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1.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 37(1): e1279, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251719

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por citomegalovirus es muy frecuente en pacientes sometidos a trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos, debido a tratamientos mieloablativos de acondicionamiento, disparidad genética y al tratamiento inmunosupresor, y ocurre fundamentalmente después de la toma del implante. Objetivos: Actualizar el diagnóstico, manejo y seguimiento de la infección por citomegalovirus en pacientes trasplantados. Métodos: Se realizó revisión bibliográfica en los idiomas español e inglés, utilizando los motores de búsqueda de Pubmed, Google Académico y Scielo sobre el diagnóstico y manejo del citomegalovirus en pacientes receptores de trasplante hematopoyético. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se recolectó y organizó la información obtenida siguiendo cronológicamente el surgimiento de técnicas para diagnóstico y la aparición de nuevos medicamentos en los últimos años. Se seleccionaron artículos recientes de expertos en el tema en revistas prestigiosas, donde se evidencia la importancia del diagnóstico adelantado y el inicio del tratamiento. Conclusiones: En la actualidad se cuenta con nuevas formas de diagnóstico y medicamentos novedosos para el citomegalovirus, pero la mortalidad puede llegar a ser alta, si el paciente no es tratado antes de que aparezcan los síntomas de la enfermedad e incluso a pesar del tratamiento. En ocasiones, no es posible erradicar el virus, lo que lleva a complicaciones importantes y a la muerte. La enfermedad citomegálica continúa siendo una complicación frecuente en estos pacientes a pesar de las medidas para evitar su reactivación(AU)


Introduction: Cytomegalovirus infection is very common in patients undergoing hematopoietic progenitor transplantation, due to myeloablative conditioning treatments, genetic disparity, and immunosuppressive treatment, and occurs mainly after the engrafment. Objective: A review and update of the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus is made in hematopoietic transplant recipients. Method: A bibliographic review was carried out in Spanish and English, using the search engines of Pubmed, Scholar Google and Scielo about the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus in hematopoietic transplant recipients. Development: The information obtained was collected and organized chronologically about the emergence of techniques for diagnosis and the appearance of new drugs in recent years. Recent articles by experts in prestigious journals were reviewed and the importance of early diagnosis and initiation of treatment is evidenced. Conclusions: There are currently new forms of diagnosis and novel medications, but mortality can be high, if the patient is not treated before the symptoms of the disease appear and even despite treatment, sometimes it is not possible to eradicate the virus, leading to major complications and death. Cytomegalic disease continues to be a frequent complication in these patients despite measures to prevent virus reactivation(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Cytomegalovirus , Early Diagnosis , Transplant Recipients
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 778-786, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic infection (OI) in immunosuppressed patients. However, there are no clear cut-off values available for quantitative plasmatic CMV measures (viral load [VL]) to discriminate those with CMV illness from those infected suffering a transient viral reactivation. Aim: To estimate a CMV VL cut-off point that discriminates infected patients and those with CMV related diseases, and to clinically characterize AIDS patients with this OI. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of AIDS patients admitted by any reason between years 2017 and 2019 and who had a positive plasma CMV VL at any titer. Cases were categorized with illness or infected using accepted criteria and the cut-off value was obtained by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Results: Twelve patients were identified as having a CMV-associated illness and seven with CMV infection. A CMV VL of 3,800 copies/mL had a sensitivity of 91.6% and 100% specificity to discriminate both states. Of the 12 patients with CMV illness, all were in AIDS stage and only five were receiving HIV therapy. Predominant clinical presentations were gastrointestinal (50%), followed by liver involvement (25%) and CMV disease (25%). All patients were treated with ganciclovir or valganciclovir. Ten patients had a favorable response (83.3%), one patient only had a laboratory improvement (8.3%) and one died during treatment (8.3%). Drug toxicity was recorded in nine patients but in only three cases, a dose adjustment was necessary. Conclusions: The predominant clinical manifestation in our series was gastrointestinal. A CMV VL cutoff level of CMV VL of 3,800 copies / mL is useful to discriminate infected patients from those with CMV related disease.


