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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880162

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the regulatory effect of zyxin on the distribution of platelet cytoskeleton.@*METHODS@#Platelets were isolated from zyxin-knockout (Zyx@*RESULTS@#After zyxin gene was knockout, the expressions of cytoskeleton proteins β-actin, α-actinin, filamin A, and myosin Ⅱ A in resting and Jas-induced platelets were significantly increased. In the platelet spreading on fibrinogen surface, F-actin was increased in Zyx@*CONCLUSION@#Zyxin significantly regulates the distribution of platelet cytoskeleton, which plays an important role in maintaining platelet cytoskeleton homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Actinin , Actins , Animals , Blood Platelets , Cytoskeleton , Mice , Zyxin
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(7): e9207, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132533

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between PI3K/mTOR/RhoA signaling regulated cytoskeletal rearrangements and phagocytic capacity of macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages were divided into four groups; blank control, negative control, PI3K-RNAi, and mTOR-RNAi. The cytoskeletal changes in the macrophages were observed. Furthermore, the phagocytic capacity of macrophages against Escherichia coli is reported as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and percent phagocytosis. Transfection yielded 82.1 and 81.5% gene-silencing efficiencies against PI3K and mTOR, respectively. The PI3K-RNAi group had lower mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, mTOR, and RhoA than the blank and negative control groups (Р<0.01). The mTOR-RNAi group had lower mRNA and protein levels of mTOR and RhoA than the blank and the negative control groups (Р<0.01). Macrophages in the PI3K-RNAi group exhibited stiff and inflexible morphology with short, disorganized filopodia and reduced number of stress fibers. Macrophages in the mTOR-RNAi group displayed pronounced cellular deformations with long, dense filopodia and an increased number of stress fibers. The PI3K-RNAi group exhibited lower MFI and percent phagocytosis than blank and negative control groups, whereas the mTOR-RNAi group displayed higher MFI and percent phagocytosis than the blank and negative controls (Р<0.01). Before and after transfection, the mRNA and protein levels of PI3K were both positively correlated with mTOR and RhoA (Р<0.05), but the mRNA and protein levels of mTOR were negatively correlated with those of RhoA (Р<0.05). Changes in the phagocytic capacity of macrophages were associated with cytoskeletal rearrangements and were regulated by the PI3K/mTOR/RhoA signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rats , Phagocytosis/physiology , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Transfection , Signal Transduction , Blotting, Western , Gene Silencing , RNA Interference , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RAW 264.7 Cells , Genetic Vectors
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the roles of cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2) in proliferation, apoptosis, and migration in liver cancer cells and the potential mechanisms.@*METHODS@#Human normal hepatocyte L02 and liver cancer cell lines HepG2, Huh7, and SMMC-7721 were cultured. The CKAP2 expression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting. HepG2 cells were randomly divided into a control group, a negative control (NC) group, and a CKAP2 silencing (siCKAP2) group. CCK-8 and BrdU assays were used to evaluate cell viability and proliferation, respectively. Transwell assay was employed to determine cell migration and invasion. The protein levels of cleaved-caspase 3, Bax, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin, phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (p-JAK2), and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) were determined by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with normal hepatocyte L02, CKAP2 was highly expressed in liver cancer cell lines HepG2, Huh7, and SMMC-7721 (all <0.05). Compared with the NC group, cell viability and proliferation rate of the siCKAP2 group were decreased (both <0.05). The apoptotic rate, protein expression of cleaved-caspase 3 and Bax in the siCKAP2 group were significantly higher than those in the NC group (all <0.05). Compared with the NC group, cell migration and invasion rates of the siCKAP2 group were significantly attenuated (both <0.05). Compared with the NC group, E-cadherin protein expression in siCKAP2 group was increased, while protein expression levels of Vimentin, N-cadherin, p-JAK2, and p-STAT3 were decreased (all <0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#CKAP2 gene silence inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promotes apoptosis in liver cancer cells, while JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway may be involved in these processes.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement , Cell Proliferation , Cytoskeleton , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics
5.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(6): 711-722, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057503

