Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1061-1066, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973491

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of atenolol in the gene expression of caspase 1 (Casp1) and Bcl2L1 on vascular endothelium of rat intestine after ischemia and reperfusion (IR). Methods: Eighteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=6): SG (Sham group): no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery; IRG: IR plus saline group: IRG+At: IR plus Atenolol group. Rats from IRG and IRG+At were subjected to 60 min of intestinal ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Atenolol (2mg/kg) or saline were injected in the femoral vein 5 min before ischemia, 5 min and 55 min after reperfusion. Thereafter, intestinal segments were appropriately removed and processed for Endothelial Cell Biology Rat RT2 Profiler PCR Array. Results: the anti-apoptotic Bcl2L1 gene expression was significantly down-regulated (-1.10) in the IRG and significantly up-regulated in the IRG+At (+14.15). Meanwhile, despite Casp1 gene expression was upregulated in both groups, it was significantly higher in the IRG (+35.06) than the IRG+At (+6.68). Conclusions: Atenolol presents antiapoptotic effects on rat intestine subjected to IR partly by the up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2L1 gene expression. Moreover, atenolol can mitigate the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of Casp1 gene on rat intestine after IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Atenolol/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Gene Expression/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Caspase 1/drug effects , bcl-X Protein/drug effects , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Time Factors , Endothelium, Vascular , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Up-Regulation/drug effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Apoptosis/drug effects , Constriction , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Caspase 1/genetics , bcl-X Protein/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/prevention & control
2.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2014 Feb; 51(1): 37-45
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154229

ABSTRACT

The hepatoprotective potential of aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract (AAILE) was assessed against DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity. DMBA  (7,12-dimethylbenz[a] anthracene) treatment (40 mg/kg body weight, ip) to male Balb/c mice resulted in the derailment of liver function as revealed by extremely slow clearance of 99mTc-mebrofenin from liver, elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine transaminase (ALT), compared to control group. In addition, elevated micronuclei score and high apoptotic index indicated hepatogenotoxicity in DMBA-treated mice. DMBA treatment also upregulated cytochrome P450 (CYP), cytochrome b5 (Cyt b5) and decreased glutathione-S-transferase activity in hepatic tissue, compared to control group. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels along with decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level were also observed in DMBA group, compared to control group. AAILE co-treatment (200 mg/kg body weight, po, thrice a week) for 8 weeks followed by DMBA injection showed significant improvement in hepatic status, as revealed by normalization of 99mTc-mebrofenin clearance rate, decreased ALP and ALT levels, reduced genotoxicity in terms of micronuclei score and apoptotic index. Levels of LPO were significantly decreased along with increased hepatic GST and GSH levels in AAILE + DMBA group, compared to DMBA group. However, no significant change was observed in hepatic CYP and Cyt b5 levels, compared to DMBA group. The results indicated that AAILE effectively ameliorated DMBA-induced hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Animals , Azadirachta/chemistry , Cell Division/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Liver/cytology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/toxicity , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Micronucleus Tests , Oxidative Stress , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Radiometry
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Oct; 51(10): 823-827
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149387

ABSTRACT

Increased lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione levels in liver of rats fed high sucrose high fat (HSHF) diet were normalized by concomitant administration of (+)-catechin hydrate. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants viz. α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and total thiols decrease were also significantly less in rats administered with (+)-catechin hydrate concomitantly with HSHF diet. Thus the present results indicate that (+)-catechin hydrate has antioxidant activity and is effective in reducing oxidative stress. The study is of clinical importance as oxidative stress is known to be the cause of many clinical manifestations viz. cancer, Parkinson’s disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial infarction and many other diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/pharmacology , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Sucrose/adverse effects , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Water/chemistry , Water/pharmacology
4.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Oct; 50(5): 377-386
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150247

ABSTRACT

The consumption of alcohol causes several liver-associated diseases all over the world. Alcoholic liver diseases (ALD) include hepatic inflammation, fatty liver, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and fibrosis and finally hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the cellular, metabolic and biochemical mechanisms for these diseases are quite explicable, the roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) are still under investigation. The present review describes the roles and regulation of MMPs and TIMPs in different ALDs along with the involvement of other pathways. This review also summarizes the present knowledge on clinical and experimental trials with different antioxidants that help against alcohol associated liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Inflammation/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/enzymology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/pathology , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/prevention & control , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 623-634
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149365