Antecedentes: Citomegalovirus (CMV) es una infección oportunista (IO) en pacientes inmunosuprimidos. Sin embargo, se requieren puntos de corte de carga viral (CV) para discriminar a aquellos con enfermedad por CMV de aquellos infectados que sufren una reactivación viral transitoria. Objetivos: Estimar un punto de corte de la CV de CMV que discrimine a los enfermos de los infectados y, además, caracterizar clínicamente a los pacientes con sida que presentan esta IO. Pacientes y Métodos: Análisis retrospectivo de pacientes con sida hospitalizados por cualquier motivo entre los años 2017 y 2019, y que presentaron un CV de CMV plasmática positiva a cualquier título. Los casos se clasificaron como enfermos utilizando criterios aceptados y el valor de corte se obtuvo mediante análisis de una curva ROC. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, 12 pacientes fueron identificados con enfermedad asociada al CMV y siete con infección. Una CV de 3.800 copias/ml logró una sensibilidad de 91,6% y una especificidad de 100% para discriminar ambos estados. De los 12 pacientes enfermos, todos estaban en etapa de sida y solo 5 recibían terapia contra el VIH. La presentación clínica predominante fue gastrointestinal (50%) seguida del compromiso hepático (25%) y de la enfermedad por CMV (25%). Todos los pacientes fueron tratados con ganciclovir o valganciclovir. Diez pacientes tuvieron una respuesta favorable (83,3%), uno solo tuvo mejoría de laboratorio (8,3%) y otro paciente falleció durante el tratamiento (8,3%). Nueve pacientes evolucionaron con toxicidad farmacológica, pero en solo 3 casos fue necesario ajustar las dosis. Conclusiones: La forma predominante de presentación de la enfermedad fue gastrointestinal. Un punto de corte de 3.800 copias/ml discrimina pacientes infectados de aquellos con la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus
3.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 36(1): e1127, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126548

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones por virus o la reactivación de virus en estado latente son frecuentes durante el estado de inmunosupresión que sigue al trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos, y constituyen una causa importante de complicaciones, como la cistitis hemorrágica, que se caracteriza por disuria, polaquiuria, dolor abdominal y hematuria. La aparición precoz se asocia a la administración de citostáticos como la ciclofosfamida, y el comienzo tardío a la primoinfección o reactivación de virus como citomegalovirus, los adenovirus o los poliomavirus como el BK y el JC. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas, la evolución y el manejo de la cistitis hemorrágica postrasplante. Casos clínicos: Se presentan dos pacientes con leucemia mieloide aguda que desarrollaron cistitis hemorrágica asociada a infección viral por virus BK y citomegalovirus después del trasplante haploidéntico con ciclofosfamida postrasplante. La cistitis hemorrágica de causa viral después del trasplante hematopoyético en estos pacientes estuvo asociada a una severa inmunosupresión, por lo que constituyó una complicación potencialmente letal. Los dos pacientes presentaron cistitis hemorrágica grado IV y fallecieron a pesar del tratamiento. Conclusiones: El trasplante haploidéntico con la administración de ciclofosfamida postrasplante incrementa la posibilidad de donantes de progenitores hematopoyéticos para los pacientes sin un hermano HLA idéntico pero el mayor nivel de inmunosupresión podría aumentar la incidencia de cistitis hemorrágica de causa viral(AU)


Introduction: Viral infections or latent-virus reactivation are frequent during the immunosuppressed cincition that follows hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, and an important cause of complications, such as hemorrhagic cystitis, characterized by dysuria, urinary frequency, abdominal pain, and hematuria. The early appearance is associated with the administration of cytostatic drugs such as cyclophosphamide, and the late onset is associated with primary infection or reactivation of viruses such as cytomegalovirus, adenoviruses, or polyomaviruses such as BK and JC. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, evolution and management of post-transplant hemorrhagic cystitis. Clinical cases: The cases are presented of two patients with acute myeloid leukemia who developed hemorrhagic cystitis associated with viral infection by BK virus and cytomegalovirus after haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant cyclophosphamide. Viral hemorrhagic cystitis after hematopoietic transplantation in these patients was associated with severe immunosuppression, making it a potentially lethal complication. Both patients presented grade IV hemorrhagic cystitis and died despite treatment. Conclusions: Haploidentical transplantation with the of post-transplant cyclophosphamide administration increases the possibility for donors of hematopoietic progenitor cells to patients without an identical HLA match, but the higher level of immunosuppression could increase the incidence of viral hemorrhagic cystitis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Cystitis/mortality , Cystitis/blood , Virus Diseases/complications , Cyclophosphamide/adverse effects
4.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(3): e2018029, July-Sept. 2018. ilus tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-911893

ABSTRACT

Disseminated human cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurs mainly as a congenital infection and among immunocompromised hosts. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at increased risk for CMV infection, and the most prevalent clinical manifestation is retinitis, followed by colitis, esophagitis, pneumonitis, and encephalitis. CMV oophoritis is poorly described in the literature with some cases reported in patients with hematological or solid malignancies, bone marrow or solid organ transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and advanced AIDS cases. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman with a recent diagnosis of AIDS, which was associated with a wasting syndrome. The patient presented with abdominal pain, headache, cutaneous vesicular lesions on the abdomen, anemia, lymphopenia, and hyponatremia; she died suddenly on the fourth day of hospitalization. The autopsy was performed and demonstrated disseminated CMV infection with hemorrhagic encephalitis as the immediate cause of death. Additionally, pneumonitis, extensive adrenalitis, ulcerated enteritis, focal hepatitis, and necrotizing oophoritis were found.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/pathology , Encephalitis/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Oophoritis/complications
5.
Autops. Case Rep ; 8(2): e2018028, Apr.-May 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905529

