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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 917-927, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153455

ABSTRACT

Abstract The trahira or wolf fish - Hoplias malabaricus- is a valid species, although recent cytogenetic and molecular studies have indicated the existence of a species complex. In this context, the present study analyzed the mitochondrial COI marker to determine the levels of genetic diversity of specimens from the Brazilian state of Maranhão, and verify the occurrence of distinct lineages within the study area. Samples were collected from the basins of the Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru, and Parnaíba rivers. A 630-bp fragment was obtained from 211 specimens, with 484 conserved and 108 variable sites, and 60 haplotypes (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). The phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of three distinct lineages of H. malabaricus from Maranhão. Genetic distances of 1.5-8.2% were found between all the populations analyzed, while the variation between haplogroups ranged from 2.1% to 7.7%. The AMOVA indicated that most of the molecular variation was found among groups, with high FST values. The high levels of genetic variability found in the present study are supported by the available cytogenetic data. These findings reinforce the need for the development of effective programs of conservation and management independently for each river basin, in order to preserve the genetic variability found in this taxon.


Resumo A traíra - Hoplias malabaricus- é uma espécie válida, embora recentes estudos citogenéticos e moleculares tenham indicado a existência de um complexo de espécies. Neste contexto, o presente estudo analisou o marcador mitocondrial COI para determinar os níveis de diversidade genética dos espécimes do estado do Maranhão e verificar a ocorrência de linhagens distintas dentro da área de estudo. As amostras foram coletadas nas bacias dos rios Turiaçu, Pindaré, Mearim, Itapecuru e Parnaíba. As análises filogenéticas indicaram a existência de três linhagens distintas nas populações do Maranhão. Obteve-se um fragmento de 630 pb de 211 espécimes, com 484 sítios conservados, 108 variáveis e 60 haplótipos (Hd = 0,947; π = 0,033). As análises filogenéticas indicaram a ocorrência de três linhagens distintas de H. malabaricus do Maranhão. Distâncias genéticas de 1.5 a 8.2% foram encontradas entre todas as populações analisadas, enquanto a variação entre os haplogrupos variou de 2.1% a 7.7%. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação molecular foi entre os grupos, com altos valores de FST. Os altos níveis de variabilidade genética encontrados no presente estudo são suportados pelos dados citogenéticos disponíveis. Essas descobertas reforçam a necessidade de desenvolver programas de conservação e manejo independentemente para cada bacia hidrográfica, a fim de preservar a variabilidade genética encontrada neste táxon.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Characiformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Rivers
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1054-1060, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153441

ABSTRACT

Abstract One aquatic coleopteran species from family Dytiscidae and two aquatic coleopteran genera from family Hydrophilidae were recorded in the summer period and represent first records in the Egyptian lakes. Beetles were collected from two northern lakes, Lake Idku and Lake Burullus. They were identified by morphological characteristics as well as the mtDNA barcoding method. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to determine the genetic identity of the collected samples based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) from Egypt showed no significant difference in the COI region and they are highly similar to P. servillianus from Madagascar. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the other two coleopteran genera belong to family Hydrophilidae. Based on COI only, there is no clear evidence for their genetic identity at the species level. So, we defined them to the closest taxon and denoted them as Cymbiodyta type A and B. The results indicated that resolving the molecular identity of the aquatic beetles from northern lakes of Egypt need more considerations in the field of biological conservation. We concluded that utilization of COI as a barcoding region for identifying some coleopteran species is not sufficient and additional molecular markers are required to uncover the molecular taxonomy at deep levels.


