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1.
Braz. dent. j ; 32(3): 65-74, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345502

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study investigated the effect of three commercial calcium silicate-based materials (CSBM) on cytotoxicity and pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines production in cultured human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Culture of hPDLSCs was established and characterized. Extracts of Bio-C Sealer (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and PBS Cimmo HP (Cimmo Soluções em Saúde, Pouso Alegre, MG, Brazil) were prepared by placing cement specimens (5 x 3 mm) in culture medium. Then, the extracts were serially two-fold diluted (1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16) and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h for MTT assays. TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines were quantified by ELISA at 24h-cell supernatants. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). All CSBM exhibited some cytotoxicity that varied according to extract concentration and time of evaluation. MTA Fillapex presented the highest cytotoxic effects with significant reduction of metabolic activity/cell viability when compared to Bio-C Sealer and Cimmo HP®. TNF-α was significantly upregulated by the three tested cements (p < 0.05) while only MTA Fillapex significantly upregulated IL-10 in comparison to control. Taken collectively, the results showed that PBS Cimmo HP®, Bio-C Sealer and MTA Fillapex present mild and transient cytotoxicity and slightly induced TNF-α production. MTA Fillapex upregulated IL-10 release by hPDLSCs.


Resumo Este estudo investigou o efeito de três materiais comerciais à base de silicato de cálcio (CSBM) na citotoxicidade e na produção de citocinas pró e antiinflamatórias em células-tronco do ligamento periodontal humano (hPDLSCs). Cultura de hPDLSCs foi estabelecida e caracterizada. Extratos de Bio-C Sealer (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brasil), MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brasil) e PBS Cimmo HP® (Cimmo Soluções em Saúde, Pouso Alegre, MG, Brasil) foram preparados com a colocação de espécimes dos cimentos (5 x 3 mm) em meio de cultura. Em seguida, os extratos foram diluídos (1, 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 8, 1:16) e inseridos nos poços semeados de células para ensaio de citotoxicidade por meio de MTT por 24, 48 e 72 h. As citocinas TNF-α e IL-10 foram quantificadas por ELISA em sobrenadantes de células de 24 h. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e teste de Tukey (α = 0,05). Todos os CSBM exibiram alguma citotoxicidade que variou de acordo com a concentração do extrato e o tempo de avaliação. O MTA Fillapex apresentou os maiores efeitos citotóxicos com redução significativa da atividade metabólica / viabilidade celular quando comparado ao Bio-C Sealer e Cimmo HP®. O TNF-α foi regulado positivamente pelos três cimentos testados (p <0,05), enquanto apenas o MTA Fillapex regulou positivamente a liberação de IL-10 em comparação com o controle. Tomados em conjunto, os resultados mostraram que PBS Cimmo HP®, Bio-C Sealer e MTA Fillapex apresentam citotoxicidade leve e transitória e induziram a produção de TNF-α. O MTA Fillapex regulou positivamente a liberação de IL-10 por hPDLSCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodontal Ligament/cytology , Root Canal Filling Materials/adverse effects , Stem Cells/drug effects , Silicates/adverse effects , Calcium Compounds/adverse effects , Oxides , Materials Testing , Cytokines/metabolism , Aluminum Compounds
2.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1065-1070, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888519

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4) during the process of differentiation into granulocyte of NB4 cells induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and whether PADI4 is involved in the inflammatory cytokines expression.@*METHODS@#Granulocyte differentiation model of NB4 cells induced by ATRA was established. The cell morphology changes were observed by Wright-Giemsa staining. The expression of cell differentiation marker CD11b was analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression of PADI4 was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interleukin (IL) 1β was analyzed by ELISA, and also examined with the knockdown of PADI4 expression by siRNA.@*RESULTS@#After NB4 cells induced by ATRA, the cytoplasm increased and the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic was reduced. Nuclear dented, and rod-shaped nucleus, lobulated phenomenon increased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis results showed that the cell surface molecule CD11b expression increased (P<0.01). RT-PCR and Western blot showed the expression of PADI4 increased at both transcriptional and translational levels during the process of the differentiation. ELISA showed TNF-α and IL-1β secretion increased in differentiated macrophages, while they could be inhibited by PADI4-specific siRNA.@*CONCLUSION@#During the differentiation into granulocyte of NB4 cells induced by ATRA, PADI4 expression increased. Furthermore, PADI4 appeared to play a critical role in inflammatory cytokines secretion.


