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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 352-360, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248941


In this study, the toxic effects of melittin on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) were analyzed with respect to mitochondrial functionality by reduction of MTT and flow cytometry, apoptosis potential, necrosis, oxygen reactive species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry and cell membrane destabilization by confocal microscopy. The toxicity presented dose-dependent characteristics and mitochondrial activity was inhibited by up to 78.24 ±3.59% (P<0.01, n = 6) in MDBK cells exposed to melittin (10µg/mL). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that melittin at 2µg/mL had the highest necrosis rate (P<0.05) for the cells. The lipoperoxidation of the membranes was also higher at 2µg/mL of melittin (P<0.05), which was further confirmed by the microphotographs obtained by confocal microscopy. The highest ROS production occurred when the cells were exposed to 2.5µg/mL melittin (P<0.05), and this concentration also increased DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). There was a significative and positive correlation between the lipoperoxidation of membranes with ROS (R=0.4158), mitochondrial functionality (R=0.4149), and apoptosis (R=0.4978). Thus, the oxidative stress generated by melittin culminates in the elevation of intracellular ROS that initiates a cascade of toxic events in MDBK cells.(AU)

Neste estudo, os efeitos tóxicos da melitina em células Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) foram analisados quanto à funcionalidade mitocondrial, por redução de MTT e citometria de fluxo, potencial de apoptose, necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), peroxidação lipídica e fragmentação de DNA, utilizando-se citometria de fluxo e desestabilização da membrana celular, por microscopia confocal. A toxicidade apresentou características dose-dependentes e a atividade mitocondrial foi inibida até 78,24±3,59% (P<0,01, n = 6) em células MDBK expostas à melitina (10µg/mL). Análises por citometria de fluxo revelaram que a melitina a 2µg/mL apresentou o maior índice necrótico celular (P<0,05). A maior lipoperoxidação de membranas também foi na concentração de 2µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), o que foi posteriormente confirmado por microscopia confocal. A maior produção de ROS aconteceu quando as células foram expostas a 2,5µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), e essa concentração também aumentou a fragmentação de DNA (P<0,05). Houve uma significativa correlação positiva entre a lipoperoxidação de membranas e a produção de ROS (R=0,4158), funcionalidade mitocondrial (R=0,4149) e apoptose (R=0,4978). Portanto, o estresse oxidativo gerado pela melitina culminou na elevação de ROS intracelular, que inicia uma cascata de eventos tóxicos nas células MDBK.(AU)

Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Apoptosis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Melitten/analysis , Bee Venoms/analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 268-277, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153357


This study evaluated the genotoxicity of lyophilized glycolic extract of Theobroma cacao Linné seeds (TCL), using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between TCL and doxorubicin (DXR) was also analyzed. Experimental groups were evaluated 24-48 h after treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0.5-2 g/kg), and TCL (2 g/kg) in combination with DXR (antigenotoxic assays). Analysis of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) showed no significant differences between all the treatment doses of TCL and NaCl control. Mice experimentally treated with DXR and NEU significantly induced MNPCEs. However, a significant reduction of MNPCEs was also observed when TCL was administered in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent DXR. The analysis of the PCE/NCE ratio revealed no significant differences between the NaCl control, all doses of TCL, and DXR. However, there were significant differences in the PCE/NCE ratio between positive NEU control and all other treatments. The PCE/NCE ratio observed after treatment with TCL and DXR showed significant differences and intermediate values to controls (NaCl and NEU). This study suggests absence of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of TCL, regardless of dose, sex, and time. TCL reduced genotoxic effects induced by DXR, suggesting potential antigenotoxic effects.

Este estudo avaliou a genotoxicidade do extrato glicólico liofilizado de sementes de Theobroma cacao Linné (TCL), usando o ensaio do micronúcleo em medula óssea de camundongos. A interação entre TCL e doxorrubicina (DXR) foi também analisada. Grupos experimentais foram avaliados 24-48 h após tratamento com N-Nitroso-N-etilureia (NEU: 50 mg/kg), DXR (5 mg/kg), NaCl (145 mM), TCL (0,5-2 g/kg), e TCL (2 g/kg) em combinação com DXR (ensaio antigenotóxico). As análises de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (EPCMNs) não mostraram diferenças significantes entre todas as doses de tratamento do TCL e o controle NaCl. Camundongos experimentalmente tratados com DXR e NEU induziram significativamente EPCMNs. Contudo, uma redução significante de EPCMNs foi também observada quando TCL foi administrada em combinação com o agente quimioterapêutico DXR. As análises da relação EPC/ENC (eritrócito policromático/eritrócito normocromático) revelaram ausência de diferenças significantes entre o controle NaCl, todas as doses de TCL e DXR. Contudo, houve diferenças significantes na relação EPC/ENC entre o controle positivo NEU e todos os outros tratamento. A relação ECP/ENC observada após o tratamento com TCL e DXR mostrou diferenças significantes e valores intermediários aos controles (NaCl e NEU). Este estudo sugere ausência de genotoxicidade e citotoxicidade de TCL, independentemente da dose, sexo e tempo. TCL reduziu os efeitos genotóxicos induzidos por DXR, sugerindo potencial efeitos antigenotóxicos.