ABSTRACT

In the advanced stage of AIDS, the diagnosis of the opportunistic infections may be challenging due to the high risk of performing invasive diagnostic methods in a patient with a critical clinical condition, as well as the correct interpretation of the results of microbiological exams. One of the challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of the opportunistic infections is that they may occur concomitantly in the same patient and they may mimic each other, leading to a high discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man who was hospitalized because of weight loss, anemia, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. During the investigation, the diagnosis of AIDS was made, and the patient developed respiratory failure and died on the fourth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacteriosis was found, affecting mainly the organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Also, severe and diffuse pneumonia caused by multiple agents (Pneumocystis jirovecii, Histoplasma capsulatum, suppurative bacterial infection, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, and cytomegalovirus) was seen in a morphological pattern that could be called "collision pneumonia." The lesson from this case, revealed by the autopsy, is that in advanced AIDS, patients often have multiple opportunistic infections, so the principle of Ockham's razor­that a single diagnosis is most likely the best diagnosis­fails in this clinical context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , Lung Diseases, Fungal/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Autopsy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Fatal Outcome , Histoplasmosis/complications , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/complications , Pneumocystis Infections/complications
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908127

ABSTRACT

Introducción: 1 a 2 de cada 1.000 recién nacidos tienen una pérdida auditiva neurosensorial significativa. De las deficiencias auditivas congénitas, el 50% resultan de infecciones en el embarazo y/o parto; como las provocadas por: Toxoplasmosis, rubéola, citomegalovirus, herpes y sífilis. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sistemática de artículos utilizando bibliotecas virtuales y libros de texto de relevancia dentro de la especialidad. Resultados: La rubéola en mujeres susceptibles puede producir el síndrome de rubéola congénita. La sordera es la manifestación más frecuente de la enfermedad y es la secuela más importante. El 15% de los niños infectados por Citomegalovirus padecen una pérdida auditiva por daño coclear y alteraciones en el sistema nervioso central al nacer. Otro 15% pueden desarrollar luego del nacimiento hipoacusia, retardo mental o dificultades en el desarrollo del lenguaje y del aprendizaje. Aproximadamente el 80% de los recién nacidos infectados por toxoplasmosis son asintomáticos; el resto presentará manifestaciones clínicas de afectación sistémica incluyendo compromiso auditivo como parte del cuadro. La infección por Herpes simple suele ser devastadora en el recién nacido. Se ha descrito hipoacusia en más del 50% de los casos. La sordera se asocia frecuentemente con la sífilis congénita. Junto con la queratitis intersticial y las malformaciones dentarias, forma parte de la tríada de Hutchinson. Conclusiones: La hipoacusia es un problema de gran importancia en la infancia. Las infecciones agrupadas en el término TORCHS causan hipoacusia neurosensorial adquirida en forma prenatal, dando lugar a sorderas presentes al nacer o de desarrollo diferido o progresivo.


Introduction: 1 to 2 of every 1,000 newborns have significant sensorineural hearing loss. From all the congenital hearing empairments, 50% take place during pregnancy and/or childbirth; such as those caused by: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes and syphilis. Methods: A systematic literature research was performed using virtual libraries and relevant specialty textbooks. Results: Rubella in susceptible women may cause congenital rubella syndrome. Deafness is the most common manifestation of the disease and is the most important sequel. 15% of those children infected with Cytomegalovirus children suffer hearing loss from cochlear damage and alterations in the central nervous system at birth. Another 15% can then develop birth hearing loss, mental retardation or difficulties in language development and learning. Approximately 80% of newborns infected with toxoplasmosis are asymptomatic; the rest will present clinical manifestations of systemic disease including hearing impairment as part of the picture. Herpes simplex infection is devastating in the new born. Hearing loss has been described in over 50% of cases. Deafness is often associated with congenital syphilis. Along with interstitial keratitis and dental malformations, it is part of the Hutchinson triad. Conclusions: Hearing loss is a major problem in childhood. Gathered as TORCHS acquired infections cause sensorineural hearing loss prenatally, resulting in hearing loss present at birth or deferred or progressive development.