Resumo Uma espécie de coleópteros aquático da família Dytiscidae e dois gêneros de coleópteros aquáticos da família Hydrophilidae foram registrados no período de verão e representam os primeiros registros nos lagos egípcios. Os besouros foram coletados em dois lagos do norte, o lago Idku e o lago Burullus, e identificados por características morfológicas e pelo método de código de barras mtDNA. Uma abordagem filogenética molecular foi usada para determinar a identidade genética das amostras coletadas com base no citocromo oxidase I mitocondrial (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) do Egito não mostrou diferença significativa na região COI e é altamente semelhante a P. servillianus de Madagascar. A análise filogenética revelou que os outros dois gêneros de coleópteros pertencem à família Hydrophilidae. Com base apenas no COI, não há evidências claras de sua identidade genética no nível da espécie. Assim, nós os agrupamos no táxon mais próximo e os denominamos Cymbiodyta tipo A e B. Os resultados indicaram que a identidade molecular dos besouros aquáticos dos lagos do norte do Egito precisa de mais considerações no campo da conservação biológica. Concluímos que a utilização de COI como região de código de barras para identificar algumas espécies de coleópteros não é suficiente, sendo necessários marcadores moleculares adicionais para descobrir a taxonomia molecular em níveis profundos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Egypt
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 584-591, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153386

ABSTRACT

Abstract The flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) also familiar with the name of the greater Indian fruit Bat belongs to the order Chiroptera and family Pteropodidae. Current research emphasis on the DNA barcoding of P. giganteus in Azad Jammu Kashmir. Bat sequences were amplified and PCR products were sequenced and examined by bioinformatics software. Congeneric and conspecific, nucleotide composition and K2P nucleotide deviation, haplotype diversity and the number of haplotypes were estimated. The analysis showed that all of the five studied samples of P. giganteus had low G contents (G 19.8%) than C (27.8%), A (25.1%) and T (27.3%) contents. The calculated haplotype diversity was 0.60% and the mean intraspecific K2P distance was 0.001% having a high number of transitional substitutions. The study suggested that P. giganteus (R=0.00) do not deviate from the neutral evolution. It was determined from the conclusion that this mtDNA gene is a better marker for identification of Bat species than nuclear genes due to its distinctive characteristics and may serve as a landmark for the identification of interconnected species at the molecular level and in the determination of population genetics.


Resumo A raposa-voadora (Pteropus giganteus), também conhecida como morcego indiano, pertence à ordem dos Chiroptera e à família Pteropodidae. A presente pesquisa dá ênfase ao código de barras de DNA de P. giganteus em Azad Jammu e Caxemira. Sequências genéticas dos morcegos foram amplificadas, e os produtos de PCR foram sequenciados e examinados por software de bioinformática. De espécies congenérica e coespecífica, foram estimados composição nucleotídica e desvio de nucleotídeos K2P, diversidade de haplótipos e número de haplótipos. A análise mostrou que todas as cinco amostras estudadas de P. giganteus apresentaram baixos teores de G (19,8%) em comparação com C (27,8%), A (25,1%) e T (27,3%). A diversidade de haplótipos calculada foi de 0,60%, e a distância média intraespecífica de K2P foi de 0,001%, com um elevado número de substituições transicionais. O estudo sugeriu que P. giganteus (R = 0,00) não se desviou da evolução neutra. É possível concluir que o gene mtDNA é um marcador favorável para identificação de espécies de morcegos do que genes nucleares por causa de suas características distintivas e pode servir como um marco para a identificação de espécies interconectadas em nível molecular e para a determinação genética de populações.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/genetics , Pakistan , Haplotypes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
4.
Acta amaz ; 51(2): 139-144, jun. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353416