Animals , Mice , DNA Damage , Cacao/toxicity , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Micronucleus Tests , Doxorubicin , Erythrocytes
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e20190009, 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040380


Several studies have pointed out that certain snake venoms contain compounds presenting cytotoxic activities that selectively interfere with cancer cell metabolism. In this study, Pseudocerastes persicus venom and its fractions were investigated for their anticancer potential on lung cancer cells. Methods: Lung cancer cells (A549) and normal fibroblast cells (Hu02) were treated with the P. persicus venom and its HPLC fractions and the cell cytotoxic effects were analyzed using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Apoptosis was determined in venom-treated cell cultures using caspase-3 and caspase-9 assay kits. Results: The treatment of cells with HPLC fraction 21 (25-35 kDa) of P. persicus venom resulted in high LDH release in normal fibroblast cells and high caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities in lung cancer cells. These results indicate that fraction 21 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, whereas necrosis is predominantly caused by cell death in the normal cells. Fraction 21 at the final concentration of 10 μg/mL killed approximately 60% of lung cancer cells, while in normal fibroblast cells very low cell cytotoxic effect was observed. Conclusion: HPLC fraction 21 at low concentrations displayed promising anticancer properties with apoptosis induction in the lung cancer cells. This fraction may, therefore, be considered a promising candidate for further studies.(AU)

Animals , Snake Venoms/chemical synthesis , Apoptosis , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytotoxins/analysis , Lung Neoplasms
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e18028, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974417


Several studies have revealed that certain naturally occurring medicinal plants inhibit the growth of various cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptotic induction potential of Myristica fragrans Houtt mace extract. The cytotoxic activity of the Myristica fragrans Houtt mace acetone extract was assayed by MTT assay on human oral epidermal carcinoma KB cell lines. KB cells were incubated with different concentration of mace extract ranging from 25 to 125 µg/mL for 24hrs. The apoptotic induction potential was also studied by the analysis of Bcl-2 protein and gene expression in mace extract incubated KB cell lines using western blotting technique and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mace extract exhibited cytotoxicity and anticancer effect against KB cell lines and it also suppressed the growth of cancer cells, therefore growth inhibitory effect was noted in extract treated cell lines. The apoptotic potential of mace extract was accompanied by reduced gene expression of Bcl-2 compared to the untreated KB cells. The mace extract shows the cytotoxic activity and induced the apoptosis through the modulation of its target genes Bcl-2 in the KB cell lines, suggesting the potential of mace as a candidate for oral cancer chemoprevention. This can be further investigated in vivo for its anticancer potential.

Plant Extracts/analysis , KB Cells , Myristica/anatomy & histology , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Apoptosis , Genes, bcl-2/physiology
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 9, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894166


Envenoming by kraits (genus Bungarus) is a medically significant issue in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) venom is known to contain highly potent neurotoxins. In recent years, there have been reports on the non-neurotoxic activities of krait venom that include myotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, research on such non-neurotoxicity activities of Malayan krait venom is extremely limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the myotoxic, cytotoxic and nephrotoxic activities of B. candidus venoms from northeastern (BC-NE) and southern (BC-S) Thailand in experimentally envenomed rats. Methods: Rats were administered Malayan krait (BC-NE or BC-S) venom (50 µg/kg, i.m.) or 0.9% NaCl solution (50 µL, i.m.) into the right hind limb. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6 and 24 h after venom administration. The right gastrocnemius muscle and both kidneys were collected for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for determination of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) was used in a cell proliferation assay to determine cytotoxic activity. Results: Administration of BC-NE or BC-S venom (50 µg/kg, i.m.) caused time-dependent myotoxicity, characterized by an elevation of CK and LDH levels. Histopathological examination of skeletal muscle displayed marked muscle necrosis and myofiber disintegration 24 h following venom administration. Both Malayan krait venoms also induced extensive renal tubular injury with glomerular and interstitial congestion in rats. BC-NE and BC-S venoms (100­0.2 µg/ mL) caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on the HEK-293 cell line. However, BC-NE venom (IC50 =8 ± 1 µg/mL; at 24 h incubation; n = 4) was found to be significantly more cytotoxic than BC-S venom (IC50 =15 ± 2 µg/mL; at 24 h incubation; n = 4). In addition, the PLA2 activity of BC-NE venom was significantly higher than that of BC-S venom. Conclusions: This study found that Malayan krait venoms from both populations possess myotoxic, cytotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. These findings may aid in clinical diagnosis and treatment of envenomed patients in the future.(AU)

Animals , Rats , Bungarus/physiology , Cytotoxins/analysis , Elapid Venoms/blood , Elapid Venoms/toxicity , Bungarotoxins/blood , Elapid Venoms/isolation & purification , Kidney/pathology
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 40, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-984691


A leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) é uma neoplasia mieloproliferativa BCR-ABL1 + marcada por aumento da mieloproliferação e presença de células leucêmicas resistentes à apoptose. A terapia de primeira linha atual para a LMC é a administração de inibidores da tirosina quinase, mesilato de imatinibe, dasatinibe ou nilotinibe. Embora eficaz no tratamento da LMC, alguns pacientes se tornaram resistentes a essa terapia, levando à progressão da doença e à morte. Assim, a descoberta de novos compostos para melhorar a terapia da LMC ainda é um desafio. Aqui, os destinatários se MjTX-I, uma fosfolipase A 2 isolado a partir de Bothrops moojeni de veneno de cobra, afecta a viabilidade de Bcr-Abl de mesilato de imatinib-resistente + linhas celulares. Métodos: Examinamos o efeito citotóxico e pró-apoptótico de MjTX-I em células K562-S e K562-R Bcr-Abl + e na linha de células HEK-293 não tumorais e células mononucleares de sangue periférico, usando o 3- (4, Brometo de 5-dimetiltiazol-2-il) -2,5-difeniltetrazólio e os métodos de solução fluorescente hipotônica, associados à detecção de ativação de caspases 3, 8 e 9 e clivagem de poli (ADP-ribose) polimerase (PARP). Também analisamos o potencial MjTX-I para modular a expressão de genes relacionados à apoptose em células K562-S e K562-R. Resultados: O MjTX-I diminuiu a viabilidade das células K562-S e K562-R em 60 a 65%, sem afetar a viabilidade das células não tumorais, ou seja, exerceu citotoxicidade seletiva para as linhagens celulares Bcr-Abl + . Em linhas de células leucêmicas, a toxina induziu apoptose, caspases 3, 8 e 9 ativadas, PARP clivada, expressão negativa do gene anti-apoptótico BCL-2 e expressão aumentada do gene pró-apoptótico BAD. Conclusão: O efeito antitumoral de MjTX-I está associado ao seu potencial para induzir apoptose e citotoxicidade em linhagens celulares positivas para Bcr-Abl sensíveis e resistentes ao mesilato de imatinibe, indicando que MjTX-I é um candidato promissor a fármaco para atualizar a terapia de LMC.(AU)