Introdução: 1 a 2 em cada 1.000 recém-nascidos têm perda auditiva neurossensorial significativo. Das deficiências auditivas congênitas, 50% das infecções resultar em gravidez e / ou parto; tais como aquelas causadas por: toxoplasmose, rubéola, citomegalovírus, herpes e sífilis. Métodos: Uma busca sistemática da literatura foi realizada utilizando bibliotecas virtuais e livros relevantes no art. Resultados: A rubéola em mulheres suscetíveis pode causar a síndrome da rubéola congênita. A surdez é a manifestação mais comum da doença e é a sequela mais importante. 15% das crianças infectadas com Citomegalovírus sofrer perda de audição de danos e alterações coclear no sistema nervoso central no nascimento. Outros 15% podem desenvolver perda auditiva nascimento, retardo mental ou dificuldades no desenvolvimento da linguagem e aprendizagem. Cerca de 80% dos recém-nascidos infectados com toxoplasmose é assintomática; o resto vai apresentar manifestações clínicas da doença sistêmica, incluindo a deficiência auditiva como parte da imagem. Infecção Herpes simplex geralmente devastadores no recém-nascido. A perda de audição tem sido descrita em mais de 50% dos casos. A surdez é frequentemente associada a sífilis congênita. Junto com ceratite intersticial e malformações dentárias, faz parte da tríade Hutchinson. Conclusões: A perda auditiva é um problema grave na infância. Agrupados nas infecções TORCHS causam perda auditiva neurossensorial pré-natal, resultando em perda auditiva presente no nascimento ou em diferido ou desenvolvimento progressivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/prevention & control , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Herpes Simplex/complications , Prenatal Injuries/etiology , Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/complications , Syphilis, Congenital/complications , Toxoplasmosis, Congenital/complications
8.
Plos one ; 11(7)2016.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1024785

ABSTRACT

Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The most aggressive type, Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is one of the deadliest human diseases, with an average survival at diagnosis of about 1 year. Previous evidence suggests a link between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and gliomas. HCMV has been shown to be present in these tumors and several viral proteins can have oncogenic properties in glioma cells. Here we have investigated the presence of HCMV DNA, RNA and proteins in fifty-two gliomas of different grades of malignancy. The UL83 viral region, the early beta 2.7 RNA and viral protein were detected in 73%, 36% and 57% by qPCR, ISH and IHC, respectively. Positivity of the viral targets and viral load was independent of tumor type or grade suggesting no correlation between viral presence and tumor progression. Our results demonstrate high prevalence of the virus in gliomas from Brazilian patients, contributing to a better understanding of the association between HCMV infection and gliomas worldwide and supporting further investigations of the virus oncomodulatory properties.


Subject(s)
Viral Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Humans , RNA, Viral , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Viral Load , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Glioma
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 75(1): 29-36, Feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-750508

ABSTRACT

La diarrea es una complicación frecuente y potencialmente grave del trasplante renal. Se describen aquí, en un estudio de corte transversal, las características epidemiológicas y microbiológicas de la diarrea aguda y persistente en pacientes internados con trasplante renal o reno-páncreas. Se incluyeron 52 pacientes internados en un hospital de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, 42 (80.8%) habían recibido un trasplante renal y 10 (19.2%) reno-páncreas. La diarrea fue el motivo de ingreso en 34 casos (65.4%). La etiología de la diarrea pudo estudiarse en 50 pacientes: en 25 (50%) no se arribó a un diagnóstico etiológico y en 18 (36%) se constató diarrea con causa microbiológica específica: 3 (6%) enfermedad por citomegalovirus, 6 (12%) diarrea atribuida a citomegalovirus, 5 (10%) a rotavirus y 4 (8%) a Clostridium difficile. En 7 (14%) la diarrea fue atribuida a fármacos (mofetil micofenolato y sirolimus). Aquellos con diarrea con causa microbiológica habían recibido recientemente inmunosupresores a altas dosis con mayor frecuencia que el resto (p = 0.048). Los pacientes con diarrea atribuida a fármacos recibían más frecuentemente mofetil micofenolato (p = 0.039). En 16 (30.8%) se realizaron modificaciones de los inmunosupresores como medida terapéutica, y a 47 (90.4%) se les indicó antibioticoterapia empírica. La mediana de duración de internación fue de 6 días y 7 pacientes (14.6%) persistieron con diarrea al quinto día. Todos tuvieron resolución de la diarrea al alta y un tercio persistió con insuficiencia renal. La información de este estudio puede servir para mejorar las medidas preventivas, diagnósticas y terapéuticas en estos pacientes.


Diarrhea is a frequent and potentially severe complication of kidney transplantation. We describe here, in a cross-sectional study, the epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of acute and persistent diarrhea in 52 inpatients with kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant in a hospital in Buenos Aires, 42 (80.8%) of whom had received a kidney and 10 (19.2%) a kidney-pancreas transplant. Diarrhea was the reason of admission of 34 cases (65.4%). The etiology could be studied in 50 patients: 25 (50%) had no etiological diagnosis of diarrhea and 18 (36%) had a specific infectious etiology: 3 (6%) cytomegalovirus disease, 6 (12%) diarrhea attributed to cytomegalovirus, 5 (10%) to rotavirus and 4 (8%) to Clostridium difficile. In 7 (14%) diarrhea was attributed to drugs (mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus). Patients with infectious diarrhea had recently received high doses of immunosuppressive therapy more frequently than the rest (p = 0.048). Those with diarrhea attributed to drugs were more frequently on mycophenolate mofetil than the rest (p = 0.039). Empirical modification of the immunosuppressive treatment was done in 16 (30.8%) and empirical antibiotic therapy was given to 47 patients (90.4%). Median length of hospital stay was 6 days. Seven patients (14.6%) persisted with diarrhea at the fifth day of admission. At hospital discharge all cases had complete resolution of symptoms and one third persisted with kidney failure. Information provided in this study can be useful as a starting point for improving preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic measures in these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Clostridium Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pancreas Transplantation/adverse effects , Rotavirus Infections/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data
10.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 521-527, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730935