Subject(s)
Cell Differentiation , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocytes , Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute , Protein-Arginine Deiminase Type 4/metabolism , Tretinoin/pharmacology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888489

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the expression of adipokines in children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) before and after treatment and its correlation with blood lipids, as well as the role of adipokines in PNS children with hyperlipidemia.@*METHODS@#A total of 90 children who were diagnosed with incipient PNS or recurrence of PNS after corticosteroid withdrawal for more than 6 months were enrolled as subjects. Thirty children who underwent physical examination were enrolled as the control group. Venous blood samples were collected from the children in the control group and the children with PNS before corticosteroid therapy (active stage) and after urinary protein clearance following 4 weeks of corticosteroid therapy (remission stage). ELISA was used to measure the levels of adipokines. An automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure blood lipid levels.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the children with PNS had a significantly lower level of omentin-1 in both active and remission stages, and their level of omentin-1 in the active stage was significantly lower than that in the remission stage (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Omentin-1 may be associated with disease activity, dyslipidemia, and proteinuria in children with PNS. Blood lipid ratios may be more effective than traditional blood lipid parameters in monitoring early cardiovascular risk in children with PNS.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hyperlipidemias , Lectins/metabolism , Lipids , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Proteinuria
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 623-630, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138681

ABSTRACT

Resumen: SARS-CoV-2 es un virus de alta estabilidad ambiental. Es principalmente un patógeno respiratorio que también afecta el tracto gastrointestinal. El receptor ACE2 es el principal receptor de SARS- CoV-2, hay evidencia de su elevada presencia en intestino, colon y colangiocitos; igualmente se en cuentra expresado en hepatocitos pero en menor proporción. SARS-CoV-2 tiene un tropismo gas trointestinal que explica los síntomas digestivos y la diseminación viral en deposiciones. Las caracte rísticas de SARS-CoV-2 incluyen a la proteína S (Spike o Espícula) que se une de forma muy estable al receptor ACE2. La infección por SARS-CoV-2 produce disbiosis y alteraciones en el eje pulmón- intestino. A nivel intestinal y hepático produce una respuesta Linfocitos T evidente y una respuesta de citocinas que producirían daño intestinal inflamatorio. Las manifestaciones a nivel intestinal en orden de frecuencia son pérdida de apetito, diarrea, náuseas, vómitos y dolor abdominal. Éste último podría ser un marcador de gravedad. En niños la diarrea es habitualmente leve y autolimitada. A nivel hepático la hipertransaminasemia ocurre en 40-60% de los pacientes graves. SARS-CoV-2 puede per manecer en deposiciones un tiempo más prolongado que en secreciones respiratorias, este hallazgo influiría en la diseminación de enfermedad. En esta revisión se destaca la importancia de efectuar un reconocimiento precoz de las manifestaciones gastrointestinales y hepáticas, aumentar el índice de sospecha, efectuar un diagnóstico oportuno y reconocer eventuales complicaciones de la enferme dad. La potencial transmisión fecal oral puede influir en la diseminación de enfermedad. Reconocer este hallazgo es importante para definir aislamiento.


Abstract: SARS-CoV-2 is a high environmental stable virus. It is predominantly a respiratory pathogen that also affects the gastrointestinal tract. The ACE 2 receptor is the main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, with evidence of its high presence in the intestine, colon and cholangiocytes, and, in smaller proportion, in hepatocytes. SARS-CoV-2 has a gastrointestinal tropism that explains digestive symptoms and viral spread in stools. The characteristics of this virus include the S (Spike) protein that binds very stably to the ACE-2 receptor and, at the same time, SARS-CoV-2 produces dysbiosis and alterations in the gut-lung axis. It produces a clear T-cell response and a cytokines storm in the intestine and liver that would produce inflammatory bowel damage. Intestinal manifestations by order of frequency are loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain, where the latter could be a severity marker. In children, diarrhea is the most frequent symptom, usually mild and self-limiting. In the liver, hypertransaminasemia occurs in severe patients ranging from 40 to 60%. SARS-CoV-2 can re main in stools longer than in respiratory secretions, which would influence the spread of disease. This article highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations, increase the index of suspicion, make a timely diagnosis, and recognize eventual complications of the disease. The potential oral-fecal route of transmission may influence the disease spread. Recognizing this finding is important to define isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Cytokines/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881035

ABSTRACT

Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) is one of the main effective components of bile acid, playing critical roles in apoptosis and immune responses through the TGR5 receptor. In this study, we reveal the interaction between TCDCA and TGR5 receptor in TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells and the regulation of inflammation via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) signal pathway in NR8383 macrophages. In TGR5-knockdown H1299 cells, TCDCA significantly activated cAMP level via TGR5 receptor, indicating TCDCA can bind to TGR5; in NR8383 macrophages TCDCA increased cAMP content compared to treatment with the adenylate cyclase (AC) inhibitor SQ22536. Moreover, activated cAMP can significantly enhance gene expression and protein levels of its downstream proteins PKA and CREB compared with groups of inhibitors. Additionally, TCDCA decreased tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12 through nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity. PKA and CREB are primary regulators of anti-inflammatory and immune response. Our results thus demonstrate TCDCA plays an essential anti-inflammatory role via the signaling pathway of cAMP-PKA-CREB induced by TGR5 receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line , Cyclic AMP/metabolism , Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein/metabolism , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Macrophages , Rats , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1527-1533, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040165