ABSTRACT

Achatina fulica C-reactive protein (ACRP) reversed the toxic effects of lead nitrate both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat hepatocytes restoring the basal level of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and superoxides. Cytotoxicity was also significantly ameliorated in rat hepatocytes by in vitro pre-treatments with individual subunits (60, 62, 90 and 110 kDa) of ACRP. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining showed significant reduction in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes pre-treated with ACRP. ACRP induced restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential was remarkable. ACRP pre-treatment prevented Pb-induced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. The antagonistic effect of ACRP may be due to scavenging of reactive oxygen species which maintained the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status. The results suggest that ACRP crosses the species barrier and it may be utilized as a viable exogenous agent of cytoprotection against heavy metal related toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , C-Reactive Protein/pharmacology , Cell Survival , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Hazardous Substances/toxicity , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/pathology , Lead/toxicity , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Male , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/drug effects , Mice , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Mitochondria, Liver/pathology , Mollusca , Nitrates/toxicity , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
6.
West Indian med. j ; 61(9): 853-860, Dec. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-694355

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Gongronema latifolium leaves have been used in folklore medicine to manage diabetes mellitus and alleviate dyspepsia. This study aimed to provide a pharmacological basis to the medicinal use of Gongronema latifolium as an antidiabetic and antiulcerogenic agent in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Ethanol extract from the leaf (200 mg/kg bodyweight) of Gongronema latifolium was administered to both streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control groups orally for 14 days. Gastric acid secretion was measured and ulcer was induced using ethanol and fourhour pyloric ligation. RESULTS: The mean bodyweight was significantly lower (p < 0.01), while the mean weight of the stomach, liver and small intestine to bodyweight ratio was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the two diabetic groups compared to control. Extract significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the blood glucose level similar to the nondiabetic control. Basal and stimulated acid secretion in diabetic control rats was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased when compared to control. Extract administration increased the stimulated gastric acid secretion to a level significantly (p < 0.05) higher than control while reduction in gastric secretion by ranitidine was similar compared with control. Gongronema latifolium treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced ulcer scores in both ulcer models and increased mucus weight in the diabetic group. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Gongronema latifolium antiulcerative activity is due to its prevention of chemicalinduced stomach injury.


OBJETIVOS: Las hojas de la gongronema latifolium han sido usadas en la medicina tradicional para tratar la diabetes mellitus y aliviar la dispepsia. Este estudio estuvo dirigido a proporcionar una base farmacológica al uso medicinal de la gongronema latifolium como agente antidiabético y antiulcerogénico en la diabetes mellitus. MÉTODOS: El extracto de etanol de la hoja (200 mg/kg peso corporal) de la Gongronema latifolium se administró oralmente durante 14 días a grupos con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina, y grupos de control. La secreción ácida gástrica fue moderada y la úlcera fue inducida usando etanol, y ligazón pilórica de cuatro horas. RESULTADOS: El peso corporal promedio fue significativamente más bajo (p < 0.01), mientras que el peso promedio del estómago, el hígado y el intestino delgado con respecto a la proporción del peso corporal aumentó significativamente (p < 0.05) en los dos grupos diabéticos comparados con los controles. El extracto redujo significativamente (p < 0.01) el nivel de glucosa de la sangre, de manera similar al control no diabético. La secreción ácida basal y estimulada en las ratas diabéticas control disminuyó significativamente (p < 0.01) en comparación con el control. La administración del extracto aumentó la secreción ácida gástrica estimulada a un nivel significativamente (p < 0.05) superior al control, en tanto que la reducción de secreción gástrica mediante ranitidina fue similar comparada con el control. El tratamiento con Gongronema latifolium redujo significativamente (p < 0.05) las puntuaciones de las úlceras, tanto en los modelos de la úlcera como en el peso de mucosidad aumentado en el grupo diabético. CONCLUSIÓN: Estos resultados sugieren que la actividad antiulcerosa de la Gongronema latifolium se debe a que previene las lesiones de estómago inducidas por medios químicos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Ulcer Agents/pharmacology , Apocynaceae , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Dyspepsia/physiopathology , Gastric Acid , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Medicine, Traditional , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Gastric Mucosa/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Ranitidine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Secretory Rate/drug effects , Stomach Ulcer/physiopathology , Stomach Ulcer/prevention & control
7.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 323-333, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98918