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the role of the dishevelled binding antagonist of beta catenin 1 (DACT1) in the cytoskeletal arrangement of cardiomyocytes in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: The DACT1 expression and its associations with the degree of fibrosis and β-catenin in valvular disease patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Masson's staining. DACT1 was overexpressed in the atrial myocyte cell line (HL-1) and the cardiac cell line (H9C2) by adenoviral vectors. Alterations in the fibrous actin (F-actin) content and organization and the expression of β-catenin were detected by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Additionally, the association of DACT1 with gap junctions connexin 43 (Cx43) was detected by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. Results: Decreased cytoplasmic DACT1 expression in the myocardium was associated with AF (P=0.037) and a high degree of fibrosis (weak vs. strong, P=0.028; weak vs. very strong, P=0.029). A positive association was observed between DACT1 and β-catenin expression in clinical samples (P=0.028, Spearman's rho=0.408). Furthermore, overexpression of DACT1 in HL-1 and H9C2 cells induced an increase in β-catenin and subsequent partial colocalization of DACT1 and β-catenin. In addition, F-actin content and organization were enhanced. Interestingly, DACT1 was positively correlated with the Cx43 expression in clinical samples (P=0.048, Spearman's rho=0.370) and changed the Cx43 distribution in cardiac cell lines. Conclusion: DACT1 proved to be a novel AF-related gene by regulating Cx43 via cytoskeletal organization induced by β-catenin accumulation in cardiomyocytes. DACT1 could thus serve as a potential therapeutic marker for AF.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Connexin 43/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/genetics , Immunohistochemistry , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Cell Movement , Connexin 43/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 126-133, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990809

ABSTRACT

Abstract The antitumor properties of ticks salivary gland extracts or recombinant proteins have been reported recently, but little is known about the antitumor properties of the secreted components of saliva. The goal of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of the saliva of the hard tick Amblyomma sculptum on neuroblastoma cell lines. SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32, and CHLA-20 cells were susceptible to saliva, with 80% reduction in their viability compared to untreated controls, as demonstrated by the methylene blue assay. Further investigation using CHLA-20 revealed apoptosis, with approximately 30% of annexin-V positive cells, and G0/G1-phase accumulation (>60%) after treatment with saliva. Mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was slightly, but significantly (p < 0.05), reduced and the actin cytoskeleton was disarranged, as indicated by fluorescent microscopy. The viability of human fibroblast (HFF-1 cells) used as a non-tumoral control decreased by approximately 40%. However, no alterations in cell cycle progression, morphology, and Δψm were observed in these cells. The present work provides new perspectives for the characterization of the molecules present in saliva and their antitumor properties.


Resumo As propriedades antitumorais de extratos de glândulas salivares de carrapatos ou proteínas recombinantes foram relatadas recentemente, mas pouco se sabe sobre as propriedades antitumorais dos componentes secretados da saliva. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito in vitro da saliva bruta do carrapato duro Amblyomma sculptum sobre as linhagens celulares de neuroblastoma. Células SK-N-SK, SH-SY5Y, Be(2)-M17, IMR-32 e CHLA-20 foram suscetíveis à saliva, com redução de 80% na sua viabilidade em comparação com controles não tratados, como demonstrado pelo ensaio de Azul de Metileno. Investigações posteriores utilizando CHLA-20 revelaram apoptose, com aproximadamente 30% de células positivas para anexina-V, e G0/G1 (> 60%) após tratamento com saliva. O potencial de membrana mitocondrial (Δψm) foi reduzido significativamente (p <0,05), e o citoesqueleto de actina foi desestruturado, como indicado pela microscopia de fluorescência. A viabilidade do fibroblasto humano (células HFF-1), usado como controle não tumoral, diminuiu em aproximadamente 40%. No entanto, não foram observadas alterações na progressão do ciclo celular, morfologia e Δψm nestas células. O presente trabalho fornece novas perspectivas para a caracterização das moléculas presentes na saliva e suas propriedades antitumorais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Saliva/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Cytoskeleton/drug effects , Ixodidae/chemistry , Arthropod Proteins/pharmacology , Neuroblastoma/pathology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Cell Survival/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Arthropod Proteins/isolation & purification , Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanism by which doublecortin promotes the recovery of cytoskeleton in arginine vasopressin (AVP) neurons in rats with electrical lesions of the pituitary stalk (PEL).@*METHODS@#Thirty-two SD rats were randomized into PEL group with electrical lesions of the pituitary stalk through the floor of the skull base (=25) and sham operation group (=7), and the daily water consumption (DWC), daily urine volume (DUV) and urine specific gravity (USG) of the rats were recorded. Four rats on day 1 and 7 rats on each of days 3, 7 and 14 after PEL as well as the sham-operated rats were sacrificed for detection of the expressions of β-Tubulin (Tuj1), doublecortin and caspase- 3 in the AVP neurons of the supraoptic nucleus using immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After PEL, the rats exhibited a typical triphasic pattern of diabetes insipidus, with the postoperative days 1-2 as the phase one, days 3-5 as the phase two, and days 6-14 as the phase three. Immunofluorescent results indicated the repair of the AVP neurons evidenced by significantly increased doublecortin expressions in the AVP neurons following PEL; similarly, the expression of Tuj1 also increased progressively after PEL, reaching the peak level on day 7 after PEL. The apoptotic rates of the AVP neurons exhibited a reverse pattern of variation, peaking on postoperative day 3 followed by progressive reduction till day 14. Western blotting showed that the expressions of c-Jun and p-c-Jun were up-regulated significantly on day 3 ( < 0.05) and 7 ( < 0.01) after PEL, while an upregulated p-JNK expression was detected only on day 3 ( < 0.05), as was consistent with the time-courses of neuronal recovery and apoptosis after PEL.@*CONCLUSIONS@#JNK/c-Jun pathway is activated after PEL to induce apoptosis of AVP neurons in the acute phase and to promote the repair of neuronal cytoskeleton by up-regulation of doublecortin and Tuj1 expressions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Arginine Vasopressin , Pharmacology , Cytoskeleton , Metabolism , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Neurons , Cell Biology , Pituitary Gland , Cell Biology , Wounds and Injuries , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun , Metabolism , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Regeneration , Tubulin , Metabolism
8.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 390-403, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763766