ABSTRACT

En órganos dañados, el ácido láctico (AL) modifica la respuesta inmune innata e inflamatoria, induciendo una menor expresión de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, que provocan, la modulación del reclutamiento de células inmunes. El daño por compresión del nervio isquiático (NI) desencadena una respuesta inflamatoria y un aumento exponencial del infiltrado inflamatorio de células inmunes, produciendo la destrucción de axones y pérdida funcional del nervio. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el efecto agudo de la inyección de AL, sobre la proporción de células inmunes en la fase inflamatoria temprana, en el sitio de lesión del NI post compresión. Para ello, se utilizaron 15 ratas machos Sprague Dawley adultas, en tres grupos de compresión nerviosa. Un grupo control, un grupo control negativo con placebo (100 µL PBS) y un grupo experimental con inyección de 100 µL de AL [20mM]. Al tercer día los NI se analizaron histológicamente y se estableció la proporción de células inmunes en el sitio de lesión. Los resultados muestran que la inyección intraneural de AL provoca una disminución en el porcentaje de linfocitos y un aumento en el porcentaje de macrófagos. Este es el primer trabajo de inyección intraneural de AL y demuestra el efecto modulador del AL sobre las células inmunes en el sistema nervioso periférico.


In damaged organs, lactic acid (LA) modifies the innate and inflammatory immune response, inducing a lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which provoke the modulation of immune cell recruitment. Damage by compression of the sciatic nerve (SN) triggers an inflammatory response and an exponential increase in the inflammatory infiltrate of immune cells, producing the destruction of axons and functional loss of the nerve. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acute effect of the injection of LA, on the proportion of immune cells in the early inflammatory phase, in the site of SN post-compression injury. For this, 15 adult Sprague Dawley rats were used in three groups of nervous compression. A control group, a negative control group with placebo (100 mL PBS) and an experimental group with injection of 100 mL of LA [20mM]. On the third day, the SNs were histologically analyzed and the proportion of immune cells at the injury site was established. The results show that the intraneural injection of LA causes a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and an increase in the percentage of macrophages. This is the first work of intraneural injection of LA and demonstrates the modulating effect of LA on immune cells in the peripheral nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sciatic Nerve/immunology , Lactic Acid/pharmacology , Nerve Compression Syndromes/pathology , Sciatic Nerve/pathology , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Lactic Acid/administration & dosage , Inflammation/immunology , Macrophages/drug effects
8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(6): 760-765, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055517

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a heterogeneous disease and appropriate diagnostic algorithms in individual cases are necessary for effective medical treatment. Objective: The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the pendrin expression of nasal polyps and clinical and pathological characteristic features of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Methods: A total of 68 patients were classified into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis or non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups according to the degree of eosinophilic infiltration into the nasal polyps. Clinical, hematological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed and statistically compared between both groups. Results: Thirty-eight were classified into eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis and 30 into non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups. There were no significant differences in age distribution, sex ratio, prevalence of asthma, or any other complications between the groups. The mean Lund-Mackay score and the number of serum eosinophils was significantly higher in the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis than in the non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups. The pendrin expression was more frequently detected in the epithelial surface layer of nasal polyps in the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis than in the non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis groups. In addition, mucin 5AC was more widely expressed in the eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis than in the non-eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Conclusion: Increased expression of pendrin and mucin 5AC in the nasal polyps would be associated with development of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. This finding could allow the development of a novel therapeutic agent targeted specifically to patients with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.


Resumo Introdução: A rinossinusite crônica com pólipos nasais é uma doença heterogênea e algoritmos diagnósticos apropriados em casos individuais são necessários para um tratamento médico eficaz. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi esclarecer a relação entre a expressão da pendrina de pólipos nasais e propriedades clínicas e patológicas características da rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica. Método: Um total de 68 pacientes foram classificados como tendo rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica ou rinossinusite crônica não eosinofílica de acordo com o grau de infiltração eosinofílica nos pólipos nasais. Análises clínicas, hematológicas e imunohistoquímicas foram realizadas e comparadas estatisticamente entre os dois grupos. Resultados: Entre os pacientes, 38 apresentavam rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica e constituíram o grupo 1; 30 tinham rinossinusite crônica não eosinofílica e constituíram o grupo 2. Não houve diferenças significantes na distribuição etária, razão entre os sexos, prevalência de asma ou qualquer outra complicação entre os grupos. O escore médio de Lund-Mackay e o número de eosinófilos séricos foram significantemente maiores no grupo com rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica do que no grupo com rinossinusite crônica não eosinofílica. A expressão da pendrina foi mais frequentemente detectada na camada epitelial superficial dos pólipos nasais na rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica do que no grupo com rinossinusite crônica não eosinofílica. Além disso, mucina 5AC foi mais amplamente expressa na rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica do que na rinossinusite crônica não eosinofílica. Conclusão: O aumento da expressão da pendrina e mucina 5AC nos pólipos nasais estaria associado ao desenvolvimento de rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica. Esse achado pode permitir o desenvolvimento de um novo agente terapêutico voltado especificamente para pacientes com rinossinusite crônica eosinofílica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Sinusitis/metabolism , Rhinitis/metabolism , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , Eosinophilia/metabolism , Sulfate Transporters/metabolism , Asthma/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Chronic Disease , Cytokines/metabolism , Eosinophilia/etiology
9.
Acta ortop. mex ; 33(4): 204-210, jul.-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284941

