de Hoplias malabaricus (2n = 42A e 2n = 42B) vivem em sintopia na lagoa Carioca. Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em 65 amostras de 8 lagos (incluindo lagoa Carioca) para determinar a distribuição e frequência relativa destes cariomorfos e o grau de divergência citogenética aparentemente causada pelo isolamento geográfico recente. Todos os peixes apresentaram o cariomorfo 2n = 42B, com exceção de 1 espécime da lagoa Marola, que foi 2n = 42A. Entre as populações, a variação foi especialmente elevada nos padrões de bandamento C. Outros caracteres como o tamanho do cromossomo X e os padrões de CMA3/DAPI também variaram entre as populações. Nossos resultados sugerem que o genoma de H. malabaricus é capaz de responder rapidamente ao isolamento geográfico, revelando que a variação de heterocromatina pode representar o nível hierárquico mais baixo de evolução cromossômica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytogenetic Analysis/veterinary , Karyotyping/veterinary , Cytogenetic Analysis/methods , Lake Basins , Lakes , Rivers
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