ABSTRACT

Radiotherapy, frequently used for treatment of solid tumors, carries two main obstacles including acquired radioresistance in cancer cells during radiotherapy and normal tissue injury. Phenylpropanoids, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals found in plants, have been identified as potential radiotherapeutic agents due to their anti-cancer activity and relatively safe levels of cytotoxicity. Various studies have proposed that these compounds could not only sensitize cancer cells to radiation resulting in inhibition of growth and cell death but also protect normal cells against radiation-induced damage. This review is intended to provide an overview of recent investigations on the usage of phenylpropanoids in combination with radiotherapy in cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Chromones/therapeutic use , Combined Modality Therapy , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Neoplasms/pathology , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Plants , Radiation Tolerance/drug effects , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy
8.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 70(1): 65-70, feb. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-633720

ABSTRACT

The chemiluminescence of luminol, a measure of oxidative stress, increased immediately as a consequence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated by this antibiotic. The effect of Ch was dose dependent with maximum stimulus at 8 mg/ml (Vmax); above this concentration the cells began to reduce the production of ROS. The oxidative injury of Ch was counteracted by water extracts of Berberis buxifolia lam, Zizyphus mistol Griseb and Prosopis alba, indigenous fruits from Argentina. The relatively light units (RLU) emitted decreased immediately as a consequence of a protective effect exerted by the extracts of these fruit extracts on blood cells. The three indigenous fruit extracts reduced to a different extent the oxidative injury caused by Ch. B.buxifolia lam exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity followed by Z.mistol Griseb. Water extracts of both fruit extracts were the most effective against the oxidative stress, while P.alba presented better antioxidant capacity in the ethanolic fraction obtained. Hexane extracts showed low protective action on blood cells, with little reduction of area under curve (AUC) of RLU plotted versus time. Leukocytes remained viable in blood samples incubated for 3h with Ch and water extracts of B. buxifolia lam or Z. mistol Griseb (97.1% and 92.5% viability by Trypan blue exclusion, respectively); whereas with Ch only the cells were stressed and viability decreased to 30%. The three fruit extracts protected the viability of leukocytes in parallel with the decrease of ROS. Erythrocytes were not lysed in the presence of Ch.


Se estudió el efecto antioxidante de tres extractos de frutas autóctonas, Berberis buxifolia lam (michay), Zizyphus mistol Griseb (mistol) and Prosopis alba (algarrobo). Las células sanguíneas humanas sufrieron estrés oxidativo por acción de cloramfenicol (Ch), con un aumento inmediato de especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO), que fue determinado por quimioluminiscencia con luminol. La respuesta fue dependiente de la dosis, con un máximo a 8 mg/ml. Los extractos de frutas autóctonas de la Argentina fueron capaces de contrarrestar el estrés generado por el antibiótico. El michay y el mistol resultaron más efectivos en la fase acuosa, y el algarrobo fue más antioxidante en extractos etílicos, mientras que las fracciones obtenidas con hexano no fueron activas. La viabilidad de los leucocitos se mantuvo elevada con Ch en presencia de extractos, entre 92.5 y 97.1%, cayendo hasta un 30% con Ch solo. Tanto los eritrocitos como los leucocitos fueron protegidos del efecto estresante por la capacidad antioxidantes de los extractos de las tres frutas investigadas, lo que podría ser importante a considerar en la dieta de niños, y pacientes en general, sometidos a Ch u otras terapias causantes de estrés oxidativo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chloramphenicol/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Berberis/chemistry , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Leukocytes/drug effects , Prosopis/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Ziziphus/chemistry
9.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 465-476, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27756