Animals , Snake Venoms , Leukemia, Myeloid/diagnosis , Bothrops , Cytotoxins/analysis , Phospholipases A2/isolation & purification , Neoplasms , Apoptosis
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00204, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889388


ABSTRACT Human have been constantly using plants and plant products to overcome many diseases. The antioxidant property of the plant sources is studied to obtain an efficacious drug against cancer. The objectives of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the Tecoma stans extracts against lung cancer cell line in comparison with vincristine drug. The antioxidant activity was studied using the standard DPPH assay and the cytotoxic activity using MTT assay. DPPH assay results show that methanolic extract of T. stans in higher concentration show better antioxidant potential than the standard L-ascorbic acid. They exhibited strong antioxidant potential at 20 µg/mL concentration. The absorbance at 517 nm showed that in the range of 0.201-0.0203 compared to that of absorbance of ascorbic acid at 0.023.Cytotoxic activity was studied using MTT assay which showed that the increase in concentration of extract increases the cell death. At 100µg/mL concentration there is an increased cytotoxic activity, i.e., 99% of cell inhibition. The results of antioxidant and anticancerous activity may be positively correlated.

Plant Extracts/analysis , Cell Line , Bignoniaceae/adverse effects , Cytotoxins/analysis , Lung Neoplasms/prevention & control , Antioxidants/analysis
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 21(5): 39-46, Sept.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828664


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare in vitro cytotoxicity and corrosion resistance of mini-implants from three different commercial brands used for orthodontic anchorage. Methods: Six mini-implants (Conexão(tm), Neodent(tm) and SIN(tm)) were separately immersed in artificial saliva (pH 6.76) for 30 and 60 days. The cytotoxicity of the corrosion extracts was assessed in L929 cell cultures using the violet crystal and MTT assays, as well as cell morphology under light microscopy. Metal surface characteristics before and after immersion in artificial saliva were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The samples underwent atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine the concentrations of aluminum and vanadium ions, constituent elements of the alloy that present potential toxicity. For statistical analysis, one-way ANOVA/Bonferroni tests were used for comparisons among groups with p < 0.05 considered significant. Statistical analysis was carried out with Graph Pad PRISM software Version 4.0. Results: No changes in cell viability or morphology were observed. Mini-implants SEM images revealed smooth surfaces with no obvious traces of corrosion. The extracts assessed by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry presented concentrations of aluminum and vanadium ions below 1.0 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Orthodontic mini-implants manufactured by Conexão(tm), Neodent(tm) and SIN(tm) present high corrosion resistance and are not cytotoxic.

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar, in vitro, e comparar a citotoxicidade e a resistência à corrosão de mini-implantes de três marcas comerciais diferentes, utilizados para ancoragem ortodôntica. Métodos: seis mini-implantes fabricados pelas empresas Conexão(r), Neodent(r) e SIN(r) foram imersos, separadamente, em saliva artificial (pH = 6,76), por 30 e 60 dias, de forma a obter os extratos da corrosão. A citotoxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada em cultura de células L929, empregando-se a análise de ensaios do cristal violeta e MTT, bem como da morfologia celular sob microscopia óptica. As características da superfície do metal antes e após a imersão em saliva artificial foram avaliadas usando microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os extratos foram submetidos a espectrofotometria de absorção atômica, para determinar as concentrações dos íons alumínio e vanádio, elementos constituintes da liga e que apresentam toxicidade em potencial. Para análise estatística, os testes one-way ANOVA/Bonferroni foram usados para comparação entre os grupos, com p < 0,05 sendo considerado significativo. A análise estatística foi realizada com o programa Graph Pad PRISM v. 4.0. Resultados: não foi observada alteração na viabilidade ou morfologia celular após a exposição dos mini-implantes aos extratos. A análise dos mini-implantes por microscopia eletrônica de varredura revelou superfícies lisas e sem traços evidentes de corrosão. Os extratos analisados usando espectrofotometria de absorção atômica apresentaram concentrações de íons alumínio e vanádio inferiores a 1,0 µg/ml e 0,5 µg/ml, respectivamente. Conclusão: os mini-implantes fabricados pelas empresas Conexão(r), Neodent(r) e SIN(r) apresentam alta resistência à corrosão e não são citotóxicos.