ABSTRACT

El citomegalovirus es el agente de infección perinatal más frecuente y una de las principales causas de infecciones virales adquiridas. En la presentación del siguiente caso se describe el amplio espectro clínico de la infección por citomegalovirus. La clasificación correcta de la infección como congénita o adquirida y el tratamiento oportuno pueden evitar complicaciones y secuelas en los casos graves. Se describe el caso de un lactante menor que presentaba una infección por citomegalovirus con la manifestación poco frecuente de hemorragia cerebral. Después del tratamiento con ganciclovir, los síntomas clínicos evolucionaron favorablemente. La infección por citomegalovirus es muy frecuente en la edad pediátrica, tanto en la forma congénita como en la adquirida. La forma adquirida, como la de este caso, se caracteriza principalmente por el compromiso hematológico, al producirse una importante trombocitopenia, lo que puede originar, aunque infrecuentemente, sangrado del sistema nervioso central; la mayoría de las infecciones adquiridas, sin embargo, son de resolución espontánea y no requieren tratamiento. En este paciente no se presentaron repercusiones clínicas de importancia.


Cytomegalovirus is the most frequent causative agent of perinatal infection and a major cause of acquired viral infections. This case report aims to show the broad clinical spectrum of the presentation of cytomegalovirus infection. The correct classification of congenital or acquired infection and its prompt treatment can prevent complications and sequelae in severe cases. We report the case of an infant with acquired cytomegalovirus infection, which presented an unusual feature of cerebral hemorrhage. The patient was treated with ganciclovir, with a favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms. Cytomegalovirus infection is common in children, both in its congenital and acquired forms. Acquired infection, as portrayed in this case, is mainly characterized by hematological compromise given by the marked thrombocytopenia, which may rarely result in cases of bleeding in the central nervous system. In this patient, no important clinical implications occurred. In addition, most of the acquired infections are self-limited and require no treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Anemia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytomegalovirus Infections/drug therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Erythrocyte Transfusion , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Purpura/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
11.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 30(4): 360-373, oct.-dic. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-735296

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El citomegalovirus (CMV) es considerado un germen oportunista común entre individuos con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y con frecuencia produce enfermedades en diferentes órganos. Objetivo: Conocer la incidencia de esta entidad en nuestro medio. Material y método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo ambispectivo que incluyó 105 de las 674 autopsias realizadas en pacientes con sida fallecidos en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí, con el diagnóstico postmorten de enfermedad por CMV en el período comprendido entre 1986 y 2008. Se describe el comportamiento de variables sociodemográficas, principales órganos afectados, correlación clínico-patológica, hallazgos clínicos y de laboratorio, relación entre el conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ y las formas clínicas de la enfermedad. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino en una proporción 4:1 y el color de piel blanco (80,2 por ciento). El 66,6 por ciento de los casos tenía enfermedad diseminada. Las glándulas suprarrenales (41,9 por ciento), el tubo digestivo (30,5 por ciento) y el encéfalo (17,1por ciento) fueron los órganos más afectados. La fiebre (51,4 por ciento), la diarrea (42,9 por ciento), las convulsiones (31,4 por ciento) y el desgaste físico (17,1 por ciento) fueron los síntomas más frecuentes. Los niveles de lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH) mayores de 600 mmol/L se asociaron fuertemente a CMV como causa de muerte (p= 0,005). Aproximadamente el 70 por ciento de los pacientes tenía menos de 100 células/µL y el 37,5 por ciento menos de 50 células/µL, aunque esto no influyó de manera significativa en las formas clínicas de presentación (p0,641). Conclusiones: La enfermedad por CMV se diagnosticó mayormente postmorten, diseminada y asociada con niveles elevados de LDH y conteo de linfocitos T CD4 menor de 100 células/µL...


Introduction : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is considered a common opportunistic germ in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often causing disease in different organs. Objective: To determine the incidence of this condition in our environment. Material and Methods: A descriptive, ambispective study that included 105 of the 674 autopsies of AIDS patients died at the Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri, with postmortem diagnosis of CMV disease, between 1986 and 2008. Sociodemographic variables, main organs affected, clinical and pathological correlation, clinical and laboratory findings, relation between CD4 + T cells count and clinical forms of the disease are described. Results: Males predominated in a ratio 4:1 as well as white skin color (80.2 percent). 66.6 percent of patients had disseminated disease. Adrenal glands (41.9 percent), gastrointestinal tract (30.5 percent) and brain (17.1percent) were the most affected organs. Fever (51.4 percent), diarrhea (42.9 percent), seizures (31.4 percent) and physical consumption (17.1 percent) were the most frequent symptoms. LDH levels >600 mmol/L were strongly associated to CMV as cause of death (p = 0.005). Nearly 70 percent of patients had less than 100 cells/µL and 37.5 percent less than 50 cells/µL, although this had no significant influence in the clinical forms of presentation (p = 0.641). Conclusions: CMV disease was mainly diagnosed postmortem, usually spread and in association with high levels of LDH and CD4 count lesser than 100 cells/µL...