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar el nivel de citoquinas proinflamatorias en la grasa articular del paquete adiposo en pacientes con gonartrosis, en relación con la grasa subcutánea del muslo. Material y métodos: Efectuamos un estudio de grasa del paquete adiposo articular de la rodilla afectada de artrosis y de la grasa subcutánea del muslo del mismo lado, a la mayor distancia de la articulación en seis pacientes con gonartrosis grave, con una edad media de 68 años (rango: 55-81 años). De las muestras de grasa se obtuvieron las células mesenquimales progenitoras. Los sobrenadantes de células mesenquimales obtenidas se utilizaron para analizar factores inflamatorios (IL-1b, IL6, IL8, IL9, IL1ra, IL12, IL13, IL15) y angiogénicos (VEGF, PDGF bb), así como citoquinas inmunomoduladoras (IP-10 e INF-γ) y se compararon las medias de dos muestras. Resultados: El análisis cuantitativo reveló una disminución significativa (p < 0.05) de IL-1b, IL6, IL8, IL9, IL1ra, IL12, IL13 y un aumento de IL15 en la grasa de Hoffa frente al tejido adiposo subcutáneo. Del mismo modo, el análisis de factores angiógenicos como VEGF y PDGF bb, al igual que los factores IP-10 e INF-γ presentaron una disminución significativa en la grasa de Hoffa (p < 0.05) frente al tejido adiposo subcutáneo. Discusión: Las células mesenquimales del paquete adiposo articular de la rodilla artrósica grave muestran una disminución significativa de citoquinas inflamatorias, aun en el estado crónico, y una disminución significativa de factores angiogénicos y citoquinas inmunomoduladoras (IP10 e INF).


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in osteoarthritis knee joint fat pad in relation to the subcutaneous fat of the thigh. Material and methods: We performed a study of fat of the knee joint adipose affected of osteoarthritis and subcutaneous fat of the thigh of the same side to the greater distance of the joint in six patients with severe gonarthrosis, with a mean age of 68 years (range: 55-81 years). From the fat samples the progenitor mesenchymal cells were obtained. The supernatants of mesenchymal cells obtained to analyze inflammatory factors (IL-1b, IL6, IL9, IL1ra, IL12, IL13, IL15) and angiogenic (VEGF, PDGF bb) and immunomodulatory cytokines (IP-10 and INF-γ) means of two samples. Results: Quantitative analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in IL-1b, IL6, IL8, IL9, IL1ra, IL12, IL13 and increase of IL15 in Hoffa fat pad versus subcutaneous adipose tissue. Likewise, the analysis of angiogenic factors such as VEGF and PDGF, as well as factors IP-10 and INF-γ presented a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in Hoffa fat pad versus subcutaneous adipose tissue. Discussion: Mesenchymal cells from the adipose tissue of the severe osteoarthritic knee show a significant decrease in inflammatory cytokines even in the chronic state and a significant decrease in angiogenic factors and immunomodulatory cytokines (IP10 and INF).


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cytokines/metabolism , Osteoarthritis, Knee/metabolism , Subcutaneous Fat/metabolism , Thigh , Adipose Tissue , Knee Joint , Middle Aged
10.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(1): 49-57, mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003646

ABSTRACT

Los incendios forestales representan un problema creciente de la salud pública a nivel mundial, especialmente para la población más vulnerable (niños, ancianos, embarazadas y portadores de enfermedades cardiovasculares o respiratorias crónicas) expuesta al humo y a otros contaminantes aéreos. A diferencia de la contaminación atmosférica habitual de grandes urbes, aquella derivada de los incendios forestales tiene una composición diferente y su ocurrencia es esporádica y difícil de prever. La exposición a contaminantes atmosféricos derivados de incendios forestales se asocia a aumento de la morbilidad respiratoria y cardiovascular, mediada por una respuesta inflamatoria pulmonar y sistémica, estrés oxidativo y disfunción endotelial. En sujetos expuestos a humo de incendios forestales se ha observado un aumento en la producción de citoquinas pro-inflamatorias, activación endotelial y disfunción del sistema nervioso autónomo, que produce daño tisular, aumento de los mecanismos protrombóticos, aumento de la presión arterial y cambios en el ritmo cardiaco. Esta revisión analiza los mecanismos que han sido involucrados en generar efectos nocivos para la salud de seres humanos expuestos a material particulado y gases emanados de incendios forestales.