ABSTRACT

CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), which binds the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), has been shown to play a critical role in mobilizing the bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells and inflammatory cells. We studied the effects of AMD3100, CXCR4 antagonist, on a murine bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model. Treatment of mice with AMD3100 in bleomycin-treated mice resulted in the decrease of SDF-1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids at an early stage and was followed by the decrease of fibrocytes in the lung. AMD3100 treatment decreased the SDF-1 mRNA expression, fibrocyte numbers in the lung at an early stage (day 3) and CXCR4 expression at the later stage (day 7 and 21) after bleomycin injury. The collagen content and pulmonary fibrosis were significantly attenuated by AMD3100 treatment in later stage of bleomycin injury. AMD3100 treatment also decreased the murine mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell chemotaxis when either in the stimulation with bleomycin treated lung lysates or SDF-1 in vitro. In BM stem cell experiments, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK which was induced by SDF-1 was significantly blocked by addition of AMD3100. Our data suggest that AMD3100 might be effective in preventing the pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting the fibrocyte mobilization to the injured lung via blocking the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bleomycin , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CXCL12/chemistry , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Lung/drug effects , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Receptors, CXCR4/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 583-595, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200107

ABSTRACT

Neurotrophins protect neurons against excitotoxicity; however the signaling mechanisms for this protection remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is critical for protection of hippocampal cells from staurosporine (STS) induced apoptosis, characterized by nuclear condensation and activation of the caspase cascade. Both nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived growth factor (BDNF) prevent STS-induced apoptotic morphology and caspase-3 activity by upregulating phosphorylation of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptor. Inhibition of Trk receptor by K252a altered the neuroprotective effect of both NGF and BDNF whereas inhibition of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) had no effect. Impairment of the PI3K/Akt pathway or overexpression of dominant negative (DN)-Akt abolished the protective effect of both neurotrophins, while active Akt prevented cell death. Moreover, knockdown of Akt by si-RNA was able to block the survival effect of both NGF and BDNF. Thus, the survival action of NGF and BDNF against STS-induced neurotoxicity was mediated by the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling through the Trk receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis/drug effects , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Hippocampus/cytology , Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Neurons/cytology , PC12 Cells , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Staurosporine/pharmacology
11.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 46(4): 333-340, out.-dez. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539630

ABSTRACT

Context: Exposure of hepatocytes to pathological conditions in a microenvironment of hypoxia and reoxygenation is very frequent in hepatic diseases. Several substances present perspectives for cytoprotective action on hepatocyte submitted to reoxygenation after hypoxia and simple hypoxia. Objective: We research therapeutic options for hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia and hypoxia + reoxygenation injury. Methods: Primary culture of rat hepatocytes was submitted to hypoxia (2 hours) plus reoxygenation (2 hours) and simple hypoxia (4 hours) in the presence or the absence of cytoprotectors. The hepatocyte lesion was evaluated by functional criteria through percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and cell viability. The effects of the cytoprotectors prostaglandin E1 3 ηg/mL, superoxide dismutase 80 μg/mL, allopurinol 20 μM and verapamil 10-4 M were studied in this model of injury. Results: Reoxygenation after hypoxia induced more significant lesion in cultured hepatocytes compared to simple hypoxia, detected by analysis of functional criteria. There was a significant reduction of percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released and a significant increase of percentage of cell viability in the hypoxia + reoxygenation + cytoprotectors groups compared to hypoxia + reoxygenation groups. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil also protected the group submitted to simple hypoxia, when evaluated by functional criteria. Conclusions: We conclude that reoxygenation after hypoxia significantly increased the lesion of cultured rat hepatocytes when compared to simple hypoxia. Prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase, allopurinol and verapamil acted as cytoprotectors to the rat cultured hepatocytes submitted to hypoxia + reoxygenation in vitro. The substances prostaglandin E1, superoxide dismutase and verapamil protected hepatocytes submitted to simple hypoxia on the basis of all the criteria studied in this experimental model.