Subject(s)
Humans , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/mortality , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia/diagnosis
12.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(6): 499-504, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725810

ABSTRACT

Some infections can be the cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of a Renal Disease Reference Clinic from Central Brazil, in which serological markers of some infectious agents are systematically screened in children with nephrotic syndrome. Data were obtained from the assessment of medical files of all children under fifteen years of age, who matched nephrotic syndrome criteria. Subjects were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii and cytomegalovirus; antibodies against Herpes simplex, hepatitis C virus and HIV; and surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus. The VDRL test was also performed. 169 cases were studied. The median age on the first visit was 44 months and 103 (60.9%) patients were male. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM were found in 70.4% and 4.1%, respectively. IgG and IgM against Toxoplasma gondii were present in 32.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Two patients were positive for HBsAg, but none showed markers for HIV, hepatitis C, or Treponema pallidum. IgG and IgM against herpes simplex virus were performed on 54 patients, of which 48.1% and 22.2% were positive. IgM antibodies in some children with clinical signs of recent infection suggest that these diseases may play a role in the genesis of nephrotic syndrome.


Algumas infecções podem ser causa de síndrome nefrótica. O objetivo desse estudo foi descrever a experiência de clínica pediátrica de doenças renais do Brasil Central, onde marcadores sorológicos de algumas doenças infecciosas são sistematicamente avaliados em crianças com síndrome nefrótica. Dados foram obtidos de registros médicos de todas as crianças com menos de 15 anos que preenchiam critérios de síndrome nefrótica. Os participantes foram testados para presença de IgG e IgM contra Toxoplasma gondii e citomegalovirus; anticorpos contra herpes simples, vírus da hepatite C e HIV, além do antígeno de superfície da hepatite B (HBsAg). VDRL também foi testado. 169 casos foram estudados. A idade média na primeira visita foi 44 meses e 103 eram do sexo masculino (60.9%). Anti-CMV IgG e IgM foram identificados em 70,4% e 4,1%, respectivamente. IgG e IgM contra T. gondii eram positivos em 32,5% e 5,3%. Dois pacientes eram HBsAg positivos, mas nenhum mostrou positividade para HIV, hepatite C ou sífilis. IgG e IgM contra herpes simples foram realizados em 54 pacientes, dos quais 48,1% e 22,2% eram positivos. Anticorpos IgM positivos em algumas crianças com sinais clínicos de infecção recente sugerem que essas doenças podem exercer um papel na gênese da síndrome nefrótica.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome/parasitology , Nephrotic Syndrome/virology , Biomarkers/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/complications , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Syphilis/complications , Syphilis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 643-647, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-37651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivations are frequently observed in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC), and ganciclovir therapy is effective in patients with steroid-refractory UC. This study aimed to determine the long-term outcomes of CMV reactivation and the long-term therapeutic efficacy of ganciclovir treatment. METHODS: This retrospective multicenter study included a cohort of 72 patients with moderate-to-severe UC who were evaluated for CMV reactivation at the time of their initial UC flare. Colectomy, disease relapse, and the recurrence rate of CMV reactivation were investigated. RESULTS: The mean duration of follow-up for the 72 patients was 43.16+/-19.78 months (range, 1 to 67 months). The cumulative colectomy (log-rank, p=0.025) and disease flare-up rates (log-rank, p=0.048) were significantly higher in the CMV-positive group. Of the 11 patients who were successfully treated with ganciclovir in the initial treatment, three patients (27.3%) experienced CMV reactivation, and six patients (54.5%) experienced poor outcomes, such as the need for colectomy or a steroid-dependent state. CONCLUSIONS: The patients who had CMV-reactivated UC showed poor outcomes at the long-term follow-up, and the long-term efficacy of ganciclovir therapy was marginal. Careful assessment is necessary for patients who exhibit evidence of CMV reactivation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Colectomy/statistics & numerical data , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Cytomegalovirus , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Remission Induction , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Virus Activation
14.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 29(4): 344-350, oct.-dic. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715514

