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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-10, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468921


Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.

Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Antineoplastic Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Persea/chemistry
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e19542, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384004


Abstract The main aim of the study is to quantify the cytotoxic property of the Fucoidan extracted from the Turbinaria conoides using the MTT assay with the standard fucose. Fucoidan was extracted using the soaked water method and it was determined using the HPLC procedure the obtained Test sample Fucoidan extracted from the Turbinaria conoides and standard fucose was subjected to the cytotoxicity assay against the MCF7 Human breast cancer cell line, A549 lung cancer cell line, and L929 normal mouse fibroblast cell line. From the results it was found that the Test sample showed good IC50 value for MCF7 cell line then A549 with an increasing concentration 24 hours incubation at 37°C The IC50 for MCF7 was 115.21 µg/ml and A549 396.46µg/ml and the Fucoidan extract was checked for its cytotoxicity against the normal mouse fibroblast cell line L929, Fucoidan was found non-lethal to the L929 mouse fibroblast normal cell line. Standard fucose also gave a significant result towards MCF7 and against the L929. This indicates that the Fucoidan extracted from Tubinaria conoides shows better anticancer potential in it. Hence its application can be further extended in the pharmacological fields.

In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cytotoxins/adverse effects , MCF-7 Cells , A549 Cells , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Fibroblasts/classification , Fucose/analogs & derivatives , Lung Neoplasms/pathology
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 352-360, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1248941


In this study, the toxic effects of melittin on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) were analyzed with respect to mitochondrial functionality by reduction of MTT and flow cytometry, apoptosis potential, necrosis, oxygen reactive species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry and cell membrane destabilization by confocal microscopy. The toxicity presented dose-dependent characteristics and mitochondrial activity was inhibited by up to 78.24 ±3.59% (P<0.01, n = 6) in MDBK cells exposed to melittin (10µg/mL). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that melittin at 2µg/mL had the highest necrosis rate (P<0.05) for the cells. The lipoperoxidation of the membranes was also higher at 2µg/mL of melittin (P<0.05), which was further confirmed by the microphotographs obtained by confocal microscopy. The highest ROS production occurred when the cells were exposed to 2.5µg/mL melittin (P<0.05), and this concentration also increased DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). There was a significative and positive correlation between the lipoperoxidation of membranes with ROS (R=0.4158), mitochondrial functionality (R=0.4149), and apoptosis (R=0.4978). Thus, the oxidative stress generated by melittin culminates in the elevation of intracellular ROS that initiates a cascade of toxic events in MDBK cells.(AU)

Neste estudo, os efeitos tóxicos da melitina em células Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) foram analisados quanto à funcionalidade mitocondrial, por redução de MTT e citometria de fluxo, potencial de apoptose, necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), peroxidação lipídica e fragmentação de DNA, utilizando-se citometria de fluxo e desestabilização da membrana celular, por microscopia confocal. A toxicidade apresentou características dose-dependentes e a atividade mitocondrial foi inibida até 78,24±3,59% (P<0,01, n = 6) em células MDBK expostas à melitina (10µg/mL). Análises por citometria de fluxo revelaram que a melitina a 2µg/mL apresentou o maior índice necrótico celular (P<0,05). A maior lipoperoxidação de membranas também foi na concentração de 2µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), o que foi posteriormente confirmado por microscopia confocal. A maior produção de ROS aconteceu quando as células foram expostas a 2,5µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), e essa concentração também aumentou a fragmentação de DNA (P<0,05). Houve uma significativa correlação positiva entre a lipoperoxidação de membranas e a produção de ROS (R=0,4158), funcionalidade mitocondrial (R=0,4149) e apoptose (R=0,4978). Portanto, o estresse oxidativo gerado pela melitina culminou na elevação de ROS intracelular, que inicia uma cascata de eventos tóxicos nas células MDBK.(AU)

Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Apoptosis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Melitten/analysis , Bee Venoms/analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 268-277, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153357


This study evaluated the genotoxicity of lyophilized glycolic extract of Theobroma cacao Linné seeds (TCL), using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between TCL and doxorubicin (DXR) was also analyzed. Experimental groups were evaluated 24-48 h after treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0.5-2 g/kg), and TCL (2 g/kg) in combination with DXR (antigenotoxic assays). Analysis of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) showed no significant differences between all the treatment doses of TCL and NaCl control. Mice experimentally treated with DXR and NEU significantly induced MNPCEs. However, a significant reduction of MNPCEs was also observed when TCL was administered in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent DXR. The analysis of the PCE/NCE ratio revealed no significant differences between the NaCl control, all doses of TCL, and DXR. However, there were significant differences in the PCE/NCE ratio between positive NEU control and all other treatments. The PCE/NCE ratio observed after treatment with TCL and DXR showed significant differences and intermediate values to controls (NaCl and NEU). This study suggests absence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of TCL, regardless of dose, sex, and time. TCL reduced genotoxic effects induced by DXR, suggesting potential antigenotoxic effects.