Contexto: A exposição dos hepatócitos a condições patológicas em que ocorram microambientes de hipóxia e reoxigenação são muito frequentes em doenças hepáticas. Várias substâncias apresentam perspectivas de ação citoprotetora para hepatócitos submetidos a reoxigenação após hipóxia e hipóxia simples. Objetivo: Pesquisaram-se opções terapêuticas para o dano dos hepatócitos submetidos a hipóxia e hipóxia + reoxigenação. Métodos: Hepatócitos de rato em cultura primária foram submetidos a hipóxia (2 horas) mais reoxigenação (2 horas) e hipóxia simples (4 horas), na presença ou ausência dos citoprotetores. A lesão dos hepatócitos foi avaliada por critérios funcionais através da percentagem liberada de desidrogenase láctica e da viabilidade celular. Os efeitos dos citoprotetores prostaglandina E1 3 ηg/mL, superóxido dismutase 80 μg/mL, alopurinol 20 μM e verapamil 10-4M, foram estudados neste modelo de injúria celular. Resultados: A reoxigenação após hipóxia induziu lesão mais significativa nos hepatócitos cultivados comparado com hipóxia simples, conforme demonstrado pela análise dos critérios funcionais. Houve significativa redução da porcentagem liberada de desidrogenase láctica e aumento significativo da percentagem de viabilidade celular nos grupos hipóxia + reoxigenação + citoprotetores em comparação com o grupo hipóxia + reoxigenação. Prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase e verapamil também protegeram o grupo hipóxia simples, quando avaliado pelos critérios funcionais. Conclusões: Conclui-se que a reoxigenação após hipóxia aumentou significativamente a lesão dos hepatócitos de rato cultivados, em comparação com a hipóxia simples. Prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase, alopurinol e verapamil foram citoprotetores para os hepatócitos de rato submetidos a hipóxia + reoxigenação in vitro. As substâncias prostaglandina E1, superóxido dismutase e verapamil protegeram os hepatócitos submetidos a hipóxia simples com base em...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Cell Hypoxia/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Alprostadil/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Hepatocytes/enzymology , Hepatocytes/physiology , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacology , Verapamil/pharmacology
12.
Bulletin of Alexandria Faculty of Medicine. 2008; 44 (4): 821-828
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-99565

ABSTRACT

Cyclophosphamide [CYP] is widely used as an antineoplastic and an immunosuppressive drug. However, it has been found to cause DNA damage in normal tissues as well. Captopril [CAP], an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, was reported to have a potential protective effect on the genotoxic effect of CYP possibly through its antioxidant effect. The aim of the present work is to experimentally detect the genotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide using in vivo micronuclei assay in albino mice bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes and to test the protective effect of captopril on reducing the genotoxicity of CYP. In the present study thirty adult male albino mice were equally divided into six groups. Group I [control group] animals received single physiological saline, group II mice received single injection of captopril [CAP] [50mg/kg], group III animals received single injection of 25mg/kg cyclophosphamide [CYP] dissolved in physiological saline, group IV mice received single injection of 50 mg/kg CYP dissolved in physiological saline, and groups V and VI were the same as group III and IV but CYP injection was preceded by CAP [50mg/kg] injection. The number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes [MNPCEs] was determined in 1000 polychromatic cells from bone marrow smears obtained after sacrificing the animals 24 hrs from exposure to CYP or the control substance. Statistical comparison of the different groups showed that the difference between group I and II was not statistically significant [P=0.106], indicating that CAP does not induce genotoxicity. Whereas, comparing Groups III, IV to group I showed that the difference was statistically significant [P=0.013, 0.00021] It was observed that CYP increased the number of MNPCEs in a dose dependent way. Comparison of groups V and Vito groups III and IV respectively showed a significantly lower number of MNPCEs confirming a protective effect of CAP when administered prior to CYP. The results of the present study confirm a protective role of CAP and support the possibility of administration of captopril prior to cyclophosphamide to ameliorate its genotoxic effect and the possibility to develop secondary cancers


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Mutagens , Mice/blood , Bone Marrow Cells , Erythrocytes, Abnormal/cytology , Captopril , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Micronucleus Tests/methods
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 592-600, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167115