ABSTRACT

Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist clinically approved for moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) to improve cognitive functions. There is no report about the proteomic alterations induced by memantine in AD mouse model yet. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of AD-related transgenic mouse model (3×Tg-AD) treated with memantine. Mice (8-month) were treated with memantine (5 mg/kg/bid) for 4 months followed by behavioral and molecular evaluation. Using step-down passive avoidance (SDA) test, novel object recognition (NOR) test and Morris water maze (MWM) test, it was observed that memantine significantly improved learning and memory retention in 3xTg-AD mice. By using quantitative proteomic analysis, 3301 and 3140 proteins in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex respectively were identified to be associated with AD abnormalities. In the hippocampus, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 233 proteins, among which PCNT, ATAXIN2, TNIK, and NOL3 were up-regulated, and FLNA, MARK 2 and BRAF were down-regulated. In the cerebral cortex, memantine significantly altered the expression levels of 342 proteins, among which PCNT, PMPCB, CRK, and MBP were up-regulated, and DNM2, BRAF, TAGLN 2 and FRY1 were down-regulated. Further analysis with bioinformatics showed that memantine modulated biological pathways associated with cytoskeleton and ErbB signaling in the hippocampus, and modulated biological pathways associated with axon guidance, ribosome, cytoskeleton, calcium and MAPK signaling in the cerebral cortex. Our data indicate that memantine induces higher levels of proteomic alterations in the cerebral cortex than in the hippocampus, suggesting memantine affects various brain regions in different manners. Our study provides a novel view on the complexity of protein responses induced by memantine in the brain of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Animals , Axons , Brain , Calcium , Cerebral Cortex , Cognition , Computational Biology , Cytoskeleton , Hippocampus , Learning , Memantine , Memory , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , N-Methylaspartate , Proteome , Ribosomes , Water
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762189

ABSTRACT

Filamin A is an actin-binding protein and, in humans, is encoded by FLNA gene in the long arm of X chromosome. Filamin A plays a role in the formation of cytoskeleton by crosslinking actin filaments in cytoplasm. FLNA mutations affect cytoskeletal regulatory processes and cellular migrating abnormalities that result in periventricular heterotopia. A 5-month-old girl was hospitalized because of breathing difficulty and was diagnosed as having periventricular heterotopia with laryngomalacia, cricopharyngeal incoordination, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic lung disease. A genetic test was performed to find the cause of periventricular heterotopia, and FLNA gene mutation (c.5998+1G>A) was confirmed for the first time in Korea. After discharge, she developed respiratory failure due to a viral infection at 8 months of her age. In spite of management with mechanical ventilation, she died of pneumothorax and pulmonary hemorrhage. Herein, we report a case of FLNA gene mutation who presented with periventricular nodular heterotopia with respiratory insufficiency.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Arm , Ataxia , Cytoplasm , Cytoskeleton , Female , Filamins , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Infant , Korea , Laryngomalacia , Lung Diseases , Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia , Pneumothorax , Respiration , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , X Chromosome
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 890-897, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762044