ABSTRACT

O DNA barcoding propõe que um fragmento de DNA possa servir para identificar espécies. Em peixes, um fragmento do gene COI tem se mostrado eficaz em muitos estudos com focos diferentes. Nós usamos essa ferramenta molecular para fornecer novas informações sobre a diversidade críptica encontrada no complexo de espécies Hoplias malabaricus. Popularmente conhecida como traíra, H. malabaricus tem uma ampla distribuição na América do Sul. Esse clado mostra diversidade molecular e citogenética, e vários estudos dão suporte à ocorrência de um complexo de espécies. Realizamos análises molecular e cariotípica em indivíduos de H. malabaricus de oito localidades amazônicas, para acessar a diversidade no taxon nominal e elucidar as relações nesse grupo. Usamos 12 amostras em análises citogenéticas e encontramos dois cariomorfos: 2n = 40 (20m + 20sm) (cariomorfo C) e 2n = 42 (22m + 20sm) (cariomorfo A). Usamos 19 amostras em análise molecular, utilizando COI como marcador molecular, análises de máxima verossimilhança e o modelo evolutivo de Kimura-2-parâmetros com estimativa de bootstrap. Encontramos diferenciação relacionada aos cariomorfos com bootstrap de 100%. No entanto, encontramos alta diversidade molecular no cariomorfo C. O padrão observado nos permitiu inferir a presença de diversidade oculta, reforçando a existência de um complexo de espécies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Erythrinus , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Karyotype
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(2): 177-194, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342220

ABSTRACT

Putre ́s oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a variety of oregano that grown in the Arica-Parinacota Region. Its organoleptic attributes and unique production conditions have earned it a certification with Geographical Indication (GI). However, the demands of the markets require a scientific-technological support for identification and authentication of materials. In this context, was proposed to identify Putre's oregano by phylogenetic relationships based on the use of molecular markers SSR and "DNA Barcode". The results showed that when comparing materials from different sources of Putre ́s oregano versus information from certified germplasms and GenBank sequences, added to the analysis with nuclear genetic markers, Putre ́s oregano corresponds to the species Origanum vulgare L. subsp virens. This precise identification will support the correct differentiation and authentication of this genotype, serving in addition to supporting the GI.


El orégano de Putre (Origanum vulgare L.) es una variedad de orégano que se cultiva en la Región de Arica y Parinacota. Sus atributos organolépticos y condiciones únicas de producción lo han hecho acreedor de una certificación con Indicación Geográfica (IG). Sin embargo, las exigencias de los mercados requieren de un respaldo científico-tecnológico de identificación y autenticación de materiales. En este contexto, se propuso identificar el orégano de Putre mediante relaciones filogenéticas a partir del uso de marcadores moleculares SSR y "DNA Barcode". Los resultados demostraron que al comparar los materiales de distintas procedencias de orégano de Putre versus la información desde germoplasmas certificados y secuencias de GenBank, sumado al análisis con marcadores genéticos nucleares, el orégano de Putre corresponde a la especie Origanum vulgare L. subsp virens. Esta identificación precisa dará soporte a la correcta diferenciación y autenticación de este genotipo, sirviendo además de apoyo a la IG.


Subject(s)
Microsatellite Repeats , Origanum/genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny , Chile
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790

ABSTRACT

Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Humans , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 258-267, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153355

ABSTRACT

The ichthyofauna diversity of the Jebba Hydroelectric Power (HEP) Dam, Jebba, North-central Nigeria was studied. Fishes were sampled for 24 months using gill net, hook and line, and cast net. Individuals were identified using morphological and molecular (mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I) data. A total of 9605 freshwater fishes were recorded during the sampling period. The use of an integrative taxonomic approach enabled the identification of 83 species belonging to 42 genera. Additionally, the study recorded three unidentified species ­ Ctenopoma sp, Malapterurus sp., and Protopterus sp. Analyses showed that individuals belonging to families Cichlidae and Mochokidae dominated the dam. The diversity analyses revealed relatively high fish diversity during the rainy season at the downstream section of Jebba HEP dam compared to the upstream section. The study, therefore, showed the presence of a diverse fish community comprising high species richness and diversity across the Jebba HEP dam. Finally, we recommend proper biodiversity monitoring and assessment of freshwater fish diversity across Nigeria. In addition, the use of an integrated taxonomic approach is recommended for appropriate species' identification and studies of freshwater fishes from Nigeria.