Este estudo avaliou a genotoxicidade do extrato glicólico liofilizado de sementes de Theobroma cacao Linné (TCL), usando o ensaio do micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. A interação entre TCL e doxorrubicina (DXR) foi também analisada. Grupos experimentais foram avaliados 24-48 h após tratamento com N-Nitroso-N-etilureia (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0,5-2 g/kg), e TCL (2 g/kg) em combinação com DXR (ensaio antigenotóxico). As análises de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMNs) não mostraram diferenças significantes entre todas as doses de tratamento do TCL e o controle NaCl. Camundongos experimentalmente tratados com DXR e NEU induziram significativamente EPCMNs. Contudo, uma redução significante de EPCMNs foi também observada quando TCL foi administrada em combinação com o agente quimioterapêutico DXR. As análises da relação EPC/ENC (eritrócito policromático/eritrócito normocromático) revelaram ausência de diferenças significantes entre o controle NaCl, todas as doses de TCL e DXR. Contudo, houve diferenças significantes na relação EPC/ENC entre o controle positivo NEU e todos os outros tratamento. A relação ECP/ENC observada após o tratamento com TCL e DXR mostrou diferenças significantes e valores intermediários aos controles (NaCl e NEU). Este estudo sugere ausência de genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade de TCL, independentemente da dose, sexo e tempo. TCL reduziu os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos por DXR, sugerindo potencial efeitos antigenotóxicos.

Animals , Mice , DNA Damage , Cacao/toxicity , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Micronucleus Tests , Doxorubicin , Erythrocytes
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190530, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153299


HIGHLIGHTS The phenolic composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic potential of the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides were investigated. Caffeic acid was found as the most abundant phenolic compound in the extracts. Both species showed promising antioxidant activity towards different assays. The highest cytotoxic potential was observed in the extract of C. solstitialis.

Abstract It is known that some genera of the Asteraceae family are commonly used in Turkish folk medicine. Several studies have investigated the biological effects of different extracts of Centaurea and Urospermum species, but studies involving the phenolic composition of C. solstitialis and U. picroides extracts are very limited. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of C. solstitialis and U. picroides and evaluate their possible cytotoxic effect. RP-HPLC analysis was used to elucidate the phenolic profiles of the ethanolic extracts of flowering parts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides.The both ethanolic extracts were assessed for their antioxidant properties using DPPH, FRAP, phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating assays. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts on cell viability was evaluated against MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells and HEK293 cell line using the MTT assay. The most abundant phenolic compound in both extracts was determined to be caffeic acid, and the amount of this compound was 24078.03 and 14329.59 µg g-1 in the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was found similar. Compared with U. picroides extract, C. solstitialis extract had higher potential on the inhibition of cell viability. The IC50 value of C. solstitialis on MCF cells was found as 58.53 µg mL-1. These data suggest that the extracts of C. solstitialis and U. picroides may be considered as novel and alternative natural antioxidant and anticancer sources.

Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Centaurea/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Turkey , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , HEK293 Cells
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190387, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153290


HIGHLIGHTS Production of lipid nanoemulsions (<100 nm) of industrial interest with low energy demand. The antioxidant properties of babassu oil have been improved and the nanoemulsions are not cytotoxic. Babassu oil is a food and medicinal product. The nanoemulsion is strategic for the developed of new antioxidants phytotherapeutics.