ABSTRACT

In 1993, I reported that Coxiella burnetii transforms human B cells into hairy cells (cbHCs), the first hairy cell reported outside of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Over last few decades, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence supporting that C. burnetii induces hairiness and inhibits the apoptosis of host cells. The present review summarizes new information in support of cbHC. C. burnetii was shown to induce reorganization of the cytoskeleton and to inhibit apoptosis in host cells. Peritoneal B1a cells were found to be permissive for virulent C. burnetii Nine Mile phase I (NMI) strains in mice. C. burnetii severely impaired E-cad expression in circulating cells of Q fever patients. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was linked to C. burnetii. Mutation of BRAF V600E was pronounced in HCL, but “hairiness” was not linked to the mutation. Risk factors shared among coxiellosis and HCL in humans and animals were reported in patients with Q-fever. Accordingly, I propose that C. burnetii induces reorganization of the cytoskeleton and inhibits apoptosis as cytopathic effects that are not target cell specific. The observed hairiness in cbHC appears to be a fixed image of dynamic nature, and hairy cells in HCL are distinct among lymphoid cells in circulation. As the cytoskeleton plays key roles in maintaining cell structural integrity in health and disease, the pathophysiology of similar cytopathic effects should be addressed in other diseases, such as myopathies, B-cell dyscrasias, and autoimmune syndromes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , B-Lymphocytes , Coxiella burnetii , Coxiella , Cytoskeleton , Humans , Leukemia, Hairy Cell , Lymphocytes , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Mice , Molecular Biology , Muscular Diseases , Q Fever , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759335

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) share multiple characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), allowing their use for regenerative therapies. Injuries to the ACL can affect people of all ages. This study assesses whether the regenerative potential of ACL-derived MSCs (ACL-MSCs) from old donors is as high as the potential of ACL-MSCs from young donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ACL-MSCs were isolated from ACL tissues obtained from young and old donors at the time of ACL reconstruction or arthroplasty. Proliferative capacity, multilineage differentiation potential (chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages), and transcriptome-wide gene expression were assessed and compared between young and old donors. BMSCs of middle-aged donors served as an additional comparator. RESULTS: No substantial differences between ACL-MSCs from young and old donors were observed in their proliferative capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. The latter did not substantially differ between both ACL-MSC groups and BMSCs. Differential expression of genes related to the cytoskeleton and to protein dephosphorylation amongst other pathways was detected between ACL-MSCs from young and old donors. CONCLUSIONS: Regenerative potential of ACL-MSCs from old donors was not substantially lower than that from young donors, suggesting that regenerative therapies of ACL tears are feasible in both age groups. In vivo studies of the effect of age on the efficacy of such therapies are needed.


Subject(s)
Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Arthroplasty , Cytoskeleton , Gene Expression , Humans , Knee , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Tears , Tissue Donors
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718852

ABSTRACT

The cytoskeleton consists of 3 filamentous components: intermediate filaments, microtubules, and actin filaments. Actin filaments continuously assemble and disassemble far out of equilibrium to adapt cells in response to external stimuli. Actin filaments organization and dynamic are controlled by a multitude of actin-binding proteins including actin-bundling proteins. L-plastin, expressed abundantly in lymphocytes and monocytes, is an actin-bundling protein that roles in immune defense and in metastatic invasion of cancer cells. The actin-bundling activity of L-plastin is regulated not only by intracellular calcium concentration, but by phosphorylation of Ser5. The actin-bundling activity of L-pastin decreases by increased calcium concentration but is promoted by phosphorylation of Ser5. The morphology changes and motility of cells requires continuous remodeling of actin filaments which demands the sensitive nature of L-plastin to Ca2+-signal, phosphorylation of Ser5, and probably additional regulation. This review briefly describes the structure and regulation of L-plastin, and roles for L-plastin in cancer invasion and in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Calcium , Cytoskeleton , Intermediate Filaments , Lymphocytes , Macrophages , Microfilament Proteins , Microtubules , Monocytes , Phosphorylation
13.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(5)Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894363

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associated expression of STMN1, MELK and FOXM1 in search of alternative drugable target in glioblastoma (GBM) and to review relevant functional roles of STMN1 in cancer biology. METHOD: STMN1, MELK and FOXM1 expressions were studied by quantitative PCR and their coexpressions were analyzed in two independent glioblastoma cohorts. A review of articles in indexed journals that addressed the multiple functional aspects of STMN1 was conducted, focusing on the most recent reports discussing its role in cancer, in chemoresistance and in upstream pathways involving MELK and FOXM1. RESULTS: Significant associated expressions of MELK and FOXM1 were observed with STMN1 in GBM. Additionally, the literature review highlighted the relevance of STMN1 in cancer progression. CONCLUSION: STMN1 is very important to induce events in cancer development and progression, as cellular proliferation, migration, and drug resistance. Therefore, STMN1 can be an important therapeutic target for a large number of human cancers. In glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor, the MELK/FOXM1/STMN1 presented significant associated expressions, thus pointing MELK and FOXM1 as alternative targets for therapy instead of STMN1, which is highly expressed in normal brain tissue. Continuous functional research to understand the STMN1 signaling pathway is worthwhile to improve the therapeutic approaches in cancer.


OBJETIVO: Analisar as expressões associadas de STMN1, MELK e FOXM1 na procura de alvos alternativos de tratamento em glioblastoma (GBM) e revisar os papeis funcionais relevantes de STMN1 na biologia do câncer. MÉTODO: As expressões de STMN1, MELK e FOXM1 foram estudadas por PCR quantitativo e suas coexpressões foram analisadas em dois coortes independentes de GBM. A revisão dos artigos publicados em revistas indexadas na procura dos aspectos funcionais múltiplos de STMN1 foi conduzida focando-se nos estudos mais recentes discutindo o seu papel em câncer, quimiorresistência e vias de sinalização envolvendo MELK e FOXM1. RESULTADOS: Observou-se expressões associadas significantes de MELK e FOXM1 com STMN1. Adicionalmente, a revisão da literatura salientou a relevância do STMN1 na progressão do câncer. CONCLUSÃO: STMN1 é muito importante nos eventos relacionados ao desenvolvimento e progressão do câncer, como proliferação celular, migração e resistência ao tratamento. Desta forma, STMN1 pode ser um forte alvo terapêutico em um grande número de cânceres humanos. Em GBM, o tumor cerebral mais agressivo, MELK/FOXM1/STMN1 apresentaram significativa associação em suas expressões gênicas, indicando, portanto, MELK e FOXM1 como alvos alternativos para terapia em substituição ao STMN1, que apresenta alta expressão no tecido cerebral normal. Perseverar nos estudos funcionais para o entendimento da via de sinalização do STMN1 é relevante para melhorar os esquemas terapêuticos para câncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma/therapy , Stathmin/analysis , Forkhead Box Protein M1/analysis , Cytoskeleton , Microtubules
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151385

ABSTRACT

Platelets play an essential role in hemostasis through aggregation and adhesion to vascular injury sites but their unnecessary activation can often lead to thrombotic diseases. Upon exposure to physical or biochemical stimuli, remarkable platelet shape changes precede aggregation or adhesion. Platelets shape changes facilitate the formation and adhesion of platelet aggregates, but are readily reversible in contrast to the irrevocable characteristics of aggregation and adhesion. In this dynamic phenomenon, complex molecular signaling pathways and a host of diverse cytoskeleton proteins are involved. Platelet shape change is easily primed by diverse pro-thrombotic xenobiotics and stimuli, and its inhibition can modulate thrombosis, which can ultimately contribute to the development or prevention of thrombotic diseases. In this review, we discussed the current knowledge on the mechanisms of platelet shape change and also pathological implications and therapeutic opportunities for regulating the related cytoskeleton dynamics.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Cytoskeleton , Hemostasis , Thrombosis , Vascular System Injuries , Xenobiotics
15.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 407-413, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-86521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Filaggrin (FLG) is the major component of the epidermal granular layer and binds to and condenses the keratin cytoskeleton. FLG thus contributes to cell compaction and serves as a natural moisturizing factor by promoting unfolding and degradation into hygroscopic amino acids. Loss or downregulation of FLG has been shown to result in a weak stratum corneum, which causes water loss and increases the possibility of skin barrier-related seizure. Adiponectin (Acrp30) contributes to the functional recovery of somatic cells, including human normal epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Acrp30 in FLG expression and identifying its signal transduction mechanism. METHODS: Normal human keratinocytes were treated with Acrp30 and the levels of FLG were examined. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT)-targeting siRNA and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-targeting siRNA were used to identify the role of various signal transduction pathway components. RESULTS: Acrp30 upregulated SIRT1 and ARNT expression in NHEKs, resulting in increased FLG expression. Treatment with both SIRT1-targeting siRNA and ARNT-targeting siRNA blocked Acrp30 stimulation and silenced FLG expression. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin upregulates FLG expression through a SIRT1-mediated pathway. Our results suggest that Acrp30 is a promising agent for skin barrier permeability improvement.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Amino Acids , Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator , Cytoskeleton , Down-Regulation , Humans , Keratinocytes , Permeability , RNA, Small Interfering , Seizures , Signal Transduction , Skin , Water
16.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 241-251, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-348278

ABSTRACT

Rac1 belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, and plays important roles in the brain function. It affects the cell migration and axon guidance via regulating the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. However, the effect of its dynamic activation in regulating physiological function remains unclear. Recently, a photoactivatable analogue of Rac1 (PA-Rac1) has been developed, allowing the activation of Rac1 by the specific wavelength of light in living cells. Thus, we constructed recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) of PA-Rac1 and its light-insensitive mutant PA-Rac1-C450A under the control of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (mGFAP) promoter to manipulate Rac1 activity in astrocytes by optical stimulation. Primary culture of hippocampal astrocytes was infected with the recombinant AAV-PA-Rac1 or AAV-PA-Rac1-C450A. Real-time fluorescence imaging showed that the cell membrane of the astrocyte expressing PA-Rac1 protruded near the light spot, while the astrocyte expressing PA-Rac1-C450A did not. We injected AAV-PA-Rac1 and AAV-PA-Rac1-C450A into dorsal hippocampus to investigate the role of the activation of Rac1 in regulating the associative learning. With optical stimulation, the PA-Rac1 group, rather than the PA-Rac1-C450A group, showed slower learning curve during the fear conditioning compared with the control group, indicating that activating astrocytic Rac1 blocks the formation of contextual memory. Our data suggest that the activation of Rac1 in dorsal hippocampal astrocyte plays an important role in the associative learning.


Subject(s)
Animals , Astrocytes , Physiology , Cell Membrane , Cell Movement , Conditioning, Classical , Cytoskeleton , Dependovirus , Fear , Hippocampus , Physiology , Memory , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuropeptides , Genetics , Physiology , Optogenetics , rac1 GTP-Binding Protein , Genetics , Physiology
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728759

ABSTRACT

Activation of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) in articular chondrocytes increases the catabolic compartment and leads to matrix degradation during the development of osteoarthritis. In this study, we determined the proteomic and genomic alterations in human chondrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and consequences of TLR-4 activation. Human chondrocytes were cultured with LPS for 12, 24, and 36 h to induce TLR-4 activation. The TLR-4-induced inflammatory response was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression levels. In TLR-4-activated chondrocytes, proteomic changes were determined by two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectroscopy analysis, and genomic changes were determined by microarray and gene ontology analyses. Proteomics analysis identified 26 proteins with significantly altered expression levels; these proteins were related to the cytoskeleton and oxidative stress responses. Gene ontology analysis indicated that LPS treatment altered specific functional pathways including ‘chemotaxis’, ‘hematopoietic organ development’, ‘positive regulation of cell proliferation’, and ‘regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process’. Nine of the 26 identified proteins displayed the same increased expression patterns in both proteomics and genomics analyses. Western blot analysis confirmed the LPS-induced increases in expression levels of lamin A/C and annexins 4/5/6. In conclusion, this study identified the time-dependent genomic, proteomic, and functional pathway alterations that occur in chondrocytes during LPS-induced TLR-4 activation. These results provide valuable new insights into the underlying mechanisms that control the development and progression of osteoarthritis.


Subject(s)
Annexins , Blotting, Western , Chondrocytes , Cytoskeleton , Electrophoresis , Gene Ontology , Genomics , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta , Interleukin-6 , Osteoarthritis , Oxidative Stress , Proteomics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spectrum Analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-158428

ABSTRACT

Tissue fibrosis, characterized by excessive accumulation of aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by myofibroblasts, is a growing cause of mortality worldwide. Understanding the factors that induce myofibroblastic differentiation is paramount to prevent or reverse the fibrogenic process. Integrin-mediated interaction between the ECM and cytoskeleton promotes myofibroblast differentiation. In the present study, we explored the significance of integrin alpha 11 (ITGA11), the integrin alpha subunit that selectively binds to type I collagen during tissue fibrosis in the liver, lungs and kidneys. We showed that ITGA11 was co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts and was correlatively induced with increasing fibrogenesis in mouse models and human fibrotic organs. Furthermore, transcriptome and protein expression analysis revealed that ITGA11 knockdown in hepatic stellate cells (liver-specific myofibroblasts) markedly reduced transforming growth factor β-induced differentiation and fibrotic parameters. Moreover, ITGA11 knockdown dramatically altered the myofibroblast phenotype, as indicated by the loss of protrusions, attenuated adhesion and migration, and impaired contractility of collagen I matrices. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ITGA11 was regulated by the hedgehog signaling pathway, and inhibition of the hedgehog pathway reduced ITGA11 expression and fibrotic parameters in human hepatic stellate cells in vitro, in liver fibrosis mouse model in vivo and in human liver slices ex vivo. Therefore, we speculated that ITGA11 might be involved in fibrogenic signaling and might act downstream of the hedgehog signaling pathway. These findings highlight the significance of the ITGA11 receptor as a highly promising therapeutic target in organ fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Collagen , Collagen Type I , Cytoskeleton , Extracellular Matrix , Fibrosis , Hedgehogs , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Kidney , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Lung , Mice , Mortality , Myofibroblasts , Phenotype , Transcriptome , Transforming Growth Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-644004

ABSTRACT

Recent investigations consider adipose-derived stemcells (ASCs) as a promising source of stemcells for clinical therapies. To obtain functional cells with enhanced cytoskeleton and aligned structure, mechanical stimuli are utilized during differentiation of stem cells to the target cells. Since function of muscle cells is associated with cytoskeleton, enhanced structure is especially essential for these cells when employed in tissue engineering. In this study by utilizing a custom-made device, effects of uniaxial tension (1Hz, 10% stretch) on cytoskeleton, cell alignment, cell elastic properties, and expression of smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in ASCs are investigated.Due to proper availability ofASCs, results can be employed in cardiovascular engineeringwhen production of functional SMCs in arterial reconstruction is required. Results demonstrated that cells were oriented after 24 hours of cyclic stretch with aligned pseudo-podia. Staining of actin filaments confirmed enhanced polymerization and alignment of stress fibers. Such phenomenon resulted in stiffening of cell body which was quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Expression of SM α-actin and SM22 α-actin as SMC associated genes were increased after cyclic stretch while GAPDH was considered as internal control gene. Finally, it was concluded that application of cyclic stretch on ASCs assists differentiation to SMC and enhances functionality of cells.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Cell Body , Cytoskeleton , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Muscle Cells , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Polymerization , Polymers , Stem Cells , Stress Fibers , Tissue Engineering
20.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 473-476, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812738

ABSTRACT

Oligoasthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia or low sperm motility is the main cause of male infertility. Low sperm motility can be induced by abnormalities of the sperm tail structure and sperm function. The outer dense fiber protein 2 (ODF2) is a protein fiber maintaining cytoskeleton, as a major component of the mammalian sperm tail and centrosome, and its abnormality is closely related to asthenospermia. Recent studies indicate that ODF2 includes many proteins of the same name and homologous splices located in the sperm centrosomes and spindles of cleaved-embryos, necessary for animal ciliogenesis and associated with sperm capacitation. The features of ODF2 indicate that it is not a single-structural protein. This paper reviews the known functions of ODF2, paving a ground for further studies of the relationship between the ODF2 protein and fertilization.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthenozoospermia , Azoospermia , Centrosome , Chemistry , Cytoskeleton , Chemistry , Heat-Shock Proteins , Physiology , Humans , Infertility, Male , Male , Sperm Motility , Physiology , Sperm Tail , Spermatozoa , Physiology
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