A diversidade da ictiofauna da hidrelétrica de Jebba (HEP), Jebba, centro-norte da Nigéria foi estudada. Os peixes foram amostrados por 24 meses, utilizando rede de emalhar, anzol e linha, e rede de arrasto. Os indivíduos foram identificados usando a abordagem combinada morfológica e molecular (citocromo c Oxidase mitocondrial subunidade I). Um total de 9605 peixes de água doce foram registrados durante o período de amostragem. A identificação das espécies utilizando a abordagem taxonômica integrada possibilitou a identificação de 83 espécies pertencentes a 42 gêneros. Além disso, o estudo registrou três espécies não identificadas - Ctenopoma sp, Malapterurus sp e Protopterus sp. Análises mostraram que indivíduos pertencentes às famílias Cichlidae e Mochokidae dominaram a barragem. As análises dos índices de diversidade revelaram uma diversidade de peixes relativamente alta durante a estação chuvosa na seção a jusante da barragem Jebba HEP em comparação com a seção a montante. O estudo mostrou, portanto, a presença de diversas comunidades de peixes, que incluem alta riqueza e diversidade de espécies através da barragem Jebba HEP. Finalmente, recomendamos o monitoramento adequado da biodiversidade e a avaliação da diversidade de peixes de água doce em toda a Nigéria. Além disso, recomenda-se o uso de abordagem taxonômica integrada para a identificação adequada das espécies e estudos de peixes de água doce da Nigéria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Catfishes/genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/veterinary , Fishes , Seasons , Hydroelectric Power Plants (Environmental Health) , Biodiversity , Fresh Water , Nigeria
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879175

ABSTRACT

Resina Draconis, a rare and precious traditional medicine in China, is known as the "holy medicine for promoting blood circulation". According to the national drug standard, it's derived from the resin extracted from the wood of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Liliaceae plant. In addition, a variety of Dracaena species all over the world can form red resins, and there is currently no molecular identification method that can efficiently identify the origin of Dracaena medicinal materials. In this study, seven species of Dracaena distributed in China were selected as the research objects. Four commonly used DNA barcodes(ITS2, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH), and four highly variable regions(trnP-psaJ, psbK-psbI, trnT-trnL, clpP) in chloroplast genome were used to evaluate the identification efficiency of Dracaena species. The results showed that clpP sequence fragment could accurately identify seven species of Dracaena plants. However, due to the long sequence of clpP fragment, there were potential problems in the practical application process. We found that the combined fragment "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" can also be used for accurate molecular identification of the Resina Draconis origin plants and relative species of Dracaena, which were both relatively short sequences in the combined fragment, showing high success rates of amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" combined fragment can be used as the DNA barcode fragments for molecular identification of Resina Dracon's origin plants and relative species of Dracaena. Research on the identification of Dracaena species, the results of this study can be used to accurately identify the original material of Resina Draconis, and providing effective means for identification, rational development and application of Resina Draconis base source.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Dracaena/genetics , Plants , Resins, Plant , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 300-313, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116300

ABSTRACT

Every 3 to 7 year angiosperms species of the flowering desert appear in the Atacama Region of Chile, as a result of the climatic phenomenon "El Niño". Our objective was to evaluate the universality of matK and rbcL barcode markers of these species, and validate their taxon through phylogenetic relationships. Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii and Adesmia eremophila, almost all classified as endemic to Chile, were collected in Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Park (Atacama Region, Chile) at the end of October 2017. The phylogeny of these ten angiosperm species from the flowering desert was analyzed using rbcL and matK markers with the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The results showed that 70% of the species can be distinguished with the matK or rbcL locus, however, 100% were distinguished using both loci. The phylogenetic results showed that the species formed clades with high reliability and high support with both the matK and rbcL genes, when comparing our results with sequences obtained from GenBank. The matK and rbcL genes are efficient markers for analyzing phylogenetic relationships and validating the taxonomy of flowering species.