Abstract Background: Babassu oil is an extract from a Brazilian native coconut (Orbignya phalerata Martius) and is used both as a food and a medicinal product. Methods: we produced two babassu oil nanoemulsions and evaluated them regarding their nanoscopic stability, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity.The nanoemulsions were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering, and their stability was investigated for 120 days. The antioxidant activity was assessed by Spectroscopy Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, and the cytotoxicity was assessed by a colorimetric method (MTT) with the NIH/3T3 cell lineage. Results: the results showed nanoemulsions with average hydrodynamic diameter lower than 100 nm (p(0.001).and a polydispersity index of less than 0.3 (p(0.001), indicating monodisperse systems and good stability at room temperature. The exposure of nanoemulsions at varying pH revealed that the isoelectric point was at 3.0, and the images obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy showed spherical droplets with a size 27 nm. The antioxidant activity showed that the babassu nanoemulsions exposed to free radicals had a better response when compared to the oil free samples. The cell viability assays showed low toxicity of the formulation with viability over 92% (p(0.05). Conclusion: babassu oil nanoformulations showed low polydispersity and kinetic stability with effective antioxidant action. Therefore, they can be promising for application in the food industry or as antioxidant phytotherapeutics.

Palm Oil/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Food Industry , Cytotoxins , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Emulsions , Nanocomposites
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2193-2200, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142305


Among the immune system cells, macrophages have an important role. Apamin, a bee venom constituent, is important in the defense of these insects. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the metabolism of J774 1.6 macrophage cell line when exposed to isolated and purified apamin, using cytotoxicity tests by MTT reduction and analysis by flow cytometry (apoptosis / necrosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membranous lipoperoxidation (LPO), electrical potential of the mitochondrial membrane (mMP) and DNA fragmentation). None of the tested concentrations (10 to 100µg/mL) were cytotoxic according to MTT reductions. Apoptosis rates decreased at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0µg/mL (P<0.05), while necrosis rates increased (P<0.05). However, rates of healthy cells at the highest tested concentration (10µg/mL) did not differ from control (P>0.05). Apamin did not alter ROS, LPO, or DNA fragmentation. Therefore, all analyzed concentrations (1.25 to 10µg/mL) decreased mMP. Such decrease in apoptosis might be due to a suppression of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic messengers, as this peptide causes no oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Highly sensitive techniques are majorly important for proper interpretation of cellular toxicity mechanisms, combined with routine laboratory methods.(AU)

Das células do sistema imunológico, macrófagos desempenham um papel fundamental. Apamina, constituinte do veneno de abelhas, é importante na defesa destas. Objetivou-se avaliar o metabolismo da linhagem de macrófagos J774 1.6 expostos à apamina isolada e purificada, avaliando-se citotoxicidade por redução de MTT e análise por citometria de fluxo (apoptose / necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), lipoperoxidação membranosa (LPO), potencial elétrico da membrana mitocondrial (MMP) e fragmentação do DNA). Nenhuma concentração testada (10 a 100µg / mL) foi citotóxica. As taxas de apoptose diminuíram nas concentrações 2,5, 5,0 e 10,0µg / mL (P<0,05), enquanto as de necrose aumentaram (P<0,05). Entretanto, as taxas de células saudáveis na maior concentração testada (10µg / mL) não diferiram do controle (P>0,05). A apamina não alterou as ERO, a LPO nem a fragmentação do DNA. Portanto, todas as concentrações analisadas (1,25 a 10µg / mL) diminuíram a mMP. Tal diminuição na apoptose pode ser por uma supressão de mensageiros pró-apoptóticos mitocondriais, já que este peptídeo não causa estresse oxidativo, peroxidação lipídica nem dano ao DNA. Técnicas altamente sensíveis são importantes para adequada interpretação dos mecanismos de citotoxicidade.(AU)

Apamin/toxicity , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Macrophages/metabolism , Mitochondria , Reactive Oxygen Species , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. oral sci ; 19: e200656, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1152174


Composites have been proven to have a cytotoxic effect on a variety of tissues and cells. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the degree of conversion of resins and its correlation with the cell viability in primary gingival fibroblasts. Methods: Resin-based silorane (Filtek P90) and conventional methacrylate resins (Filtek Z100, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT) were used to evaluate cell viability and the degree of conversion. The resins were light-cured by a LED for 20 and 40 seconds. The degree of conversion was analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cellular metabolism was evaluated after 24 hours by the MTT assay (n = 6) using the storage solution of composite resin for either 24 hours or 12 days. Variance analysis (ANOVA) with a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05) was performed to compare the groups. Results: The composite Filtek P90 showed a higher degree of conversion when polymerised for 40 or 20 seconds, while the composites Filtek Z100, Filtek Z250 and Filtek Z350XT showed similar degree of conversion. Only the Filtek Z100 resin was cytotoxic. Conclusion: We found no statistically significant correlation between cell viability and the degree of conversion