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Neumonía por Citomegalovirus (CMV) es una entidad rara en los pacientes inmunocompetentes, pero cuando se asocia con otras enfermedades como la neumonía, puede ser altamente letal. Objetivo: presentar un caso infrecuente de infección primaria por Citomegalovirus complicado con neumonía. Presentación del caso: se presenta el caso de una paciente de 36 años de edad, que trabajaba directamente con pacientes trasplantados renales, y que acudió a consulta por presentar fiebre de 38 oC en un período de más de 10 días, precedida de escalofríos, dolor de garganta, tos seca al inicio y luego expectoración de color verde claro; examen físico negativo; todo lo anterior acompañado de astenia marcada durante todo el día y anorexia. La falta de respuesta adecuada al tratamiento con Levofloxacino y Azitromicina nos hizo sospechar la presencia de una Neumonía viral por un germen de etiología no habitual, por lo que se le indicaron exámenes de anticuerpos anti-virales, resultando positivo para Citomegalovirus. Conclusiones: existen procesos inflamatorios pulmonares agudos reversibles de causa infecciosa sin manifestaciones auscultatorias, es decir con disociación clínico-radiológica, que en su mayoría corresponden a procesos de índole viral, y que además no son exclusivos de pacientes inmunodeprimidos...


Introduction: Cytomegalovirus pneumonia is a rare disease in immunocompetent patients, but when associated to other diseases such as pneumonia, it becomes deadly. Objective: to present an uncommon case of primary Cytomegalovirus infection complicated with pneumonia. Case presentation: this is the case of a 36years-old patient who directly worked with renal transplanted patients and went to the doctor´s because of 38o fever for more than 10 days, thrills, throat ache, dry cough at the beginning and clear green colored sputum, negative physical examination results, and marked asthenia during the day and anorexia. The inadequate response to Levofloxacine and Azitromycin treatment made us suspect of viral pneumonia caused by an infrequent germ. Anti-viral antibodies tests were indicated to reveal positive results for Cytomegalovirus. Conclusions: there are reversible acute pulmonary inflammatory processes of infective origin without any manifestation on physical exam, that is, a clinical-radiological dissociation; the majority of these processes are of viral origin but they do not occur only in immunodepressed patients...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Female , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral
15.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 31(4): 550-553, dez. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-698044

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report an infant with congenital cytomegalovirus and progressive sensorineural hearing loss, who was assessed by three methods of hearing evaluation. CASE DESCRIPTION: In the first audiometry, at four months of age, the infant showed abnormal response in Otoacoustic Emissions and normal Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), with electrophysiological threshold in 30dBnHL, in both ears. With six months of age, he showed bilateral absence of the ABR at 100dBnHL. The behavioral observational audiometry was impaired due to the delay in neuropsychomotor development. At eight months of age, he was submitted to Auditory Steady State Response (ASSR) and the thresholds were 50, 70, absent in 110 and in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the right ear, and 70, 90, 90 and absent in 100dB, respectively for 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000Hz in the left ear. COMMENTS: In the first evaluation, the infant had abnormal Otoacoustic Emission and normal ABR, which became altered at six months of age. The hearing loss severity could be identified only by the ASSR, which allowed the best procedure for hearing aids adaptation. The case description highlights the importance of the hearing status follow-up for children with congenital cytomegalovirus. .


OBJETIVO: Relatar el caso de un lactante con citomegalovirus congénito y disacusianeurosensorial progresiva, analizado por tres métodos de evaluación auditiva. DESCRIPCIÓN DEL CASO: En la primera evaluación auditiva, a los cuatro meses de edad, el lactante presentó ausencia de Emisiones Otoacústicas (EOA) y Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE) dentro de los estándares de normalidad para la franja de edad, con umbral electrofisiológico en 30dBnHL, bilateralmente. Con seis meses, presentó ausencia de PEATE bilateral en 100dBnHL. La evaluación comportamental de la audición se mostró perjudicada debido al retardo en el desarrollo neuropsicomotor. A los ocho meses, fue sometido al examen de Respuesta Auditiva de Estado Estable (RAEE) y los umbrales encontrados fueron 50, 70, ausente en 110 y en 100dB, respectivamente para 500, 1.000, 2.000 y 4.000Hz, a la derecha, y 70, 90, 90 y ausente en 100dB, respectivamente para 500, 1.000, 2.000 y 4.000, a la izquierda. COMENTARIOS: En la primera evaluación, el lactante presentó alteración auditiva en el examen de EOA y PEATE normal, que pasó a ser alterado a los seis meses de edad. La intensidad de la pérdida auditiva solo puede identificarse por el examen de RAEE, permitiendo establecer la mejor conducta en la adaptación de aparato de amplificación sonora individual. Se subraya la importancia del seguimiento audiológico para niños con CMV congénito. .


OBJETIVO: Relatar o caso de um lactente com citomegalovírus congênito e disacusia neurossensorial progressiva, analisado por três métodos de avaliação auditiva. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Na primeira avaliação auditiva, aos quatro meses de idade, o lactente apresentou ausência de Emissões Otoacústicas (EOA) e Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE) dentro dos padrões de normalidade para a faixa etária, com limiar eletrofisiológico em 30dBnHL, bilateralmente. Com seis meses, apresentou ausência de PEATE bilateral em 100dBnHL. A avaliação comportamental da audição mostrou-se prejudicada devido ao atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Aos oito meses, foi submetido ao exame de Resposta Auditiva de Estado Estável (RAEE) e os limiares encontrados foram 50, 70, ausente em 110 e em 100dB, respectivamente para 500, 1.000, 2.000 e 4.000Hz, à direita, e 70, 90, 90 e ausente em 100dB, respectivamente para 500, 1.000, 2.000 e 4.000Hz, à esquerda. COMENTÁRIOS: Na primeira avaliação, o lactente apresentou alteração auditiva no exame de EOA e PEATE normal, que passou a ser alterado aos seis meses de idade. A intensidade da perda auditiva só pôde ser identificada pelo exame de RAEE, permitindo estabelecer a melhor conduta na adaptação de aparelho de amplificação sonora individual. Ressalta-se a importância do acompanhamento audiológico para crianças com CMV congênito. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Male , Cytomegalovirus Infections/congenital , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Audiometry , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/etiology
16.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 141(11): 1475-1479, nov. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-704574

ABSTRACT

Secondary hemophagocytic syndrome (HFS) is an uncommon entity with a high mortality rate in adults, if no therapy is given. It is characterized by a severehipercytokinemia due to a highly stimulated but ineffective immune system. Theprincipal causes are infections, malignancy or autoimmune diseases. It appears asa serious illness, similar to a multiorgan failure. Treatment is not well defined. Wereport five patients with HFS, aged 17 to 51 years (three females). The etiology wasonco-hematological in three patients. In two patients, the diagnosis was performedduring necropsy. One case was due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in a hepatictransplant patient and the other, due to parenteral lipid administration. All presentedfever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and hemophagocytosis. Four of them requiredadmission in an Intensive Care Unit. All received different treatment modalities. Onlyone survived. Median survival time was 75 days. In conclusion, HFS has differentetiologies and a high mortality in adults.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Lipids/adverse effects , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphoma/complications , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions/adverse effects , Fatal Outcome , Intensive Care Units
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 111(5): 446-449, Oct. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694677

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Ménétrier infantil es una gastroenteropatía perdedora de proteínas caracterizada por hipertrofa de la mucosa gástrica, de causa desconocida, aunque la mayoría de los casos informados se han asociado a infecciones virales. Se manifesta clínicamente por edema y bioquímicamente por hipoproteinemia e hipoalbuminemia. Es poco común en los niños, en quienes tiene un carácter benigno y autolimitado, a diferencia de los adultos, en los que tiende a cronifcarse y, en ocasiones, a malignizarse. Se presenta un caso de enfermedad de Ménétrier infantil con síndrome ascítico edematoso posiblemente asociado a una infección por citomegalovirus.


Ménétrier's disease is a childhood protein-losing gastroenteropathy characterized by hypertrophy of the gastric mucosa, of unknown etiology, although most of reported cases have been associated with viral infections. Clinical manifestation is edema and biochemically there are hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. This disease is very rare in children and they have a benign and self-limiting course in contrast to adults where tend to be chronic and occasionally to become malignant. We present a child with Ménétrier disease with edema and ascites possibly associated with a cytomegalovirus infection.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Gastritis, Hypertrophic/virology , Protein-Losing Enteropathies/virology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155784

ABSTRACT

Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is an uncommon hematological disorder that manifests as fever, splenomegaly, and jaundice, with hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and other tissues pathologically. Secondary HPS is associated with malignancy and infection, especially viral infection. The prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients is approximately 16%. Nevertheless, HPS in UC superinfected by CMV is very rare. A 52-year-old female visited the hospital complaining of abdominal pain and hematochezia for 6 days. She was diagnosed with UC 3 years earlier and had been treated with sulfasalazine, but had stopped her medication 4 months earlier. On admission, her spleen was enlarged. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia and bone marrow aspiration smears showed hemophagocytosis. Viral studies revealed CMV infection. She was treated successfully with ganciclovir. We report this case with a review of the related literature.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/complications , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , Female , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Sulfasalazine/therapeutic use , Superinfection/complications
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169731

ABSTRACT

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are usually diagnosed in immunocompromised patients. A 74-year-old male without any significant medical history visited our center because of abdominal pain and diarrhea which began about a month ago. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental enhanced bowel wall thickening on jejunum and single-balloon enteroscopy showed multiple geographic shaped ulcerations covered with exudates on proximal jejunum. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination demonstrated necrotic fibrinopurulent tissue debris and benign ulcer. Nested-PCR analysis of CMV DNA from jejunal tissue was positive. The patient was finally diagnosed with CMV jejunitis and was treated by intravenous ganciclovir for 14 days after which, abdominal pain and diarrhea improved. Our case shows that CMV jejunitis can occur in an immunocompetent adult as multiple jejunal ulcers which can be diagnosed using a single-balloon enteroscope.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/complications , DNA, Viral/analysis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Enteritis/diagnosis , Ganciclovir/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Jejunal Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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