Las especies de angiospermas del Desierto Florido de la Región de Atacama de Chile aparecen cada 3 a 7 años, influenciado por el fenómeno climático "El Niño". Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la universalidad de los marcadores de código de barra matK y rbcL de estas especies, y validar su taxón por medio de relaciones filogenéticas. Las especies Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii y Adesmia eremophila son clasificadas la mayoría endémicas de Chile. Estas especies fueron colectadas en el Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar y Llanos de Challe, Región de Atacama, Chile. La colecta se realizó a fines de octubre de 2017. Con los marcadores rbcL y matK se analizó la filogenia con los métodos máxima verosimilitud e inferencia bayesiana en diez especies de angiosperma del Desierto Florido. Los resultados mostraron que el 70% de las especies pueden ser distinguidas con un locus matK o rbcL, sin embargo, el 100% se distinguió usando ambos locus. Los resultados filogenéticos mostraron que las especies formaron clados con alta fiabilidad y alto soporte tanto con los genes matK y rbcL, al comparar con accesos de secuencias obtenidas de GenBank. Lo genes matK y rbcL son marcadores eficientes para analizar relaciones filogenéticas y validar el taxón de las especies de flor.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Plants/genetics , Desert , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase , Chile , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200504, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Biodiversity screens and phylogenetic studies are dependent on reliable DNA sequences in public databases. Biological collections possess vouchered specimens with a traceable history. Therefore, DNA sequencing of samples available at institutional collections can greatly contribute to taxonomy, and studies on evolution and biodiversity. METHODS We sequenced part of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and the SSU rRNA (V7/V8) genes from 102 trypanosomatid cultures, which are available on request at www.colprot.fiocruz.br. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this work was to use phylogenetic inferences, using the obtained DNA sequences and those from representatives of all Trypanosomatidae genera, to generate phylogenetic trees that can simplify new isolates screenings. FINDINGS A DNA sequence is provided for the first time for several isolates, the phylogenetic analysis allowed the classification or reclassification of several specimens, identification of candidates for new genera and species, as well as the taxonomic validation of several deposits. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This survey aimed at presenting a list of validated species and their associated DNA sequences combined with a short historical overview of each isolate, which can support taxonomic and biodiversity research and promote culture collections.


Subject(s)
Trypanosomatina/classification , Trypanosomatina/genetics , Biodiversity , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190112, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098407

ABSTRACT

Pacus of the genus Myloplus represent a formidable taxonomic challenge, and particularly so for the case of M. asterias and M. rubripinnis, two widespread and common species that harbor considerable morphological diversity. Here we apply DNA barcoding and multiple species discovery methods to find candidate species in this complex group. We report on one well-supported lineage that is also morphologically and ecologically distinct. This lineage represents a new species that can be distinguished from congeners by the presence of dark chromatophores on lateral-line scales, which gives the appearance of a black lateral line. It can be further diagnosed by having 25-29 branched dorsal-fin rays (vs. 18-24), 89-114 perforated scales from the supracleithrum to the end of hypural plate (vs. 56-89), and 98-120 total lateral line scales (vs. 59-97). The new species is widely distributed in the Amazon basin, but seems to have a preference for black- and clearwater habitats. This ecological preference and black lateral line color pattern bears a striking similarity to the recently described silver dollar Metynnis melanogrammus.(AU)