Orthodontic Appliances/adverse effects , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Surface Properties , Vanadium/analysis , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Analysis of Variance , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Corrosion , Cytotoxins/analysis , Aluminum/analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1): 27-37, jan.-mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780032


RESUMO Cyrtocymura scorpioides (sin. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), Piracá é utilizada popularmente para tratamento de úlceras, traumatismos, candidíase, processos inflamatórios e dores musculares. Objetivou-se verificar nas plantas cultivadas na Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas e Urbanova em São José dos Campos - SP, a influência da poluição veicular nos rendimentos da matéria seca (folhas), no óleo essencial, e no extrato bruto, bem como a ação citotóxica em células HEP-2 e L929, e identificar os componentes do óleo essencial e ação fungicida em Candida albicans. As estacas (54) foram cultivadas durante 6 meses em solo + adubo (2:1) na Universidade do Vale do Paraíba - UNIVAP, e distribuídas nas estações Dutra (E1 - tráfego intenso), Teotônio (E2 - tráfego médio) e Urbanova (E3 - tráfego baixo), onde 18 mudas foram cultivadas durante 6 meses, sendo 3 repetições de 6 plantas. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação e seus componentes identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (CG-MS), através de indice de similaridade com a base de espectros Wiley L. O extrato bruto foi concentrado por rotavapor. A ação fúngica foi avaliada pelo teste de difusão em disco e a citotoxicidade pelo teste MTT. Em Urbanova (E3) verificouse maior rendimento da matéria seca, do extrato bruto e do óleo essencial. Identificou-se no óleo essencial: ß-cariofileno, α-cariofileno, germacreno D, delta-cadineno e cariofileno. O Óleo Essencial possui possui baixa ação fungicida em C. albicans, enquanto o extrato hidroalcóolico se mostrou citotóxico para L929 e HEp-2.

ABSTRACT Cyrtocymura scorpioides (syn. Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers.), known as Piracá, is popularly used for the treatment of ulcers, trauma, candidiasis, inflammatory disorders, and muscle pain. This study aimed to assess the influence of vehicular pollution on the yield of dry matter (leaves), essential oil, and crude extract, and the cytotoxic action in HEP-2 and L929 cells. This study also aimed to identify the components of the essential oil, and verify its fungicidal action against Candida albicans in plants grown in Vila Nair, Jardim São Dimas, and Urbanova, São José dos Campos - SP, Brazil. The seedlings (54) were grown in soil + fertilizer (2:1) at the Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UNIVAP, and distributed to different stations, Dutra (E1 - heavy traffic), Teotônio (E2 - medium traffic), and Urbanova (E3 - low traffic), where 18 seedlings were cultivated for 6 months, with 3 replicates of 6 plants. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and its components were identified by by Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS), with a similarity index computed using the Wiley L spectra. The crude extract was concentrated in a Buchi Rotary Evaporator R-114, the fungicidal action and cytoptoxicity were evaluated using the disk diffusion method and the MTT test, respectively. In Urbanova (E3), high yields of dry matter, crude extract, and essential oil were obtained. The following components were identified in the oil: ß-caryophyllene, α -caryophyllene, germacrene D, delta-cardinene, and caryophyllene oxide. The oil was found to have low fungicidal action against C. albicans, while the hydroalcoholic extract was cytotoxic to L929 and HEP-2.

Environmental Pollution/adverse effects , Vernonia/classification , Cytotoxins/analysis , Oils, Volatile/classification
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 149 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847515


O câncer de mama apresenta-se como um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública no mundo por ser, entre as mulheres, o primeiro em incidência e o segundo em número de óbitos. Este tipo de câncer apresenta alto grau de recorrência devido a falha no tratamento do tumor primário e o aparecimento de metástases da doença é a principal causa de mortalidade. As estratégias de tratamento nesse estágio não são específicas e comprometem a qualidade de vida das pacientes. A terapia fotodinâmica (PDT) aparece como uma alternativa terapêutica promissora. No entanto, a eficácia da PDT para o tratamento de tumores da mama, bem como os mecanismos que conduzem à morte celular permanecem obscuros. Para este propósito, neste estudo, nos propusemos a investigar mais profundamente os mecanismos moleculares envolvidos na morte celular induzida MB-PDT. Observou-se que a MB-PDT induz massiva morte celular em células tumorais preferencialmente. As células não-tumorigênicas foram significativamente mais resistentes à terapia em comparação com as células malignas. Análises morfológicas e bioquímicas das células em processo de morte apontou para mecanismos alternativos à apoptose clássica. A autofagia induzida por MB-PDT resultou em citoproteção ou citotoxicidade, dependendo do modelo de célula utilizado. No entanto, o comprometimento de uma destas vias não impediu o destino fatal das células tratadas com MB-PDT. Ao analisar os mecanismos de necrose regulada, observamos que a necroptose desempenhou um papel importante na morte celular induzida por MB-PDT. Adicionalmente, nossos resultados mostraram uma localização preferencial do MB nos lisossomos, o que nos levou a analisar o comprometimento destas organelas. Nós demonstramos por meio da atividade de catepsinas no citosol das células tratadas com MB-PDT, evidências de que a permeabilização da membrana lisossomal é outro mecanismo de necrose regulada responsável pelos efeitos citotóxicos da MB-PDT. Além de resistência à morte celular, as células tumorais também desenvolvem mecanismos de evasão do sistema imune. Neste estudo, também demonstramos que a MB-PDT tem o potencial de aumentar o número de células de linfócitos T CD4+. Por fim, também mostramos a eficácia da terapia em induzir morte celular seletiva às células tumorais em um modelo que recapitula a morfologia do epitélio glandular. Em resumo, demonstramos que vários mecanismos de morte celular são ativados por MB-PDT, uma vez que o comprometimento de uma via de morte celular não impediu o destino fatal das células tratadas com MB-PDT. No geral, os resultados obtidos nesta tese apontam a MB-PDT como uma terapia alternativa e eficaz para o tratamento do câncer de mama, exibindo uma ação de amplo espectro em células com diferentes mecanismos de resistência a vias de morte celular clássica, uma propriedade fundamental para uma terapia contra o câncer. Finalmente, as nossas observações destacam o potencial de MB-PDT como uma estratégia altamente eficaz para tratar o câncer de mama com segurança e possivelmente outros tipos de tumores

Breast cancer is the main cause of mortality among women presenting high recurrence due to primary treatment failure. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) appears as a promising therapeutic alternative. However, the efficacy of PDT to treat breast tumors as well as the mechanisms that lead to tumorigenic cell death remain unclear. For this purpose, in this study, we set out to deeper investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in MB-PDT induced cell death. We observed that MB-PDT differentially induces massive cell death of tumor cells. Non-malignant cells were significantly more resistant to the therapy compared to malignant cells. Morphological and biochemical analysis of dying cells pointed to alternative mechanisms rather than classical apoptosis. MB-PDT-induced autophagy resulted in either cytoprotection or cytotoxicity depending on the cell model used. However, impairment of one of these pathways did not prevent the fatal destination of MB-PDT treated cells. When analyzing regulated necrosis mechanisms, we observed that necroptosis played an important role in MB-PDT-induced cell death. Additionaly, our results have shown preferential lysosomal MB localization. Furthermore, we have also presented evidences that the lysosome membrane permeabilization is another regulated necrosis mechanism responsible for MB-PDT cytotoxic effects. It is known that in addition to resistance to tumor cell killing therapies, malignant cells develop molecular mechanisms in order to evade the immune system. In this study, we have also been able to show that the MB-PDT has the potential to increase the number of T lymphocytes CD4+. Additionally, when using a physiological 3D culture model that recapitulates relevant features of normal and tumor breast tissue morphology, we found that MB-PDT differential action in killing tumor cell was even higher than what was detected in 2D cultures. In summary, we demonstrated that different cell death mechanisms are being activated upon MB-PDT induction, since impairment of only one cell death pathway did not prevent the fatal destination of MB-PDT treated cells. Overall, our observations point MB-PDT as an alternative and effective therapy for breast cancer treatment, displaying a broad-spectrum action on tumors with different resistance mechanisms to classic cell death pathways, a desired property for improving an anticancer therapy. Finally, our observations underscore the potential of MB-PDT as a highly efficient strategy to safely treat breast cancer and possibly other types of tumors

Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cytotoxins/analysis , Photochemotherapy/methods , Cell Death , Methylene Blue/analysis
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 367-373, Jul-Sep/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752548


RESUMO Estudo experimental in vitro que objetivou investigar o potencial antimicrobiano e citotóxico de quatro frações e um extrato etanólico da espécie Pouteria venosa usada como planta medicinal. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada pelos testes de sensibilidade microbiana, como o método de difusão em disco e o método da microdiluição em caldo, para a determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Obteve-se a avaliação da citotoxicidade por meio do método colorimétrico do Metiltetrazolium. No estudo da atividade antimicrobiana, os principais resultados foram obtidos contra Staphylococus aureus para a fração AcOEt das cascas do caule, CIM de 125 µg/mL; Streptococcus pneumoniae e Proteus mirabilis para a fração AcOEt das cascas do caule, CIMde250 µg/mL; Staphylococus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa para a fração AcOEt das folhas e cascas do caule, CIM de 250 µg/mL. Todas as amostras foram inativas para os fungos testados. A fração AcOEt das cascas do caule foi considerada atóxica, podendo ser utilizada em testes pré-clínicos in vivo

ABSTRACT Study of antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of Pouteria venosa species (Sapotaceae). This experimental in vitro study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic potential of four fractions and one ethanolic extract of the specie Pouteria venosa used as a medicinal plant. The antimicrobial activity was determined by microbial sensitivity tests, as the method of disk diffusion and the broth microdilution method for determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The evaluation of the cytotoxicity was obtained by the Metiltetrazolium colorimetric method. In the antimicrobial activity research, the main results were obtained against the Staphylococcus aureus for the AcOEt fraction of the stem bark MIC 125 µg/mL, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis for the AcOEt fraction from the stem bark, CIM 250 µg/mL, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the AcOEt fraction of the leaves and stem bark, MIC 250 µg/mL. All samples did not react for the fungi tested. The AcOEt fraction of the stem bark was considered non-toxic and can be used at in vivo pre-clinical testing

Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Pouteria/metabolism , Cell Survival/physiology , Plants, Medicinal/classification
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(11): 1141-1145, nov. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-736042


A number of studies has shown that antioxidants, fatty acids and trace minerals may modulate different immune cell activities, and that their deficiency may be associated with diseases and impaired immune responses. In innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells have a central role, killing virally infected and cancerous cells, and also secreting cytokines that shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of enriched diets in selenium plus vitamin E and/or canola oil on complete blood count and on NK cell cytotoxicity from blood lymphocytes of Nellore bulls. Bulls that received selenium plus vitamin E had (P=0.0091) higher NK cell cytotoxicity than control bulls. This result positively correlated with serum selenium levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed immunostimulatory effects of selenium plus vitamin E on NK cell cytotoxicity of Nellore bulls.(AU)

Vários estudos demonstraram que antioxidantes, ácidos graxos e minerais podem modular a atividade de diferentes células do sistema imunológico e que as suas carências podem estar associadas a doenças e a respostas imunes comprometidas. Na imunidade inata, os linfócitos natural killer (NK) têm um papel central matando células infectadas por vírus e células cancerígenas, ao mesmo tempo em que também secretam citocinas que modulam as respostas imunes adaptativas. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de dietas enriquecidas em selênio e vitamina E e/ou óleo de canola no hemograma e na citotoxicidade das células NK do sangue de bovinos da raça Nelore. Os animais que receberam selênio e vitamina E tiveram (P = 0,0091) maior citotoxicidade das células NK do que os animais do grupo controle. Este resultado foi positivamente correlacionado com os níveis de selênio no sangue. Para o melhor do nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo que mostrou efeitos imunoestimulatórios do selênio e vitamina E sobre a citotoxicidade das células NK de bovinos Nelore.(AU)

Animals , Cattle , Selenium/administration & dosage , Vitamin E/administration & dosage , Killer Cells, Lymphokine-Activated/drug effects , Cytotoxins/analysis , Trace Elements/analysis , Immunization/veterinary , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Diet/veterinary
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-724673


Although the hydrozoan Olindias sambaquiensis is the most common jellyfish associated with human envenomation in southeastern and southern Brazil, information about the composition of its venom is rare. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze pharmacological aspects of O. sambaquiensis venom as well as clinical manifestations observed in affected patients. Crude protein extracts were prepared from the tentacles of animals; peptides and proteins were sequenced and submitted to circular dichroism spectroscopy. Creatine kinase, cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity were evaluated by specific methods.

Animals , Anemia, Hemolytic , Cytotoxins/analysis , Poisoning , Cnidarian Venoms/analysis
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950761


BACKGROUND: The current era is facing challenges in the management of neoplasia and weeds control. The currently available anti-cancer and herbicidal drugs are associated with some serious side effects. Therefore numerous researchers are trying to discover and develop plant based alternative particularly for the rational management of cancer and weed control. Teucrium stocksianum possess antioxidant and analgesic activities. The current study was designed to evaluate crude saponins (CS), methanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum for cytotoxic and phytotoxic potentials. CS, methanolic extract and sub-fractions were extracted from powdered plant material using different solvents. Cytotoxic potential of the extracts at a dose of 10, 100 and 1000 µg/ml were evaluated against Brine shrimp's nauplii. Phytotoxic assay also performed at the same concentration against Lemna minor. Etoposide and Paraquat were used as positive controls in cytotoxic and phytotoxic assays respectively. RESULTS: The percent yield of crude saponins was (5%). CS demonstrated tremendous brine shrimp lethality showing < 10 µg/ml LC50. The n-hexane (HF) and chloroform fractions (CF) demonstrated excellent cytotoxicity with 80 and 55 µg/ml LC50 respectively. Whereas the methanolic extract (TSME), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous fractions (AF) revealed moderate cytotoxicity showing 620, 860 and 1000 µg/ml LC50 values respectively. In phytotoxic assay profound inhibition was displayed by HF (96.67%) and TSME (95.56%, 30 µg/ml LC50) against the growth of Lemna minor at 1000 µg/ml respectively. Both CF and EAF demonstrated profound phytoxicity (93.33%) respectively at highest concentration (1000 µg/ml), while AF and CS demonstrated weak phytotoxicity with 1350 and 710 µg/ml LC50 values respectively. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays indicated that the crude saponins, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of T. stocksianum could play a vital role in the treatment of neoplasia and as potential natural herbicides. Therefore these sub-fractions are recommended for further investigation with the aim to isolate novel anti-cancer and herbicidal compounds.

Animals , Saponins/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Teucrium/chemistry , Pakistan , Artemia/drug effects , Saponins/toxicity , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Araceae/classification , Araceae/drug effects , Cytotoxins/analysis , Teucrium/classification , Teucrium/toxicity , Methanol , Hexanes , Lethal Dose 50 , Medicine, Traditional/methods
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 635-642, 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-664015


A infusão das folhas de Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), conhecida como tansagem ou transagem, é usada como antibiótica, antiinflamatória, anti-séptica, anti-térmica, na prevenção de tumores e no tratamento de neoplasias. Este efeito é atribuído aos flavonóides encontrados em diversas espécies do gênero Plantago. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar os potenciais efeitos, tóxico e mutagênico, do extrato bruto hidroalcoólico de folhas de P. major, por meio dos testes in vivo de Allium cepa e do micronúcleo. Para o ensaio biológico vegetal, meristemas de raízes de A. cepa foram usados para o preparo de lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. No ensaio do micronúcleo foram analisadas lâminas de células de medula óssea de roedores. As análises estatísticas seguiram o teste de Tukey (p<0,05) para o ensaio de Allium cepa e teste de Scott-Knott (p<0,05) para o ensaio do micronúcleo. Os resultados do teste de Allium cepa demonstram que houve redução significativa no índice de germinação em todas as concentrações testadas. P. major provoca alteração no ciclo celular pela inibição da divisão das células, como indica o índice mitótico. Os índices de efeitos clastogênico e aneugênico demonstram que, além de não determinar aumento de aberrações cromossômicas, o que indica ausência de ação genotóxica, P. major possui atividade anti-genotóxica. Os resultados do teste do micronúcleo reforçam a sugestão de que o extrato de P.major não possui atividade mutagênica, entretanto provoca alterações na divisão celular.

The infusion of leaves of Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), known as "tansagem" or "transagem", is used as antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, anti-thermal in the prevention of tumors and in the treatment of neoplasms. This effect is attributed to the flavonoids found in diverse species of the genus Plantago. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential toxic and mutagenic effects of the crude hydroalcoholic extract from P. major leaves by means of in vivo tests with Allium cepa and micronucleus. For the plant biological assay, meristems of A. cepa roots were used for the preparation of slides by adopting the crushing technique. In the micronucleus assay, slides of bone marrow cells from rodents were analyzed. Statistical analyses were carried out according to Tukey's test (ρ<0.05) for the Allium cepa assay and Scott-Knott test (ρ<0.05) for the micronucleus assay. Results of the A. cepa test demonstrate that there was a significant reduction in the germination index at all tested concentrations. P. major causes alteration in the cell cycle by inhibiting the division of cells, as indicated by the mitotic index. The indexes of clastogenic and aneugenic effects show that, in addition to not determining the increase in chromosomal aberrations, which indicates the absence of genotoxic action, P. major has anti-genotoxic activity. Results of the micronucleus test reinforce the suggestion that P. major extract does not have mutagenic activity but causes alterations in the cell division.

Cytotoxins/analysis , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Genotoxicity , Mutagenesis , Onions , Plantaginaceae/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 12(4): 406-413, out.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-578980


A Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae), conhecida como gravatá ou caraguatá, apresenta características medicinais, alimentícias e ornamentais. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as atividades antifúngica, antibacteriana, citotóxica, moluscicida e antioxidante de extratos alcoólicos das folhas e frutos desta espécie. Na avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana pelo método de microdiluição os extratos alcoólicos não foram eficientes frente à cepa referência do fungo Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), cepas clínicas de C. albicans e C. glabrata, e frente às bactérias S. aureus (ATCC 6538), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) e E. coli (ATCC 8739). A atividade citotóxica, avaliada pelo bioensaio de toxicidade sobre náuplios de Artemia salina Leach (TAS), foi positiva para ambos extratos, com valores de DL50 variando em torno de 620 µg mL-1 e 360 µg mL-1, para os extratos alcoólicos dos frutos e das folhas, respectivamente. A atividade moluscicida, avaliada frente a caramujos da espécie Biomphalaria glabrata (Molusca, Gastropoda), não mostrou toxicidade aguda para soluções de 400 µg mL-1. As propriedades antioxidantes dos extratos investigadas in vitro mediante o método de DPPH• foram consideradas modestas (~ 35 por cento de inibição na concentração de 1000 µg mL-1). Dentre as atividades biológicas que foram testadas a atividade citotóxica foi a mais pronunciada.

Bromelia antiacantha Bertol. (Bromeliaceae), popularly known as "gravatá" or "caraguatá", shows medicinal, nutritional and ornamental properties. In the present study, the alcoholic extracts of leaves and fruits of this species were evaluated for antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic, molluscicidal and antioxidant activities. The alcoholic extracts evaluated by microdilution method were not efficient against the standard strain of Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), clinical strains of C. albicans and C. glabrata, and S. aureus (ATCC 6538), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 9027) and E. coli (ATCC 8739). The cytotoxic activity evaluated by toxicity bioassay on nauplii of Artemia salina Leach (TAS) was positive for both extracts, with LD50 values ranging around 620 µg mL-1 and 360 µg mL-1 for alcoholic extracts from leaves and fruits, respectively. The molluscicidal activity evaluated against Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) did not present acute toxicity for 400 µg mL-1 solutions. The antioxidant properties of the extracts investigated in vitro using the DPPH• method were considered modest (~ 35 percent of inhibition at 1000 µg mL-1). Among the evaluated biological activities, cytotoxic activity was the most marked.

Antioxidants/analysis , Bromelia , Cytotoxins/analysis , Molluscacides/analysis , Products with Antimicrobial Action , Plant Extracts/biosynthesis , Plants, Medicinal
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 46(4): 687-694, Oct.-Dec. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622868


Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, 1910 is a small tree, distributed widely throughout the Cerrado region of Brazil and named "barbatimão" by the Tupi-Guarani tribes, which presents astringent properties. Its ethnopharmacological uses comprise, among others, anti-inflammatory and wound healing action, and it is used in the treatment of diarrhea and gynecological problems. The phytotherapeutic use of 'barbatimão' is largely related to its tannin content, which is abundant in its bark. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic potential of the lyophilized solution of the stem bark of S. adstringens, using the Ames test, the SOS-Inductest and the SOS-Chromotest. S. adstringens presented cytotoxic activity in all tested systems, did not present mutagenic activity detectable by the Ames test and SOS-Chromotest, and showed some genotoxic effect on the SOS-Inductest. However, the metabolization of the extract by S9 fraction attenuated its genotoxic and cytotoxic activities.

Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville, 1910 é uma pequena árvore amplamente distribuída nas regiões de cerrado do Brasil, chamada de "barbatimão" pelas tribos Tupi-Guarani, que apresenta propriedade adstringente. Seu uso etnofarmacológico compreende, entre outros, efeitos antiinflamatório e cicatrizante, sendo empregada no tratamento de diarréias e problemas ginecológicos. Grande parte das aplicações do fitoterápico de barbatimão está relacionada aos taninos, abundantes em sua casca. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os potenciais citotóxico, mutagênico e genotóxico da solução liofilizada da casca de S. adstringens, utilizando Teste de Ames, SOS-Induteste e SOS-Cromoteste. S. adstringens apresentou atividade citotóxica em todos os sistemas testados, não apresentou atividade mutagênica detectável pelo teste de Ames e SOS-Cromoteste e mostrou certo efeito genotóxico no SOS-Induteste. Porém, a metabolização do extrato pela fração S9 atenuou suas atividades genotóxica e citotóxica.

Plant Structures/toxicity , Plant Extracts , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/analysis , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/adverse effects , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/toxicity , Cytotoxins/analysis , Cytotoxins/toxicity , Genotoxicity/analysis , Mutagenesis , Mutagenesis/genetics , Phytotherapeutic Drugs
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(3): 3-4, July 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-551881


Eighty-four marine gliding bacteria were isolated from specimens collected in the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. All exhibited gliding motility and swarm colonies on cultivation plates and they were purified by subculturing and micromanipulator techniques. Their 16S rRNA genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the represented isolates can be separated into six different clads (gr 1 - gr 6) within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteriodes (CFB) group. Group 1 formed a remote linear, with only 90 percent sequence similarity, from Flavobacteriaceae bacterium which indicated a potentially novel taxonomic group. Groups 2 and 3 were identified as the recently proposed Tenacibaculum mesophilum and Fulvivirga kasyanovii respectively. Groups 4, 5 and 6, consisting of the largest number of the members, were identified as Rapidithrix thailandica, Aureispira marina and Aureispira maritima respectively. The isolates were cultivated in four different cultivation media (Vy/2, RL 1, CY and SK) and the crude extracts were submitted to screen cytotoxicity using a sulphorodamine B (SRB) assay. The results from cytotoxic screening showed that groups 2, 4 and 6 were capable of producing the cytotoxic metabolites against selected human cell lines (breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), colon cancer (HT-29), cervical cancer (HeLa) and oral cancer (KB)). However, groups 1, 3 and 5 did not produce metabolites with cytotoxicity when cultivated in the same cultivation media as the previous groups. CY medium was the only cultivation medium which could yield the cytotoxic metabolites against MCF-7.

Bacteria/cytology , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Cytotoxins/biosynthesis , Cytotoxins , Cytophaga/cytology , Cytophaga/pathogenicity , Flavobacterium/cytology , Flavobacterium/pathogenicity , Cytotoxins/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thailand
Rev. costarric. cienc. méd ; 20(3/4): 141-52, jul.-dic. 1999. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-297269


Leucocitos polimorfonucleares neutrófilos (PMN) sufrieron aumento en su volumen celular medio (VCM) cuando se expusieron a sobrenadantes hemolíticos como fuente de alfa hemolisina (HIyA) de Escherichia coli, una citotoxina que se inserta en la membrana celular y forma poros hidrofílicos, que permiten la redistribución de cationes a través de la membrana y ulterior movimiento de agua hacia el interior de la célula. En este estudio se cuantificó el incremento en VCM causado por HIy A, el cual fue proporcional a la dosis hemolítica, y se estableció que al no adicionar calcio a la suspensión de PMN, el incremento en VCM fue más pronunciado, lo que indica un efecto protector del calcio extracelular ante el efecto de HIy A. Tanto el ionóforo de calcio A23187 como HIy A disminuyeron la granularidad citoplásmatica de PMN, lo que sugiere que el flujo de calcio hacia el citosol a través de los poros formados por HIy A puede alterar de manera importante la fisiología de PMN, probablemente interferir con la función fagocitaria y amplificar la respuesta inflamatoria a la bacteria hemolítica (Rev Cost Cienc Med 1999; 20(3,4): 141-152) Palabras clave: Escherichia coli, alfa hemolisina, leucocitos polimorfonucleares neutrófilos

Humans , Calcium/analysis , Cell Membrane , Cell Physiological Phenomena , Cell Size , Cytotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli O157 , Hemolysin Proteins , Leukocytes , Neutrophils , Costa Rica
Rev. microbiol ; 26(4): 267-73, out.-dez. 1995. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-169913


A frequência de isolamento de Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC), verotoxigênica (VTEC) e necrotizante (NTEC) foi determinada em 167 crianças com diarréia de uma área central do Brasil. Cepas de E. colli produtoras de verotoxina (VT), fator citotóxico necrotizante (CNF) e enterotoxina termo lábil (LT) foram encontradas, respectivamente, em 3 por cento, 3,6 por cento e 7,2 por cento dos casos. As cepas de E. coli foram também testadas quanto à capacidade de induzir hemaglutinaçäo manose resistente (MRHA) de eritrócitos humanos e bovinos. Cepas MRHA+ foram observadas em 42 por cento dos casos e os fatores de colonizaçäo I e II foram identificados em 32 por cento dos casos MRHA+. Após longo período de estocagem e temperatura ambiente, a estabilidade dos fatores de virulência produzidos por 28 cepas selecionadas foram reavaliados. A produçäo de citotoxinas foi mantida em 3 de 5 cepas VT+ e em 5 de 6 cepas CNF+. A expressäo de LT foi mantida em 9 de 12 cepas LT+. De 23 cepas CFA+ somente 7 mantiveram o padräo de hemaglutinaçäo. Expressäo de ST foi detectada em 4 cepas. Usando o método de hibridizaçäo de colônias além das 4 cepas que expressaram ST, outras 4 cepas ST+ foram detectadas. O genótipo LT foi encontrado em 11 das cepas selecionadas. Em conclusäo, através do estudo de cepas NTEC foram identificadas pela primeira vez no Brasil. Este estudo também confirma a grande importância das condiçöes de estocagem para a detecçäo de fatores de virulência de ETEC e ainda mostra que VTEC e NTEC podem perder a capacidade de produzir citotoxinas após longos períodos de estocagem

Humans , Child , Cytotoxins/analysis , Diarrhea, Infantile/microbiology , Enterotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Virulence/immunology