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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2193-2200, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142305


Among the immune system cells, macrophages have an important role. Apamin, a bee venom constituent, is important in the defense of these insects. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the metabolism of J774 1.6 macrophage cell line when exposed to isolated and purified apamin, using cytotoxicity tests by MTT reduction and analysis by flow cytometry (apoptosis / necrosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membranous lipoperoxidation (LPO), electrical potential of the mitochondrial membrane (mMP) and DNA fragmentation). None of the tested concentrations (10 to 100µg/mL) were cytotoxic according to MTT reductions. Apoptosis rates decreased at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0µg/mL (P<0.05), while necrosis rates increased (P<0.05). However, rates of healthy cells at the highest tested concentration (10µg/mL) did not differ from control (P>0.05). Apamin did not alter ROS, LPO, or DNA fragmentation. Therefore, all analyzed concentrations (1.25 to 10µg/mL) decreased mMP. Such decrease in apoptosis might be due to a suppression of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic messengers, as this peptide causes no oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Highly sensitive techniques are majorly important for proper interpretation of cellular toxicity mechanisms, combined with routine laboratory methods.(AU)

Das células do sistema imunológico, macrófagos desempenham um papel fundamental. Apamina, constituinte do veneno de abelhas, é importante na defesa destas. Objetivou-se avaliar o metabolismo da linhagem de macrófagos J774 1.6 expostos à apamina isolada e purificada, avaliando-se citotoxicidade por redução de MTT e análise por citometria de fluxo (apoptose / necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), lipoperoxidação membranosa (LPO), potencial elétrico da membrana mitocondrial (MMP) e fragmentação do DNA). Nenhuma concentração testada (10 a 100µg / mL) foi citotóxica. As taxas de apoptose diminuíram nas concentrações 2,5, 5,0 e 10,0µg / mL (P<0,05), enquanto as de necrose aumentaram (P<0,05). Entretanto, as taxas de células saudáveis na maior concentração testada (10µg / mL) não diferiram do controle (P>0,05). A apamina não alterou as ERO, a LPO nem a fragmentação do DNA. Portanto, todas as concentrações analisadas (1,25 a 10µg / mL) diminuíram a mMP. Tal diminuição na apoptose pode ser por uma supressão de mensageiros pró-apoptóticos mitocondriais, já que este peptídeo não causa estresse oxidativo, peroxidação lipídica nem dano ao DNA. Técnicas altamente sensíveis são importantes para adequada interpretação dos mecanismos de citotoxicidade.(AU)

Apamin/toxicity , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Macrophages/metabolism , Mitochondria , Reactive Oxygen Species , Flow Cytometry
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 161-165
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135189


Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, commonly known as Shiitake mushroom has been used as medicinal food in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan and is believed to possess strong immunomodulatory property. In the present study, the methanolic extract of the fruit bodies of L. edodes was investigated for cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by measuring the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) . H2O2 at a concentration of 5 μM caused 50% inhibition of PBMCs viability. The extract improved the PBMC viability and exerted a dose-dependent protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. At 100 μg/ml of extract concentration, the cell viability increased by 60% compared with the PBMCs incubated with H2O2 alone. The extract also inhibited XO activity in PBMC, while showing moderate stimulatory effect on GPx. However, in the presence of H2O2 alone, both the enzyme activities were increased significantly. The GPx activity increased, possibly in response to the increased availability of H2O2 in the cell. When the cells were pretreated with the extract and washed (to remove the extract) prior to the addition of H2O2, the GPx and XO activities as well as the cell viability were comparable to those when incubated with the extract alone. Thus, it is suggested that one of the possible mechanisms via which L. edodes methanolic extract confers protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PBMC is by inhibiting the superoxide-producing XO and increasing GPx activity which could rapidly inactivate H2O2.

Cell Survival/drug effects , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/enzymology , Methanol/chemistry , Shiitake Mushrooms/chemistry , Xanthine Oxidase/metabolism
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37368


Arsenic, a naturally ocurring chemical element, is considered hazardous to human health. Inorganic arsenic compounds were found to induce cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster V-79 cells in culture. The arsenite form was more toxic than arsenate. Extracts of green and two varieties of black tea, as well as their principal polyphenols, (-)-epigallocatechingallate and theaflavin, efficiently counteracted the cytotoxic effects of arsenic compounds. On the basis of the amount of tea extract that afforded 50% protection to the cells from arsenic induced cytotoxicity, black tea was found to be as effective as green tea. The protective effect was attributable to the contents of not only (-)-epigallocatechingallate but also of theaflavin, the latter being a predominant polyphenol present in black tea.

Animals , Arsenic/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Line, Tumor , Chemoprevention , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Male , Tea
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 239-242, 2002.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198788


Vibrio vulnificus cytolysin (VVC) has been implicated as one of the important virulence determinants of V. vulnificus that causes serious septicemia and wound infection. An attempt was made to investigate that VVC could act as a ligand which stimulates intracellular signaling systems. Cholesterol dose-dependently blocked VVC hemolytic activity through oli-gomerization of cytolysin. Among cholesterol derivatives including 7-dehydrocholesterol, cholesteryl esters, deoxycholate, and cholestane tested, only 7-dehydrocholesterol induced oligomerization as well as inactivation of VVC. These results show that oligomerization of VVC is completely dependent on three-dimensional structure of cholesterol where specific interaction of cholesterol at oligomerization sites of VVC is very selective. These findings support the idea that cholesterol which constitute many of cellular plasma membrane could be a receptor of VVC on plasma membrane of target cells.

Animals , Mice , Bacterial Toxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cholesterol/chemistry , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Dehydrocholesterols/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Hemolysis/drug effects , Molecular Structure , Signal Transduction , Substrate Specificity , Vibrio/chemistry