Pacus do gênero Myloplus representam um desafio taxonômico formidável, e particularmente o caso de M. asterias e M. rubripinnis, duas espécies amplamente distribuídas e comuns que abrigam uma considerável diversidade morfológica. Aplicamos aqui a tecnologia do DNA barcoding e múltiplos métodos de descoberta de espécies para encontrar possíveis espécies novas nesse grupo complexo. Registramos uma linhagem bem suportada que também é distinta morfológica e ecologicamente. Essa linhagem representa uma nova espécie que pode ser distinguida das demais congêneres por apresentar cromatóforos escuros nas escamas da linha lateral que conferem uma aparência de linha lateral preta. Ela pode ser adicionalmente diagnosticada por ter 25-29 raios ramificados na nadadeira dorsal (vs. 18-24), 89-114 escamas perfuradas do supracleitro até o final da placa hipural (vs. 56-89) e 98-120 escamas totais na linha lateral (vs. 59-97). A nova espécie é amplamente distribuída na bacia Amazônica, mas aparentemente possui preferência por habitats de água preta e clara. A preferência ecológica e o padrão de colorido escuro da linha lateral consistem em semelhanças impressionantes com o silver dólar recém descrito Metynnis melanogrammus.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Characiformes/anatomy & histology , Characiformes/classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
12.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 197-207, jul. - set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119039

ABSTRACT

Despite its importance in biogeographical, ecological, and commercial terms, the fish fauna of the northern Brazilian coast is still poorly known, representing the least sampled portion of the Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone. We collected Tonkin weakfish, Cynoscion similis specimens during extensive surveys of the northern Brazilian coast and concluded that C. similis is common in this region. While the species had not previously been reported for the northern Brazilian state of Pará, it may have been recorded in studies of industrial fisheries, being identified only as Cynoscion sp. or by the common name pescada negra. This reinforces the need for the reliable taxonomical identification of species, to guarantee the collection of accurate data on ecology and fisheries, and ultimately, support the development of effective conservation strategies. Here we provide additional morphological and molecular data to distinguish Cynoscion similis from the closely related Cynoscion jamaicensis, and other congeners. (AU)


Subject(s)
Fishing Industry , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 65 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248386

ABSTRACT

Gastrópodes continentais atuam como hospedeiros intermediários de nematódeos de interesse para a saúde humana e animal, como Angiostrongylus spp. e outros pertencentes à superfamília Metastrongyloidea. O procedimento de digestão artificial é comumente utilizado para recuperar larvas de nematódeos em moluscos. Entretanto, essas formas imaturas não apresentam desenvolvidos os caracteres morfológicos necessários à sua identificação taxonômica. Como o produto da digestão artificial é ácido e contém restos de tecido do molusco, também surgem dificuldades para realizar o diagnóstico molecular destas larvas. Estudos pilotos mostraram ineficiência no diagnóstico molecular devido a variações na qualidade da amostra, baixa concentração de DNA e baixa eficiência nas Reações em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprimorar o diagnóstico molecular de larvas de Angiostrongylus spp. obtidas de moluscos. Assim, inicialmente, foi padronizado um método de preparo das larvas (triagem das larvas com micropipeta, somado ao ajuste do pH com PBS 1X ). A partir destas amostras padronizadas quanto ao método de preparo, foram testados métodos de extração de DNA e diferentes iniciadores para a região do Citocromo c Oxidase subunidade I (COI). Foram utilizadas larvas L3 de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, A. costaricensis e A. vasorum provenientes de ciclos mantidos em laboratório.


Amostras do campo de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus também foram utilizadas para comparação. A importância do preparo da amostra foi testada através de reações de PCR realizadas em condições idênticas, com amostras padronizadas e não padronizadas quanto ao preparo. Quanto aos testes de extração, após a realização de pilotos com diferentes protocolos, foram selecionados para testes comparativos, até a etapa de sequenciamento, dois protocolos com choque térmico e um utilizando kit comercial. Estes foram avaliados quanto à quantidade de DNA, eficiência da amplificação, tempo de realização e qualidade da sequência. Em uma terceira etapa foram testados três diferentes iniciadores para o COI. Os resultados demonstraram que após uma lavagem com PBS o produto da digestão artificial torna-se neutro (pH 7,29 ± 0,13) e que estas amostras, devidamente triadas, apresentam taxa de amplificação 60% maior. Este passo mostrou-se essencial para o sucesso das demais etapas. As amostras que foram submetidas à extração de DNA com os três protocolos selecionados resultaram em um produto que permitiu a amplificação do fragmento do COI nas reações de PCR, apesar das baixas concentrações de DNA, tendo sido possível também o diagnóstico molecular, por sequenciamento de Sanger, de 100% dessas amostras.


Os protocolos com choque térmico apresentaram menor tempo de execução, custo e geração de resíduo químico. Os três iniciadores testados amplificaram com eficiência a região-alvo, viabilizando a identificação de Angiostrongylus spp. por sequenciamento. Os diferentes métodos de extração e iniciadores testados representam diferentes possibilidades para o diagnóstico de larvas de Angiostrongylus spp. e seu uso deverá levar em conta os recursos disponíveis (tempo e dinheiro) e o objetivo do estudo (diagnóstico ou pesquisa). A disponibilização de um protocolo eficiente e a possibilidade de redução dos custos no diagnóstico dos nematódeos associados a moluscos contribuem para incentivar as pesquisas na área e viabilizar estudos de vigilância epidemiológica e controle das angiostrongilíases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Pathology, Molecular , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Angiostrongylus , Nematoda
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773141

ABSTRACT

Cordyceps is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. There are various counterfeits in markets because of high price and limited output. In this study,116 Cordyceps,146 hosts and 29 related products were collected and detected by using normal DNA barcoding technology and specific PCR method. The results indicated that Cordyceps and its adulterants could be distinguished from each other through DNA barcoding technology based on ITS and COⅠsequences. Two pairs specific primers ITSSF1/ITSSR1 and ITSSF2/ITSSR2 were developed to amplify 297 bp and 136 bp ITS regions of Cordyceps sinensis,respectively. It could be used to identify C. sinensis specifically and rapidly. Furthermore,specific primers ITSSF1/ITSSR1 and ITSSF2/ITSSR2 combined with ITS and COⅠsequences could differentiate powder Cordyceps from fermentation mycelia and could identify related products. Therefore,the method developed from this study could be applied to identify the powder of Cordyceps from fermentation mycelia and related products efficiently.


Subject(s)
Cordyceps , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA Primers , Mycelium , Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777445

ABSTRACT

Metabarcoding technology is a research method derived from the combination of traditional DNA barcodes and highthroughput sequencing technologies. It can quickly,easily and efficiently identify and restore biological samples from multiple species.Biological species are currently widely used in environmental biology research. In the market of traditional Chinese medicines,adulteration and quality instability have severely restricted the sustainable development of the related industries. This article introduced the background of the metabarcoding technology and its preliminary application in the identification of Chinese patent medicines. It also outlined the possible problems in the research process and prospected to the development of the DNA metabarcoding technology.


Subject(s)
DNA , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs , Reference Standards
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777440

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode molecular biological technique is used to identify the species of 23 unknown Li minority medicinal plants.DNA was extracted from 23 unknown medicines using the Plant Genomic DNA Extraction kit. The ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. The Codon Code Aligner V 7. 0. 1 was used to proofread and assemble the contigs and generated consensus sequences. All the sequences were submitted to Traditional Chinese Medicine DNA Barcode Database and NCBI Gen Bank to get information of the species identifications. If the maximum similarity of the identification result is ≥ 97%,exact species can be known. If it is between 97% and 90%,samples' genus can be confirmed; If it is <90%,then we can only confirm its family. Finally there are 17 samples can be identified to species level,5 can be identified to genus level and 1 can be identified to family level. This shows that DNA barcoding used in medicinal plants molecular identification,can identify unknown species rapidly and accurately.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771525

ABSTRACT

DNA metabarcoding,one rapid and robust method using specific standard DNA fragments,has been widely used for rapid species identification of a bulk sample through high-throughput sequencing technologies.While it has been widely used in the studies of metagenomics,animal and plant biodiversity,it has gradually come to be used as a profitable method in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.In this paper,we mainly summarize the current studies of the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.Moreover,high-throughput sequencing technologies adopted in those studies,such as Sanger,the next-generation,and third-generation sequencing technologies,are discussed.It is conducted to provide a theoretical guidance for the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines and in more other biodiversity studies.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Plants, Medicinal , Classification
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777511

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum based on ITS2 sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 22 collected samples,and the ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced,and the information of ITS2 sequence was obtained. Another 14 items of the same family or the same genus were downloaded from Gen Bank.We aligned all 36 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,and constructed Neighbor Joining( NJ) phylogenetic tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The difference of the secondary structure between the ITS2 sequences was compared. The results showed that the genetic distance of Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium was overlapped,but the maximum intraspecific distance was far less than the minimum interspecific distance between and among Ch. indicum and other species,with an obvious barcoding gap. The NJ tree showed that Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared a clade,and most of Ch. morifolium with some Ch. indicum were shared a subclade,while Inula lineariifolia,Sinosenecio oldhamianus and Senecio scandens belonged to one clade separately. ITS2 secondary structures for I. lineariifolia,S. oldhamianus and S. scandens were significantly different enough to identify completely but Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared two secondary structures of A and B. It was proved that Ch. indicum was one of the evolutionary sources of Ch.morifolium. Therefore ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and its adulterants accurately and quickly. The study provides an important basis for Ch. indicum for the identification of germplasm resources and the safety of clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phylogeny , Quality Control
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777510

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum and Ch. morifolium based on psbA-trn H,mat K and trn L sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 21 samples collected,and the psbA-trn H,mat K,trn L sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The information of these sequences were obtained. We aligned all 63 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,analysed the SNPs distribution of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences and constructed the Neighbor-joining( NJ) Tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The results showed that the genetic distances of Ch. indicum,Ch. indicum( Juhuanao)and Ch. morifolium were overlapped. The SNPs analysis of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences showed that there were 19 nucleotide polymorphism loci( SNPs) and nine parsim-informative sites in the combination sequences. In addition,Ch. indicum showed more obvious sequence polymorphism than those of Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) and Ch. morifolium. The psbA-trn H sequences showed obvious length variation.The NJ Tree showed that Ch. morifolium numbered C2-C5 were clustered into a single subbranch with a bootstrap value of 62%,and Ch.morifolium could be distinguished from Ch. indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao). Moreover,Ch. indicum numbered Z9 and Z10 collected from Gansu province were singly clustered into one branch with a bootstrap value of 77%. It was also found that the changes of psbA-trn H and trn L sequences information of Ch. indicum samples from the northwest were obviously related to the geography and environment. Moreover,Ch.indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) had obvious differentiation,were also regarded as the evolutionary sources of Ch. morifolium. Therefore,psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium accurately and rapidly,which provides an important basis for germplasm resources identification and species identification.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Phylogeny , Trees
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690665

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to define the taxonomic status of Spermophilus in the plague area of Dingbian County in Shaanxi Province, China, through the two-factor variance analysis of morphological characteristics, DNA barcoding, and chromosome karyotype analysis. The Spermophilus samples collected from Dingbian and Zhengxiang Baiqi Counties exhibited significant differences in their morphological measurements. All Spermophilus samples form two distinct branches in neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. One branch included the Spermophilus samples collected from Inner Mongolia, and the other branch included samples collected from the plague foci of Shaanxi Province and the Ningxia Region. The Spermophilus samples collected from Dingbian County had a chromosome number of 2n = 38 in 84.40% of all their cells. The Spermophilus species collected from the plague area of Dingbian County was categorized as Spermophilus alashanicus (S.alashamicus). The findings reported in this study are epidemiologically significant for monitoring plague in this region of west-central China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Cytochromes b , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Electron Transport Complex IV , Karyotype , Plague , Microbiology , Sciuridae , Classification , Genetics
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