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are known to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) by increasing the activity of p27(Kip1) and retinoblastoma protein (RB). However, the upstream signaling mechanisms associated with this pathway have not been elucidated. The Akt-mTOR-P70S6 kinase pathway is the central regulator of cell growth and proliferation, and increases cell proliferation by inhibiting the activities of p27(Kip1) and retinoblastoma protein (RB). Therefore, we hypothesized in this study that rosiglitazone inhibits VSMC proliferation through the inhibition of the Akt-TOR-P70S6K signaling pathway. MATERIALS and METHODS: Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RAoSMCs) were treated with 10microM of rosiglitazone 24 hours before the addition of insulin as a mitogenic stimulus. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone treatment on the Akt-mTOR-P70S6K signaling pathway. Carotid balloon injury was also performed in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) diabetic rats that were pretreated with 3 mg/kg of rosiglitazone. RESULTS: Western blot analysis demonstrated significant inhibition of activation of p-Akt, p-m-TOR, and p-p70S6K in cells treated with rosiglitazone. The inhibition of the activation of the p-mTOR-p-p70S6K pathway seemed to be mediated by both the upstream PI3K pathway and MEK-ERK complex. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on RAoSMC proliferation in vitro and in vivo is mediated by the inhibition of the Akt-mTOR-P70S6K pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Insulin/pharmacology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/drug effects , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/drug effects , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/antagonists & inhibitors , Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology
14.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 Jun; 45(6): 538-42
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62039

ABSTRACT

The ethanol extract of C. serratum roots and ursolic acid isolated from it were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in male Wistar strain rats. The parameters studied were estimation of liver function serum markers such as serum total bilirubin, total protein, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities. The ursolic acid showed more significant hepatoprotective activity than crude extract. The histological profile of the liver tissue of the root extract and ursolic acid treated animal showed the presence of normal hepatic cords, absence of necrosis and fatty infiltration as similar to the controls. The results when compared with the standard drug silymarin, revealed that the hepatoprotective activity of the constituent ursolic acid is significant as similar to the standard drug.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , Clerodendrum/chemistry , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Liver Diseases/chemically induced , Male , Models, Biological , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Triterpenes/isolation & purification
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 May; 45(5): 450-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56184

ABSTRACT

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH abuse resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with an elevation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). On the other hand, the HCH-induced impairment in hepatic catalase, G-6-PDH and SOD activities were modulated by amla at the 10% level of intake. Prefeeding of amla at 5 and 10% levels appeared to reduce the HCH-induced raise in renal GGT activity. The results show the elevation of hepatic antioxidant system and reduction of cytotoxic products as a result of prefeeding of amla, which were otherwise affected by the HCH administration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Kidney/enzymology , Hexachlorocyclohexane , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/chemistry , Liver Diseases/chemically induced , Male , Organ Size/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phyllanthus emblica/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Weight Gain/drug effects , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2007 May; 45(5): 465-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60172

ABSTRACT

Rats pre-administered with alpha-tocopherol (10 mgs/day) for 7 days afforded a significant protection at the tissue level against the lowering of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, especially the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase. The protective action of alpha-tocopherol in the diethyldithiocarbamate treated rats may be attributed to its antioxidant/free radical scavenging action. It is concluded that selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase and alpha-tocopherol act in a complementary fashion to block free radical formation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Ditiocarb/toxicity , Free Radicals/analysis , Glutathione Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Liver/drug effects , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Superoxide Dismutase/antagonists & inhibitors , Time Factors , alpha-Tocopherol/pharmacology
17.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 393-400, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53151

ABSTRACT

Recently, it has been reported that curcumin, which is known as a potent antioxidant, acts as a non-stressful and non-cytotoxic inducer of the cytoprotective heme oxygenase (HO)-1. In this study, naturally occurring curcuminoids, such as pure curcumin, demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bis-demethoxycurcumin (BDMC), were compared for their potential ability to modulate HO-1 expression and cytoprotective activity in human endothelial cells. All three curcuminoids could induce HO-1 expression and HO activity with differential levels. The rank order of HO activity was curcumin, DMC and BDMC. In comparison with endothelial protection against H2O2-induced cellular injury, cytoprotective capacity was found to be highest with curcumin, followed by DMC and BDMC. Interestingly, cytoprotective effects afforded by curcuminoids were considerably associated with their abilities to enhance HO activity. Considering that the main difference among the three curcuminoids is the number of methoxy groups (none for BDMC, one for DMC, and two for curcumin), the presence of methoxy groups in the ortho position on the aromatic ring was suggested to be essential to enhance HO-1 expression and cytoprotection in human endothelial cells. Our results may be useful in designing more efficacious HO-1 inducers which could be considered as promising pharmacological agents in the development of therapeutic approaches for the prevention or treatment of endothelial diseases caused by oxidative damages.