Wildfires represent a growing global public health issue, especially to the most vulnerable segment of the population (children, old people, pregnant women, patients with cardiovascular or respiratory diseases) exposed to smoke and other air borne contaminants generated from these events. In contrast to great cities ' usual atmospheric pollution, that derives from forest fires differ in composition and its occurrence is sporadic and usually unpredictable. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants derived from forest fires has been associated to increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity, mediated by an inflammatory systemic response, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In people exposed to forest fire smoke an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial activation and autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been observed, that leads to tissue injury, increased prothrombotic response, increased blood pressure and changes in heart rhythm. This review analyzes the mechanisms that have been involved in generating harmful health effects in humans exposed to inhaled particulate matter and gases steaming from wildfires.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Wildfires , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/chemically induced , Cytokines/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Inhalation Exposure , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/physiopathology
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e040, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001596

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The study characterizes dental implant surfaces treated with phosphoric acid to assess the effects of acid treatment on blood cells and correlate them with cytokine levels. The implant surfaces examined were divided into untreated metal surface (US; n = 50), metal surface treated with phosphoric acid (ATS; n = 50) and cement surface (CS; n = 50) groups. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rheometry. The implants were incubated with human blood mononuclear cells for 24 h, with surface rinsing in the ATS treatment. Cell viability was determined by colorimetric methods and cytokines in the culture supernatant were quantified using flow cytometry. In the ATS group, the surface porosity and contact surface were increased and plaques were observed on the surface. The blood flow and viscosity curves were similar among the treatments, and the high cell viability rates indicate the biocompatibility of the materials used. An increase in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α was observed in the ATS and CS groups. There were positive correlations between IL-10 and IL-2 levels and between IL-10 and IL-4 levels in the culture supernatant of the ATS group. The results suggest that implant surface treatment with phosphoric acid activates the production of inflammatory cytokines. The increased cytokine levels can modulate the immune response, thereby improving biofunctional processes and promoting the success of dental implants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphoric Acids/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Dental Implants , Cytokines/analysis , Dental Materials/pharmacology , Rheology , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cell Survival , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Dental Cements , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
12.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180529, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012507

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Dental composites release unreacted resin monomers into the oral environment, even after polymerization. Periodontal cells are, therefore, exposed to substances that potentially elicit the immune inflammatory response. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the interaction between resin monomers and human immune cells found in the gingival crevicular fluid are not fully understood yet. This study investigated the ability of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (BISGMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to induce apoptosis and cytokine release by human leukocytes stimulated with a periodontal pathogen. Methodology: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 16 healthy individuals were included in this study. To determine the toxicity, the PBMC were incubated for 20 hours, with monomers, for the analysis of cell viability using MTT assay. To evaluate cell death in the populations of monocytes and lymphocytes, they were exposed to sub-lethal doses of each monomer and of heat-inactivated Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for 5 hours. Secretions of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA after 20 hours. Results: UDMA and TEGDMA induced apoptosis after a short-time exposure. Bacterial challenge induced significant production of IL-1β and TNF-α (p<0.05). TEGDMA reduced the bacterial-induced release of IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas UDMA reduced IL-1β release (p<0.05). These monomers did not affect IL-10 and IL-6 secretion. BISGMA did not significantly interfere in cytokine release. Conclusions: These results show that resin monomers are toxic to PBMC in a dose-dependent manner, and may influence the local immune inflammatory response and tissue damage mechanisms via regulation of bacterial-induced IL-1β and TNF-α secretion by PBMC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Polymethacrylic Acids/pharmacology , Polyurethanes/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Porphyromonas gingivalis/physiology , Methacrylates/pharmacology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Necrosis
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900602, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019265

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the role and related mechanisms of miR-106a in sepsis-induced AKI. Methods Serum from sepsis and healthy patients was collected, sepsis mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). TCMK-1 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transfected with THBS2-small interfering RNA (siTHBS2), miR-106a inhibitor, miR-106a mimics and their negative controls (NCs). The expression of miR-106a, thrombospondin 2 (THBS2), Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2, cell viability, relative caspase-3 activity and TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 content were respectively detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The relationship between miR-106a and THBS2 was confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay. Results MiR-106a was up-regulated in serum of sepsis patients, CLP-induced mice models and LPS-induced TCMK-1 cells. LPS reduced cell viability and Bcl-2 expression, and increased caspase-3 activity, Bax expression, the content of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6. THBS2 was a target of miR-106a. The decreases of caspase-3 activity, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Bax expression and the increases of cell viability, Bcl-2 expression caused by miR-106a knockdown were reversed when THBS2 silencing in LPS-stimulated TCMK-1 cells. Conclusion MiR-106a aggravated LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis of TCMK-1 cells via regulating THBS2 expression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rats , Sepsis/pathology , Thrombospondins/pharmacology , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Kidney/cytology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Transfection , Case-Control Studies , Cells, Cultured , Cytokines/metabolism , Apoptosis , Sepsis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(5): 41-46, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The search for more aesthetic and comfortable orthodontic devices has led to an increase in the use of clear aligners. Objective: To increase knowledge on biological mechanisms of orthodontic tooth movement using Invisalign aligners. Methods: This study included 11 patients with a mean age of 23.6 ± 4.8 years. Cases planning included alignment and leveling of lower incisors using Invisalign aligners. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the lower incisors on the day of delivery of aligner number 1 (T0) and after 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d), and 21 (T21d) days. During the observation period of the study, the patients used only the aligner number 1. Levels of nine cytokines were quantified using Luminex's multi-analysis technology. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons between cytokine expression levels over time. Results: Cytokine expression levels remained constant after 21 days of orthodontic activation, except those of MIP-1β, which presented a statistical difference between T24h and T21d with a decrease in the concentration levels. IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β, and TNF-α showed the highest concentrations over time. Conclusions: The different behavior in the levels of the investigated cytokines indicates a role of these biomarkers in the tissue remodeling induced by Invisalign.


RESUMO Introdução: a busca por dispositivos ortodônticos mais estéticos e confortáveis gerou um aumento no uso de alinhadores transparentes. Objetivo: ampliar o conhecimento sobre os mecanismos biológicos associados ao movimento dentário ortodôntico promovido por alinhadores Invisalign®. Métodos: a amostra foi constituída por 11 pacientes, com idade média de 23,6 ± 4,8 anos. O planejamento dos casos incluiu alinhamento e nivelamento de incisivos inferiores usando os alinhadores. O fluido gengival crevicular foi coletado na superfície vestibular de incisivos inferiores no dia da entrega do alinhador número 1 (T0) e após 1 (T24h), 7 (T7d) e 21 (T21d) dias. Durante o período de observação do estudo, os pacientes utilizaram apenas o alinhador número 1. Os níveis de nove citocinas foram quantificados por meio do sistema Luminex de multianálise. Testes não paramétricos foram realizados para comparações entre os níveis de expressão de citocinas ao longo do tempo. Resultados: a concentração das citocinas manteve-se constante após 21 dias de ativação ortodôntica, exceto a MIP-1β, que apresentou uma redução estatisticamente significativa entre os tempos T24h e T21d. As IL-8, GM-CSF, IL-1β, MIP-1β e TNF-α apresentaram as maiores concentrações ao longo do tempo. Conclusão: a constância na expressão dos níveis das citocinas parece estar compatível com o estímulo mecânico induzido por alinhadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Tooth Movement Techniques , Cytokines/analysis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Colony-Stimulating Factors/analysis , Interleukin-7/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Chemokine CCL4/analysis , Incisor
15.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 133-137, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950503

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The competence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of the host is a key role to the colonization and disease development. The virulence genes are crucial for EAEC pathogenicity during adherence, internalization and persistence in the host. The overwhelming majority of antigen encounters in a host occurs on the intestine surface, which is considered a part of innate mucosal immunity. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) can be activated by microorganisms and induce an immune response. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the interaction of invasive EAEC strains with T84 intestinal epithelial cell line in respect to bacterial invasiveness, persistence and cytokines production. METHODS: We evaluated intracellular persistence of invasive EAEC strains (H92/3, I49/3 and the prototype 042) and production of cytokines by sandwich ELISA in T84 cells upon 24 hours of infection. RESULTS: The survival rates of the prototype 042 was 0.5x103 CFU/mL while survival of I49/3 and H92/3 reached 3.2x103 CFU/mL and 1.4x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Infection with all EAEC strains tested induced significant amounts of IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to uninfected T84 cells. CONCLUSION: These data showed that infection by invasive EAEC induce a proinflammatory immune response in intestinal epithelial T84 cells.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A competência de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) para aderir ao epitélio intestinal do hospedeiro é um papel fundamental para a colonização e o desenvolvimento da doença. Os genes de virulência são cruciais para a patogenicidade de EAEC durante a aderência, a internalização e a persistência no hospedeiro. A grande maioria dos encontros de antígenos em um hospedeiro ocorre na superfície do intestino, que é considerada parte da imunidade inata da mucosa. As células epiteliais intestinais (IECs) podem ser ativadas por micro-organismos e induzir uma resposta imune. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a interação de cepas invasoras de EAEC com a linhagem celular epitelial intestinal T84 em relação a invasão bacteriana, a persistência e a produção de citocinas. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos a persistência intracelular de cepas invasoras de EAEC (H92/3, I49/3 e o protótipo 042) e a produção de citocinas por ELISA "sanduíche" em células T84 após 24 horas de infecção. RESULTADOS: As taxas de sobrevivência da cepa protótipo 042 foi de 0,5x103 UFC/mL, enquanto a sobrevivência de I49/3 e H92/3 atingiu 3,2x103 UFC/mL e 1,4x103 UFC/mL, respectivamente. A infecção com todas as cepas EAEC testadas induziu quantidades significativas de IL-8, IL-6 e TNF-α em comparação com células T84 não infectadas. CONCLUSÃO: Estes dados mostraram que a infecção por EAEC invasoras induzem uma resposta imune pró-inflamatória em células epiteliais intestinais T84.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Virulence , Bacterial Adhesion , Cytokines/metabolism , Adhesins, Escherichia coli , Diarrhea, Infantile/microbiology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Escherichia coli/physiology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(2): 271-280, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sepsis induces a severe systemic inflammatory response that may result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. Studies using a protein derived from natural Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex, denominated Hev b 13, have demonstrated important anti-inflammatory effects, but no data have been published regarding its effects on sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hev b 13 on the inflammatory response and lung lesions of septal rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), randomized into groups and treated with subcutaneously administered doses of 0.5/2.0/3.0 mg/Kg of Hev b 13. Next, animals were subdivided into three different points in time (1, 6 and 24 hours after treatments) for collection of blood samples and euthanasia accompanied by organ removal. Total and differential leukocyte counts, cytokine dosage and histological assessment were analyzed. Treatment with Hev b 13 resulted in a significant decline in total and differential leukocytes as well as suppression of TNF-α and IL-6 production, associated with the increase in IL-10 and IL-4 in plasma and lung tissue. Moreover, it reduced morphological and pathological changes found in the lungs, including neutrophil infiltration, edema and alveolar thickening. The present study concluded that Hev b 13 exerts anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates lung lesions in septal rats, showing potential for clinical application.


Resumo Sepse induz uma resposta inflamatória sistêmica grave podendo resultar em disfunção de múltiplos órgãos e morte. Pesquisas utilizando uma proteína derivada do látex natural de Hevea brasiliensis (seringueira), denominada Hev b 13 tem demonstrado importantes efeitos anti-inflamatórios, mas nenhum dado foi publicado dos seus efeitos na sepse. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da Hev b 13 na resposta inflamatória e na lesão pulmonar de ratos com sepse. Ratos machos da linhagem Wistar foram submetidos a ligação e perfuração do ceco (LPC), randomizados em grupos e tratados com as doses 0,5/2,0/3,0 mg/Kg de Hev b 13 subcutâneo. Após subdividiu-se os animais em três pontos diferentes de tempo (1, 6 e 24 horas após os tratamentos) para coleta de amostras sanguíneas e eutanásia com remoção dos órgãos. Contagem total e diferencial de leucócitos, dosagem de citocinas e avaliação histológica foram analisadas. O tratamento com a Hev b 13 resultou em diminuição significativa de leucócitos totais e diferenciais bem como suprimiu a produção de TNF-α e IL-6, associado ao aumento de IL-10 e IL-4 no plasma e tecido pulmonar. Além disso, reduziu as alterações morfológicas e patológicas encontradas nos pulmões, incluindo infiltrado de neutrófilos, edema e espessamento alveolar. Este estudo concluiu que a Hev b 13 tem efeitos anti-inflamatórios e atenua lesões pulmonares em ratos com sepse, apresentando potencialidades para aplicabilidade clínica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Antigens, Plant/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Plant Proteins/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Wistar , Sepsis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Antigens, Plant/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases/immunology
17.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 4(1): 17-21, Ene.-Mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151482

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue exponer el conocimiento actual sobre la relación existente entre dietas altas en grasa (DAG), alteraciones morfológicas de la mucosa intestinal, efectos inflamatorios y cáncer intestinal. Las DAG inicialmente producen aumento de la microbiota patógena, lo que reduce la cantidad y calidad de la secreción de los exocrinocitos caliciformes, disminuyendo la efectividad de la barrera intestinal. Las bacterias y sus lipopolisacaridos (LPS) promueven la secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias activando vías de inflamación, que a su vez afectan la integridad de las uniones intercelulares alterando la barrera intestinal. Lo anterior, permite que los LPS ingresen a la lámina propia y circulación sanguínea produciendo inflamación local y sistémica. Así mismo, las DAG generan efectos nocivos en la morfología y función de la mucosa gastrointestinal lo que podría favorecer el desarrollo de cáncer. Lo anterior, podría deberse a que el consumo de DAG es capaz de aumentar la proliferación de células de la mucosa y el número y proliferación de células madres tumorales en el intestino.


The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about the relationship between high fat diets (HFD), morphological alterations of intestinal mucosa, inflammatory effects and intestinal cancer. The HFD initially produces an increase in the pathogenic microbiota, which reduces quantity and quality of secretion of goblet cells, decreasing the effectiveness of intestinal barrier. Bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by activating inflammation pathways, which in turn affect the integrity of intercellular junctions by changing intestinal barrier. The above allows the LPS enter to lamina propria and blood circulation producing local and systemic inflammation. Likewise, HFD generate deleterious effects on morphology and function of gastrointestinal mucosa, which could favor the development of cancer. This could be due to the fact that consumption of HFD is capable of increasing proliferation of mucosal cells and number and proliferation of tumor stem cells in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/etiology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(1): e6841, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889007

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (25(OH)D3) is an essential nutrient that plays a role in the immune system. Serum 25(OH)D3 is found to be associated with asthma. However, the role of vitamin D in obese asthma remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between vitamin D levels and asthma outcomes in a murine model of obese asthma. We also evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome activity in the pathogenesis of obese asthma. We divided 20 male Balb/c mice (3-4 weeks old) into 4 groups: normal control, asthma, obese, and obese asthma and developed an obese asthma mouse model. Airway hyperreactivity, cytokine concentrations, 25(OH)D3 levels, NLRP3 mRNA and IL-1β mRNA expressions were measured. Lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell count were also determined. Obese asthma mice showed a significant increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, airway inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and NLRP3 mRNA, IL-1β mRNA expression. Both asthma and obese groups had lower 25(OH)D3 levels. Vitamin D levels in obese asthma were the lowest among all groups. Vitamin D levels correlated negatively with body weight, lung resistance levels at 25 mg/mL of methacholine, total inflammatory cells, and IL-1β and IL-17 concentrations in BALF. These data demonstrated an association between serum vitamin D levels and outcomes of obese asthma, and indicated that NLRP3 inflammasome may play a role in this disorder.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/metabolism , Cholecalciferol/blood , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/metabolism , Asthma/pathology , Time Factors , Body Weight , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cytokines/analysis , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e6997, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889113

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be associated with heart valve disease, which can be caused by inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the functional impacts of miR-27a on TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury in human mitral valve interstitial cells (hMVICs). hMVICs were subjected to 40 ng/mL TNF-α for 48 h, before which the expressions of miR-27a and NELL-1 in hMVICs were altered by stable transfection. Trypan blue staining, BrdU incorporation assay, flow cytometry detection, ELISA, and western blot assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. We found that miR-27a was lowly expressed in response to TNF-α exposure in hMVICs. Overexpression of miR-27a rescued hMVICs from TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury, as cell viability and BrdU incorporation were increased, apoptotic cell rate was decreased, Bcl-2 was up-regulated, Bax and cleaved caspase-3/9 were down-regulated, and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and MMP-9 were reduced. NELL-1 was positively regulated by miR-27a, and NELL-1 up-regulation exhibited protective functions during TNF-α-induced cell damage. Furthermore, miR-27a blocked JNK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, and the blockage was abolished when NELL-1 was silenced. This study demonstrated that miR-27a overexpression protected hMVICs from TNF-α-induced cell damage, which might be via up-regulation of NELL-1 and thus modulation of JNK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Inflammation/chemically induced , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Mitral Valve/drug effects , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Cytokines/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Heart Valve Diseases/prevention & control , Inflammation/pathology , Mitral Valve/cytology , Mitral Valve/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transfection , Up-Regulation
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 43-50, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tripartite-motif-containing protein 56 (TRIM56) has been found to exhibit a broad antiviral activity, depending upon E3 ligase activity. Here, we attempted to evaluate the function of TRIM56 in multiple myeloma (MM) and its underlying molecular basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TRIM56 expression at the mRNA and protein level was measured by qRT PCR and western blot analysis. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry analysis was performed to investigate the effect of TRIM56 on MM cell proliferation and apoptosis. The concentrations of interferon (IFN)-β, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in MM cell culture supernatants were detected with respective commercial ELISA kits. Western blot was employed to determine the effect of TRIM56 on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)/toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-β (TRIF) signaling pathway. RESULTS: TRIM56 expression was prominently decreased in MM cells. Poly (dA:dT)-induced TRIM56 overexpression in U266 cells suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis, and enhanced inflammatory cytokine production, while TRIM56 knockdown improved growth, diminished apoptosis, and inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion in RPMI8226 cells. Moreover, TRIM56 knockdown blocked TLR3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, poly (I:C), a TLR3 agonist, markedly abolished TRIM56 depletion-induced increase of proliferation, decrease of apoptosis, and reduction of inflammatory factor in MM cells. CONCLUSION: TRIM56 may act as a tumor suppressor in MM through activation of TLR3/TRIF signaling pathway, contributing to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of TRIM56 involvement in MM pathogenesis and providing a promising therapy strategy for patients with MM.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/metabolism , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Tripartite Motif Proteins/deficiency , Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/deficiency , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism
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