Composite Resins , Cytotoxins , Fibroblasts
Article in English | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1145994


El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar las posibles aplicaciones de los extractos de corteza y hoja de Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii como agente citotóxico contra líneas celulares de cáncer in vitro ((MCF-7, PC-3 y HT-29) mediante el uso de ensayo de sulforhodamine B (SRB). El ensayo de citotoxicidad reveló que el extracto de acetato de etilo de la corteza exhibía una actividad anticancerígena marcada. El extracto activo se sometió a un reparto líquido-líquido usando hexano y acetato de etilo para obtener fracciones basadas en su polaridad. Sin embargo, la Fracción 4 (F4) fue identificado como el más efectivo de la serie al mostrar contra todas las líneas celulares de cáncer una citotoxicidad cercana a los agentes antineoplásicos ensayados. Luego, F4 se analizó por cromatografía de gasesespectrometría de masas (GC-MS) para identificar sus componentes principales y relacionar estos componentes con el efecto citotóxico. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la corteza de B. cruckshanksii tiene una excelente actividad citotóxica y amerita estudios adicionales para aislar nuevos compuestos para quimioterapia.

The present study aims to explore the potential applications of Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii bark and leaf extracts as a cytotoxic agent against in vitro cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC-3 and HT-29) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the ethyl acetate extract from the bark exhibited marked anticancer activity. The active extract was subjected to liquid-liquid partitioning by using hexane and ethyl acetate to obtain fractions based on their polarity. However, Fraction 4 (F4) was identified as the most effective of the series by displaying against all cancer cell lines a cytotoxicity close to antineoplastic agents assayed. Then, F4 was analyzed by gas chromatography­mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify their major components and to relate these components to the cytotoxic effect. The results obtained indicated that B. cruckshanksii bark have excellent cytotoxic activity and warrant further studies to isolate novel compounds for chemotherapeutic use.

Humans , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Cytotoxins , Antineoplastic Agents , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts , Chile , Chromatography, Gas
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e46856, fev. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460907


This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and determine the LC50 concentration of powdered infant formulas widely marketed in South American countries. To this, milk samples, called as A, B, C and D, were analyzed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa, at concentrations of 0.075; 0.15 and 0.30 g mL-1, for 24 and 48 hours; and through cell viability in culture of normal line cells, via MTT test, for 24 hours, in the concentrations 0.018; 0.0375; 0.075 and 0.15 g mL-1. In A. cepa, all dairy products in the three concentrations caused significant inhibition of cell division in the meristems within the first 24 hours of exposure. In the in vitro evaluation, all milk formulas at 0.15 g mL-1, as well as milk A at a concentration of 0.037 g mL-1, C at 0.075 g mL-1 and D at 0.037 g mL-1, significantly reduced the cellular viability of the cell culture exposed to the foods studied, being potentially toxic. The milk A was considered the most toxic, with LC50 of 0.031 g mL-1, and B as the least toxic, with LC50 of 0.15 g mL-1. Therefore, the milk evaluated caused significant instability in cells of the test systems used and were characterized as cytotoxic.

Humans , Infant , Child , Cytotoxins/analysis , Cytotoxins/chemistry , Cell Survival , Breast-Milk Substitutes , DNA Damage
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 42: e50517, fev. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1460908


There is a concern about stablishing the clinical risk of drugs used for cancer treatment. In this study, the cytotoxic, clastogenic and genotoxic properties of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionite - cis-[Ru(C2O4)(NH3)4]2(S2O6), were evaluated in vitro in human lymphocytes. The mitotic index (MI), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and DNA damage by comet assay were also analyzed. The MTT test revealed that the ruthenium compound showed a slight cytotoxic effect at the highest concentration tested. The IC50 value for the compound after 24 hours of exposure was 185.4 µM. The MI values of human peripheral blood lymphocytes treated with 0.015, 0.15, 1.5 and 150 µM of cis-[Ru(C2O4)(NH3)4]2(S2O6) were 6.1, 3.9, 3.2 and 0.2%, respectively. The lowest concentration, 0.015 µM, did not show any cytotoxic activity. The CA values for the 0.015, 0.15 and 1.5 µM concentrations presented low frequency (1.5, 1.6 and 2.3%, respectively), and did not express clastogenic activity when compared to the negative control, although it was observed clastogenic activity in the highest concentration tested (150 µM). The results obtained by the comet assay suggest that this compound does not present genotoxic activity at lower concentrations. The results show that cis-[Ru(C2O4)(NH3)4]2(S2O6) has no cytotoxic, clastogenic or genotoxic in vitro effects at concentrations less than or equal to 0.015 µM. This information proves as promising in the treatment of cancer and is crucial for future trials.

Humans , Cytotoxins/analysis , Ruthenium Compounds , Lymphocytes/cytology , Lymphocytes/chemistry , Oxalates , DNA Damage
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190078, 2020. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1091025


Argenteohyla siemersi (red-spotted Argentina frog) is a casque-headed tree frog species belonging to the Hylidae family. This species has a complex combination of anti-predator defense mechanisms that include a highly lethal skin secretion. However, biochemical composition and biological effects of this secretion have not yet been studied. Methods: The A. siemersi skin secretion samples were analyzed by mass spectrometry and chromatographic analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS, RP-HPLC and GC-MS). Proteins were also studied by SDS-PAGE. Among the biological activities evaluated, several enzymatic activities (hemolytic, phospholipase A2, clotting, proteolytic and amidolytic) were assessed. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity (cytolysis and fluorescence staining) was evaluated on myoblasts of the C2C12 cell line. Results: The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified polypeptides and proteins in the aqueous solution of A. siemersi skin secretion. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of proteins with molecular masses from 15 to 55 kDa. Steroids, but no alkaloids or peptides (less than 5 KDa), were detected using mass spectrometry. Skin secretion revealed the presence of lipids in methanolic extract, as analyzed by CG-MS. This secretion showed hemolytic and phospholipase A2 activities, but was devoid of amidolytic, proteolytic or clotting activities. Moreover, dose-dependent cytotoxicity in cultured C2C12 myoblasts of the skin secretion was demonstrated. Morphological analysis, quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release and fluorescence staining indicated that the cell death triggered by this secretion involved necrosis. Conclusions: Results presented herein evidence the biochemical composition and biological effects of A. siemersi skin secretion and contribute to the knowledge on the defense mechanisms of casque-headed frogs.(AU)

Animals , Anura , Peptides , Mass Spectrometry , Biological Products , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Phospholipases A2 , Biochemical Reactions/classification , Cytotoxins
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(9): 744-756, Sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040747


The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of the honey bee Apis mellifera ethanolic extract of the red propolis, obtained in four municipalities of the Rio Grande do Norte semi-arid region, through an in vitro evaluation of the antineoplastic potential in human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) and normal cell lines (L929), and from the comet assay in hepatic cell lines (ZF-L hepatocytes) to evaluate the genoprotective potential of the extract. The hepatoprotective effect was also evaluated in vivo by the induction of chronic experimental hepatic lesions in rodents (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769), Wistar line, by intraperitoneal administration of thioacetamide (TAA) at the dose of 0.2g/kg. The animals were distributed in the following experimental groups: G1 (control), G2 (treated with 500mg/kg ethanolic extract of propolis), G3 (treated with 500mg/kg of ethanolic extract and TAA) and G4 (treated with TAA). All rats were submitted to serum biochemical, macroscopic, histological and stereological biochemical exams of the liver. It was verified the genoprotective effect of red propolis since the mean damages promoted to DNA in cells tested with the extract were significantly lower than the mean of the positive control damage (hydrogen peroxide). The red propolis extract did not present cytotoxic activity to the tumor cells of human liver cancer, as well as to normal ones. The absence of cytotoxicity in normal cells may indicate safety in the use of the propolis extract. The results of the serum biochemical evaluation showed that the serum levels of the aminotransferase enzymes (AST) did not differ significantly between G1, G2 and G3 when compared to each other. G4 showed significant increase in levels compared to the other groups, indicating that the administration of the extract did not cause liver toxicity, as well as exerted hepatoprotective effect against the hepatic damage induced by TAA. The G3 and G4 animals developed cirrhosis, but in G3 the livers were characterized by the presence of small regenerative nodules and level with the surface of the organ, whereas in G4 the livers showed large regenerative nodules. The livers of the G1 and G2 animals presented normal histological appearance, whereas the livers of the G3 animals showed regenerative nodules surrounded by thin septa of connective tissue, and in G4 the regenerative nodules were surrounded by thick septa fibrous connective tissue. The analysis of the hepatic tissues by means of stereology showed that there was no statistical difference between the percentage of hepatocytes, sinusoids, and collagens in G1 and G2. In G3 the percentage of hepatocytes, sinusoids, and collagen did not differ significantly from the other groups. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract of the red propolis exerted a hepatoprotective effect, because it promoted in vitro reduction of the damage to the DNA of liver cells, antineoplastic activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and did not exert cytotoxic effect in normal cells or was able to reduce liver enzyme activity and the severity of cirrhosis induced by TAA in vivo.(AU)

Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato etanólico da própolis vermelha da abelha Apis mellifera, obtido em quatro municípios do semiárido do Rio Grande do Norte, mediante avaliação in vitro do potencial antineoplásico em linhagens de células de carcinoma hepático humano (HepG2) e em linhagens de células normais (L929), além do ensaio cometa em linhagens de células hepáticas (hepatócitos ZF-L) para avaliar o potencial genoprotetor do extrato. O efeito hepatoprotetor também foi avaliado in vivo através da indução de lesões hepática experimental crônica em roedores da espécie Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769), linhagem Wistar, pela administração intraperitoneal de tioacetamida (TAA) na dose de 0,2g/kg. Os animais foram distribuídos nos seguintes grupos experimentais: G1 (controle), G2 (tratados com 500mg/kg de extrato etanólico da própolis), G3 (tratados com 500mg/kg de extrato etanólico e TAA) e G4 (tratados com TAA). Todos os ratos foram submetidos aos exames bioquímico sérico, anatomopatológico macroscópico, histológico e esteriológico do fígado. Foi constatado o efeito genoprotetor da própolis vermelha uma vez que as médias dos danos promovidos ao DNA em células testadas com o extrato foram significativamente inferiores à média dos danos do controle positivo (peróxido de hidrogênio). O extrato da própolis vermelha não apresentou atividade citotóxica para células tumorais de câncer de fígado humano, bem como para normais. A ausência de citotoxicidade em células normais, tal como constatado, pode indicar segurança no uso do extrato da própolis. Os resultados da avaliação bioquímica sérica demonstraram que os níveis séricos das enzimas aminotransferase (AST) não diferiram significativamente entre G1, G2 e G3, quando comparadas entre si. No G4 houve aumento significativo dos níveis em relação aos demais grupos, indicando que a administração do extrato não causou toxicidade hepática, bem como exerceu efeito hepatoprotetor frente ao dano hepático induzido pela TAA. Os animais dos G3 e G4 desenvolveram cirrose, porém no G3 os fígados caracterizaram-se pela presença de pequenos nódulos regenerativos e nivelados com a superfície do órgão, enquanto que no G4 os fígados apresentaram grandes nódulos regenerativos. Os fígados dos animais G1 e G2 apresentaram aspecto histológico normal, enquanto que os fígados dos animais do G3 apresentaram nódulos regenerativos circundados por finos septos de tecido conjuntivo, e nos do G4 os nódulos regenerativos foram circundados por espessos septos de tecido conjuntivo fibroso. A análise dos tecidos hepáticos por meio de estereologia mostrou que não houve diferença estatística entre o percentual de hepatócitos, sinusoides e colágenos nos G1 e G2. No G3 o percentual de hepatócitos, sinusoides e colágeno não diferiu significativamente dos demais grupos. Concluiu-se que o extrato etanólico da própolis vermelha exerceu efeito genoprotetor, por promover in vitro redução do dano ao DNA de células hepáticas, atividade antineoplásica em linhagem celular de carcinoma hepatocelular humano (HepG2) e não exerceu efeito citotóxico em células normais ou efeito hepatoprotetor in vivo com diminuição da gravidade da cirrose induzida por TAA.(AU)

Animals , Propolis/therapeutic use , Bees , Cytotoxins , Hepatoprotector Drugs , Antineoplastic Agents/analysis
Acta amaz ; 49(2): 145-151, abr. - jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1119166