Subject(s)
Humans , Signal Transduction , Models, Biological , Hydrogen Peroxide/adverse effects , Heme Oxygenase-1/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , DNA Damage/drug effects , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Curcumin/analogs & derivatives
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45034

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pretreatment with amifostine would reduce the toxicity of cisplatin with no reduction in antitumor efficacy in patients with advanced non-small lung cancer PATIENTS AND METHOD: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer, aged less than 75 years, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2 were enrolled in the study. Amifostine was administered at a dose of 740 mg/m2 before chemotherapy. Then cisplatin at 100 mg/m2 was administered on day 1 and vinblastine 5 mg/m2 given on days 1, 8 and 15 in a 28 day cycle. RESULTS: Forty one patients were enrolled Baseline characteristics included; a median age of 58 years (range, 28-72); 23 males and 18 females; performance status of 0 (1 patient), 1 (38 patients) and 2 (2 patients); stage IIIa (1 patient), stage IIIb (10 patients) and stage IV (30 patients). The predominant histology was adenocarcinoma (60.97%). A median of 4 cycles (range, 1-6) were administered Thirty six cases out of forty one patients were assessable for response. The response rate was 38%. All those responding gave partial response. The median survival time was 33 weeks. One and two years survival were 23.9% and 9% respectively. Grade 3/4 toxicity was primarily hematologic. Grade 3/4 leukopenia occurred in 12.4%. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 1.2%. Anemia grade 3/4 occurred in 7.5%. The observed grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicities were hypertension, hypocalcemia, nausea and vomiting and sensory neuropathy. Other toxicities were grade 2 or below. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that amifostine has the potential to be a broad spectrum cytoprotectant of normal tissues from toxicity caused by chemotherapy and no effect on therapeutic outcome in lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Amifostine/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Vinblastine/administration & dosage
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 33(7): 791-8, July 2000. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-262678

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials indicate that amifostine may confer protection on various normal tissues without attenuating anti-tumor response. When administered prior to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it may provide a broad spectrum of cytoprotection including against alkylating drugs. The mechanism of protection resides in the metabolism at normal tissue site by membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase. Toxicity of this drug is moderate with hypotension, nausea and vomiting, and hypocalcemia being observed. We report a phase II study using amifostine as a protective drug against high-dose cyclophosphamide (HDCY) (7 g/m2), used to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) and to reduce tumor burden. We enrolled 29 patients, 22 (75.9 percent) affected by aggressive and 7 (24.1 percent) by indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), who were submitted to 58 infusions of amifostine and compared them with a historical group (33 patients) affected by aggressive NHL and treated with VACOP-B followed by HDCY. The most important results in favor of amifostine were the reduction of intensity of cardiac, pulmonary and hepatic toxicity, and a significant reduction of frequency and severity of mucositis (P = 0.04). None of the 29 patients died in the protected group, while in the historical group 2/33 patients died because of cardiac or pulmonary toxicity and 2 patients stopped therapy due to toxicity. Amifostine did not prevent the aplastic phase following HDCY. PBPC collection and hematological recovery were adequate in both groups. The number of CFU-GM (colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage) colonies and mononuclear cells in the apheresis products was significantly higher in the amifostine group (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively). Side effects were mild and easily controlled. We conclude that amifostine protection should be useful in HDCY to protect normal tissues, with acceptable side effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Amifostine/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Cytoprotection , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin/drug therapy , Radiation-Protective Agents/pharmacology , Amifostine/toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating/administration & dosage , Cyclophosphamide/administration & dosage , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Feasibility Studies , Radiation-Protective Agents/toxicity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome
20.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1998 Dec; 29(4): 758-62
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33137

ABSTRACT

Studies involving infectious, wild type HIV-1 must be performed under strict BSL-3 practice. We have employed a defective (deltaTat/Rev)MC99 and cloned 1A2 line, ie, mutated HIV-1 and Tat/Rev transfected cells to verify anti-HIV-1 activity in a BSL-2 laboratory. A number of extracts from various parts of 11 species of plants were studied. Results were correlated with those of an anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) assay.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Biological Assay/methods , Cytoprotection/drug effects , Drug Design , Giant Cells/drug effects , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Laboratory Infection/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL