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China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1814-1823, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928177


Scutellaria baicalensis is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb. In this study, we identified the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences according to the available chloroplast genome sequencing results, and measured the content of baicalin by HPLC. Through the above means we determined the best DNA barcode that can be used to detect the germplasm resources and evaluate the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples. A total of 104 samples were collected from 24 provinces, from which DNA was extracted for PCR amplification. The amplification efficiencies of trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences were 100%, 59.62%, and 25.96%, respectively. The results of sequence analysis showed that 5, 4, and 2 haplotypes were identified based on trnH-psbA, petA-psbJ, and ycf4-cemA sequences, respectively. However, the sequences of haplotypes in commercial samples were different from that of the wild type, and the joint analysis of three fragments of S. baicalensis only identified 6 haplotypes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis and genetic distance analysis indicated that trnH-psbA could be used to identify S. baicalensis from adulterants. The above analysis showed that trnH-psbA was the best fragment for identifying the germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. We then analyzed the haplotypes(THap1-THap5) of commercial S. baicalensis samples based on trnH-psbA and found that THap2 was the main circulating haplotype of the commercial samples, accounting for 86.55% of the total samples, which indicated the scarce germplasm resources of commercial S. baicalensis samples. The content of baicalin in all the collected commercial S. baicalensis samples exceeded the standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and had significant differences(maximum of 12.21%) among samples, suggesting that the quality of commercial S. baicalensis samples varied considerably. However, there was no significant difference in baicalin content between different provinces or between different haplotypes. This study facilitates the establishment of the standard identification system for S. baicalensis, and can guide the commercial circulation and reasonable medication of S. baicalensis.

Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , DNA, Plant/genetics , Phylogeny , Scutellaria baicalensis/genetics
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 300-313, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116300


Every 3 to 7 year angiosperms species of the flowering desert appear in the Atacama Region of Chile, as a result of the climatic phenomenon "El Niño". Our objective was to evaluate the universality of matK and rbcL barcode markers of these species, and validate their taxon through phylogenetic relationships. Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii and Adesmia eremophila, almost all classified as endemic to Chile, were collected in Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Park (Atacama Region, Chile) at the end of October 2017. The phylogeny of these ten angiosperm species from the flowering desert was analyzed using rbcL and matK markers with the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The results showed that 70% of the species can be distinguished with the matK or rbcL locus, however, 100% were distinguished using both loci. The phylogenetic results showed that the species formed clades with high reliability and high support with both the matK and rbcL genes, when comparing our results with sequences obtained from GenBank. The matK and rbcL genes are efficient markers for analyzing phylogenetic relationships and validating the taxonomy of flowering species.

Las especies de angiospermas del Desierto Florido de la Región de Atacama de Chile aparecen cada 3 a 7 años, influenciado por el fenómeno climático "El Niño". Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la universalidad de los marcadores de código de barra matK y rbcL de estas especies, y validar su taxón por medio de relaciones filogenéticas. Las especies Argemone hunnemannii, Oenothera coquimbensis, Malesherbia humilis, Leucocoryne appendiculata, Loasa elongata, Nicotiana solanifolia, Stachys grandidentata, Aristolochia chilensis, Alstroemeria kingii y Adesmia eremophila son clasificadas la mayoría endémicas de Chile. Estas especies fueron colectadas en el Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar y Llanos de Challe, Región de Atacama, Chile. La colecta se realizó a fines de octubre de 2017. Con los marcadores rbcL y matK se analizó la filogenia con los métodos máxima verosimilitud e inferencia bayesiana en diez especies de angiosperma del Desierto Florido. Los resultados mostraron que el 70% de las especies pueden ser distinguidas con un locus matK o rbcL, sin embargo, el 100% se distinguió usando ambos locus. Los resultados filogenéticos mostraron que las especies formaron clados con alta fiabilidad y alto soporte tanto con los genes matK y rbcL, al comparar con accesos de secuencias obtenidas de GenBank. Lo genes matK y rbcL son marcadores eficientes para analizar relaciones filogenéticas y validar el taxón de las especies de flor.

Phylogeny , Plants/genetics , Desert , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase , Chile , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170097, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895108


A fundamental challenge for both sustainable fisheries and biodiversity protection in the Neotropics is the accurate determination of species identity. The biodiversity of the coastal sharks of Guyana is poorly understood, but these species are subject to both artisanal fishing as well as harvesting by industrialized offshore fleets. To determine what species of sharks are frequently caught and consumed along the coastline of Guyana, we used DNA barcoding to identify market specimens. We sequenced the mitochondrial co1 gene for 132 samples collected from six markets, and compared our sequences to those available in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) and GenBank. Nearly 30% of the total sample diversity was represented by two species of Hammerhead Sharks (Sphyrna mokarran and S. lewini), both listed as Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Other significant portions of the samples included Sharpnose Sharks (23% - Rhizoprionodon spp.), considered Vulnerable in Brazilian waters due to unregulated gillnet fisheries, and the Smalltail Shark (17% - Carcharhinus porosus). We found that barcoding provides efficient and accurate identification of market specimens in Guyana, making this study the first in over thirty years to address Guyana's coastal shark biodiversity.(AU)

Um desafio fundamental para a pesca sustentável e a proteção da biodiversidade nos neotrópicos é a identificação precisa das espécies. A biodiversidade dos tubarões costeiros da Guiana é pouco compreendida, porém essas espécies estão sujeitas tanto à pesca artesanal quanto à pesca industrializada não costeira. Para determinar quais espécies de tubarões são frequentemente capturadas e consumidas ao longo do litoral da Guiana, utilizamos DNA barcoding para identificar espécimes comumente encontrados e adquiridos em mercados. Nós sequenciamos o gene mitocondrial coI para 132 espécimes adquiridos de seis mercados e comparamos estas sequências com as disponíveis no Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) e GenBank. Quase 30% da diversidade total amostrada foi constituída por duas espécies de tubarões martelo (Sphyrna mokarran e S. lewini), ambas listadas como espécies ameaçadas pela UICN. Outras porções significativas da amostragem incluem Cações-Frango (23% - Rhizoprionodon spp.), considerados vulneráveis em águas brasileiras, devido a pesca de arrasto não regulamentada, e o Cação-azeiteiro (17% - Carcharhinus porosus). Descobrimos que o barcoding é uma forma identificação eficiente e precisa para espécimes de mercado na Guiana, tornando este estudo o pioneiro na documentação da biodiversidade dos tubarões costeiros da Guiana.(AU)

DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Sharks/classification , Sharks/genetics , Biodiversity , Elasmobranchii
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1057-1065, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958195


Abstract:Community structure and composition are dictated by evolutionary and ecological assembly processes which are manifested in signals of, species diversity, species abundance and species relatedness. Analysis of species coexisting relatedness, has received attention as a tool to identify the processes that influence the composition of a community within a particular habitat. In this study, we tested if microbialite genetic composition is dependent on random events versus biological/abiotical factors. This study was based on a large genetic data set of two hypervariable regions (V5 and V6) from previously generated barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons from nine microbialite communities distributed in Northeastern, Central and Southeastern Mexico collected in May and June of 2009. Genetic data of the most abundant phyla (Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria) were investigated in order to state the phylogenetic structure of the complete communities as well as each phylum. For the complete dataset, Webb NTI index showed positive and significant values in the nine communities analysed, where values ranged from 31.5 in Pozas Azules I to 57.2 in Bacalar Pirate Channel; meanwhile, NRI index were positive and significant in six of the nine communities analysed with values ranging from 18.1 in Pozas Azules I to 45.1 in Río Mesquites. On the other hand, when comparing each individual phylum, NTI index were positive and significant in all groups, except in Cyanobacteria for which positive and significant values were only found in three localities; finally, NRI index was significant in only a few of the comparisons performed. The results suggest that habitat filtering is the main process that drives phylogenetic structure in bacterial communities associated to microbialites with the exception of Cyanobacteria where different lineages can contribute to microbialite formation and growth. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 10571065. Epub 2016 September 01.

ResumenLa estructura y composición de las comunidades son determinadas por procesos evolutivos y ecológicos que se manifiestan en señales de diversidad, abundancia y la relación de especies. El análisis de la relación de especies que coexisten ha recibido atención como una herramienta para identificar los procesos que influyen en la composición de una comunidad dentro de un hábitat particular. En este estudio, evaluamos si la composición genética de bacterias microbialíticas depende de acontecimientos al azar vs factores biológicos/ abióticos. Este estudio se basa en un conjunto de datos genéticos de dos regiones hipervariables (V5 y V6) de gen 16S rRNA generados previamente de nueve comunidades de microbialitos distribuidos en el Noreste, Centro y Sureste de México, recolectados en mayo y junio 2009. Los datos genéticos de los filos más abundantes (Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes y Cyanobacteria) fueron analizados para determinar la estructura filogenética de la comunidad y de cada filo por separado. Para el análisis conjunto, el índice NTI de Webb mostró valores positivos y significativos en las nueve comunidades analizadas, en donde los valores oscilaron entre 31.5 en Pozas Azules I y 57.2 en el Canal Pirata en Bacalar; en contraste, los valores del índice NRI fueron positivos y significativos en seis de las nueve comunidades analizadas con valores oscilando desde 18.1 en Pozas Azules I hasta 45.1 en Río Mezquites. Por otro lado, en la comparación de cada filo individual, el índice NTI fue positivo y significativo en todos los grupos excepto en Cyanobacteria, en donde valores positivos y significativos fueron encontrados sólo en tres localidades; finalmente, el índice NRI fue significativo sólo en unas cuantas de las comparaciones realizadas. Los resultados sugieren que el filtrado del hábitat es el proceso principal que determina la estructura filogenética de las comunidades bacterianas asociadas a microbialitos con la excepción de las cianobacterias en donde diferentes linajes pueden contribuir a la formación y crecimiento del microbialito.

Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , Archaea/genetics , Ecosystem , Eukaryota/genetics , Reference Values , Bacteria/growth & development , DNA, Bacterial , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Archaea/growth & development , Eukaryota/growth & development , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Phylogeography/methods , Mexico
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(supl.1): 100-109, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697823


Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase ( COI ) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n = 179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

Animals , Biodiversity , Culicidae/classification , Culicidae/genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Ecology/classification , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Ecuador , Oviposition , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rainforest
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2012 Dec; 49(6): 442-450
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144085


Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causes of clinical infections and increasing mortality due to multi-drug resistance. In this study, eight drug-resistant genes, beta-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase, vanB, mecA, norA, qacA, qacB and qacC of S. aureus strain Mu50 (vancomycin resistant) were studied to predict the evolutionary conserved functional site residues in their protein sequences. It was found that in beta-lactamase, Tyr, Gly, Thr, Asn and in metallo-beta-lactamase, Thr, His, Gly, Leu, Arg and Asp residues were highly conserved. In vanB, Gly, His and Asp residues were highly conserved. Whereas in mecA, His, Val, Phe, Gln, Lys and in norA, Ser, Leu and Ala residues showed conservedness at moderate level. In the multi-drug efflux pump (corresponding to qacA, qacB and qacC), Gly residue was found to be highly conserved. The homology clustering of target proteins through SCI-PHY algorithm and homologues identified through PSI-BLAST were compared to identify the degree of conservation of functional residues. The phylogenetic motifs identified using homologues of target proteins were validated through domain search to locate their site and functionality in the protein sequences. Interactome analysis was performed to understand the possible mode of interaction of target proteins with their functional partners.

DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/methods , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Protein Structure, Tertiary