The skin secretion from toads of the Bufonidae family has great potential in the search for new active compounds to be used as drug candidates in treating some diseases, among them cancer. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic activity of the parotoid gland secretion extracts of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus, as well as biochemically analyze transaminases and serum creatinine for liver and renal damage, respectively. Cytotoxicity was performed by the colorimetric method based on MTT (3- [4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) with different concentrations of the extracts in Walker or splenic tumor cell cultures from rats and mice. The micronucleus test was performed with male Swiss mice treated orally with the extracts for 15 days, and then intraperitoneally with N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (50 mg kg-1). Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) were evaluated in bone marrow. The extracts showed cytotoxic activity in the evaluated cells. There was a significant reduction in the frequency of MNPCE (R. marina = 56% and R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0.001), indicating antimutagenic potential of the extracts. The groups treated only with extract showed an increase in MNPCE frequency, evidencing mutagenic potential. Biochemical analyzes showed no significant difference between treatments. Thus, under our experimental conditions, the extracts of R. marina and R. guttatus skin secretions presented chemopreventive potential for cancer. (AU)

A secreção cutânea de anuros da família Bufonidae tem grande potencial na busca de novos compostos ativos para utilização como fármacos candidatos no tratamento de algumas doenças, entre elas o câncer. Neste contexto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade citotóxica e antimutagênica dos extratos da secreção da glândula parótida de Rhinella marina e Rhaebo guttatus, bem como a análise bioquímica de transaminases e creatinina séricas, para avaliar dano hepático e renal, respectivamente. A avaliação de citotoxicidade foi realizada pelo método colorimétrico baseado no MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide), com diferentes concentrações dos extratos em culturas de células do Tumor de Walker ou células esplênicas de rato e camundongo. O teste do micronúcleo foi realizado com camundongos Swiss machos que receberam tratamento oral com os extratos durante 15 dias, seguido de tratamento intraperitoneal com N-etil-N-nitrosuréia (50 mg kg-1). A frequência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (PCEMN) foi determinada em medula óssea. Os extratos apresentaram ação citotóxica nas células avaliadas. Houve uma redução significativa na frequência de PCEMN (R. marina = 56% e R. guttatus = 75%, p < 0,001), observando-se um potencial antimutagênico dos extratos. Os grupos tratados somente com os extratos apresentaram um aumento na frequência de PCEMNs, evidenciando um potencial mutagênico. As análises bioquímicas não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os tratamentos. Assim, nas condições experimentais testadas, as secreções cutâneas de R. marina e R. guttatus apresentaram potencial quimiopreventivo para câncer.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Bufonidae/physiology , Antimutagenic Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Parotid Gland/chemistry , Chemoprevention/veterinary , Bioprospecting
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18304, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039081


Today, consumers are looking for functional foods that promote health and prevent certain diseases in addition to provide nutritional requirements. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Liza klunzingeri protein hydrolysates. Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) were prepared from L. klunzingeri muscle using enzymatic hydrolysis with papain at enzyme/substrate ratios of 1:25 and 1:50 for 45, 90 and 180 min. The antioxidant activities of the FPHs were investigated through five antioxidant assays. The cytotoxic effects on 4T1 carcinoma cell line were also evaluated. The amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution of the hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant activity were determined by HPLC. All six FPHs exhibited good scavenging activity on ABTS (IC50=0.60-0.12 mg/mL), DPPH (IC50= 3.18-2.08 mg/mL), and hydroxyl (IC50=4.13-2.07 mg/mL) radicals. They also showed moderate Fe+2 chelating capacity (IC50=2.12-12.60 mg/mL) and relatively poor ferric reducing activity (absorbance at 70 nm= 0.01-0.15, 5 mg/mL). In addition, all hydrolysates showed cytotoxic activities against the 4T1 cells (IC50=1.62-2.61 mg/mL). 94.6% of peptide in hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant activity had molecular weight less than 1,000 Da. L. klunzingeri protein hydrolysates show significant antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro and are suggested to be used in animal studies.

Smegmamorpha/anatomy & histology , Cytotoxins/adverse effects , Antioxidants/analysis , Protein Hydrolysates/pharmacokinetics , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760146


Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss is a rare disease characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, some in a progressive pattern and others in idiopathic or fluctuating pattern, often accompanied by vestibular symptoms. This disease is also known as autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED), which primarily involves the vestibulo-cochlear system. However, in some cases, it occurs in the context of systemic autoimmune disorder such as wegner granulomatosis, or the Bechet disease. Response to steroids has been the requisite clinical criterion for diagnosis. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs. However, after continuous steroid treatment development of corticosteroids, resistance is common in many AIED. To patients with AIED, response to steroids is not only a criterion for diagnosis but also a criterion to test steroid-sparing therapies such as methotrexate. A 10 year-old boy presenting a fluctuating pattern of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was treated with a cytotoxic agent in suspicion of autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss. We reviewed this case with reference to relevant publications in the medical literature.

Humans , Male , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Cytotoxins , Diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Labyrinth Diseases , Methotrexate , Rare Diseases , Steroids
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e20190009, 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040380


Several studies have pointed out that certain snake venoms contain compounds presenting cytotoxic activities that selectively interfere with cancer cell metabolism. In this study, Pseudocerastes persicus venom and its fractions were investigated for their anticancer potential on lung cancer cells. Methods: Lung cancer cells (A549) and normal fibroblast cells (Hu02) were treated with the P. persicus venom and its HPLC fractions and the cell cytotoxic effects were analyzed using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Apoptosis was determined in venom-treated cell cultures using caspase-3 and caspase-9 assay kits. Results: The treatment of cells with HPLC fraction 21 (25-35 kDa) of P. persicus venom resulted in high LDH release in normal fibroblast cells and high caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in lung cancer cells. These results indicate that fraction 21 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas necrosis is predominantly caused by cell death in the normal cells. Fraction 21 at the final concentration of 10 μg/mL killed approximately 60% of lung cancer cells, while in normal fibroblast cells very low cell cytotoxic effect was observed. Conclusion: HPLC fraction 21 at low concentrations displayed promising anticancer properties with apoptosis induction in the lung cancer cells. This fraction may, therefore, be considered a promising candidate for further studies.(AU)

Animals , Snake Venoms/chemical synthesis , Apoptosis , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytotoxins/analysis , Lung Neoplasms
Laboratory Medicine Online ; : 249-253, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760509


A 22-year old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus presenting microangiopathic hemolytic anemia was treated with therapeutic plasma exchange 23 times. The patient's condition and laboratory findings (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ferritin, total bilirubin, and lactate dehydrogenase) did not improve despite the initial 18 therapeutic plasma exchange treatments. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura was ruled out due to normal ADAMTS-13 activity test result; hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis was diagnosed based on fever, splenomegaly, pancytopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, and hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspiration. The patient's condition improved rapidly upon treatment with a combination of immunosuppressants and cytotoxic agents, and more therapeutic plasma exchanges were performed five consecutive times with prolonged intervals in between. We observed that therapeutic plasma exchange treatment alone was not effective enough to treat hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, unlike thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Therefore, it is necessary to determine and start drug administration promptly in the treatment of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with thrombotic microangiopathy.

Female , Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Anemia, Hemolytic , Bilirubin , Bone Marrow , Cytotoxins , Ferritins , Fever , Hypertriglyceridemia , Immunosuppressive Agents , Lactic Acid , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Pancytopenia , Plasma Exchange , Plasma , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Splenomegaly , Thrombotic Microangiopathies
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180731, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055384


Abstract Metallic nanoparticles have great potential as a chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize silver and gold nanoparticles using a simple method, as well as evaluating the potential cytotoxic activity in relation to the K-562 cell line. For the synthesis, a solution containing the metallic ions was subjected to magnetic stirring with the aqueous extract of Lavandula dentata L. and a change of colour was observed. With the data obtained from the analyses we concluded that the nanoparticles were successfully obtained by a simple and green method using the aqueous extract of L. dentata. The obtained nanoparticles presented a reduced size, a low level of polydispersion, and a homogenous spherical shape. The nanoparticles presented intense and characteristic diffraction peaks, which could be correlated to the planes of the centred cubic structure of the silver and gold. The two formulations presented predominantly crystalline characteristics. The infrared analysis suggested that the amides and alcohols present in the samples may have been responsible for the reduction and limitation of the size and dispersion of the silver and gold nanoparticles. The cytotoxic assay showed that the nanoparticles demonstrated great potential to reduce the cell viability of the K-562 cell line, especially the gold nanoparticles.

Leukemia, Myeloid , Lamiaceae/toxicity , Cytotoxins , Metal Nanoparticles/analysis