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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 288-295, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981863

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the efficacy of different numbers of microhaplotype (MH) loci and the introduction of different reference samples on the identification of full sibling, half sibling and differentiation between full sibling and half sibling kinships, and to explore the effect of changing mutation rate on sibling testing.@*METHODS@#First, a family map involving three generations was established, and four full sibling identification models, five half sibling identification models and five models distinguishing full and half siblings were constructed for different reference samples introduced. Based on the results of the previous study, two sets of nonbinary SNP-MH containing 34 and 54 loci were selected. Based on the above MH loci, 100 000 pairs of full sibling vs. unrelated individuals, 100 000 pairs of half sibling vs. unrelated individuals and 100 000 pairs of full sibling vs. half sibling were simulated based on the corresponding sibling kinship testing models, and the efficacy of each sibling kinship testing model was analyzed by the likelihood ratio algorithm under different thresholds. The mutant rate of 54 MH loci was changed to analyze the effect of mutation rate on sibling identification.@*RESULTS@#In the same relationship testing model, the systematic efficacy of sibling testing was positively correlated with the number of MH loci detected. With the same number of MH loci, the efficacy of full sibling testing was better than that of uncle or grandfather when the reference sample introduced was a full sibling of A, but there was no significant difference in the identification efficacy of the four reference samples introduced for full sibling and half sibling differentiation testing. In addition, the mutation rate had a slight effect on the efficacy of sibling kinship testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Increasing the number of MH loci and introducing reference samples of known relatives can increase the efficacy of full sibling testing, half sibling testing, and differentiation between full and half sibling kinships. The level of mutation rate in sibling testing by likelihood ratio method has a slight but insignificant effect on the efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Siblings , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , DNA Fingerprinting/methods
2.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 45-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the effects of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method in forensic DNA identification and to explore these two methods in forensic DNA identification.@*METHODS@#The genome DNA of THP-1 cells in different quantities was extracted by the cell lysis method and magnetic beads method, and the DNA content was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The cell lysis method and magnetic beads method were used to type the STR of human blood with different dilution ratios.@*RESULTS@#When the numbers of THP-1 cell were 100, 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by cell lysis method were (1.219±0.334), (5.081±0.335), (9.332±0.318) ng, respectively; and the DNA content extracted by magnetic beads method were (1.020±0.281), (3.634±0.482), (7.896±0.759) ng, respectively. When the numbers of THP-1 cells were 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by the cell lysis method was higher than that by the magnetic beads method. The sensitivity of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method was similar in STR typing of human blood at different dilution ratios. Complete STR typing could be obtained at 100, 300 and 500-fold dilutions of blood samples, but could not be detected at 700-fold dilution. STR typing of undiluted human blood could not be detected by cell lysis method.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cell lysis method is easy to operate and can retain template DNA to the maximum extend. It is expected to be suitable for trace blood evidence tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forensic Medicine , DNA/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Magnetic Phenomena , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Microsatellite Repeats
3.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 611-617, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The previously established 38-plex InDel system was optimized and its performance was validated according to the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Method (SWGDAM) application guidelines. The ancestry inference accuracy of individuals from East Asian, European, African and mixed populations was verified.@*METHODS@#DNA standard sample 9947A was used as the template to establish the optimal amplification conditions by adjusting primer balance, Mg2+ final concentration and optimizing PCR thermal cycle parameters and amplification volume. The allelic dropout, nonspecific amplification and whether the origin of the inferred samples matched the known information were compared to evaluate the performance of this system.@*RESULTS@#The optimal dosage of this system was 0.125-2 ng DNA template. The results of InDel typing were accurate, the amplification equilibrium was good, and the species specificity was good. This system showed certain tolerance to DNA samples including the inhibitor such as hemoglobin (≤80 μmol/L), indigo (≤40 mmol/L), calcium ion (≤1.0 mmol/L), and humic acid (≤90 ng/μL). The system enabled the direct amplification of DNA from saliva and blood on filter paper, and the results of ethnic inference were accurate. The system successfully detected the mixed DNA sample from two individuals. The test results of the system for common biological materials in practical cases were accurate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of the 38-plex InDel system are accurate and reliable, and the performance of the system meets the requirement of the SWGDAM guidelines. This system can accurately differentiate the ancestry origins of individuals from African, European, East Asian, and Eurasian populations and can be implemented in forensic practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , INDEL Mutation , Genetics, Population , Gene Frequency
4.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 267-279, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984120

ABSTRACT

In recent years, more and more forensic genetics laboratories have begun to apply massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, that is, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, to detect common forensic genetic markers, including short tandem repeat (STR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the control region or whole genome of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as well as messenger RNA (mRNA), etc., for forensic practice, such as individual identification, kinship analysis, ancestry inference and body fluid identification. As the most widely used genetic marker in forensic genetics, STR is currently mainly detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE) platform. Compared with CE platform, MPS technology has the advantages of simultaneous detection of a large number of genetic markers, massively parallel detection of samples, the polymorphism of sequence detected by NGS makes STR have the advantages of higher resolution and system efficiency. However, MPS technology is expensive, there is no uniform standard so far, and there are problems such as how to integrate MPS-STR data with the existing CE-STR database. This review summarizes the current status of the application of MPS technology in the detection of STR genetic markers in forensic genetics, puts forward the main problems that need to be solved urgently, and prospects the application prospect of this technology in forensic genetics.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Genetics/methods , Genetic Markers , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Technology
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 231-238, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To construct a Felis catus STR loci multiplex amplification system and to evaluate its application value by testing the technical performance.@*METHODS@#The published Felis catus STR loci data were reviewed and analyzed to select the STR loci and sex identification loci that could be used for Felis catus individual identification and genetic identification. The fluorescent labeling primers were designed to construct the multiplex amplification system. The system was validated for sensitivity, accuracy, balance, stability, species specificity, tissue identity and mixture analysis, and investigated the genetic polymorphisms in 145 unrelated Felis catus samples.@*RESULTS@#Sixteen Felis catus autosomal STR loci and one sex determining region of Y (SRY) were successfully selected, and constructed a multiplex amplification system containing the above loci. The complete profile of all alleles could still be obtained when the amount of DNA template was as low as 0.25 ng. There was no specific amplification peak in other common animal samples. Population genetic surveys showed that total discrimination power (TDP) of the 16 STR loci was 1-3.57×10-20, the cumulative probability of exclusion (CPE) was 1-6.35×10-5 and the cumulative probability of matching was 3.61×10-20.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The Felis catus STR multiplex amplification system constructed in this study is highly sensitive, species-specific, and accurate in typing results, which can provide an effective solution for Felis catus species identification, individual identification and kinship identification in the field of forensic science.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alleles , Cats/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Y , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA Primers , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Genetic
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 817-824, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984080

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To evaluate the ability of the ForenSeqTM DNA Signature Prep kit (ForenSeq kit) in analyzing the sequence information of STRs in Zhejiang She ethnic group and its forensic application efficacy.@*METHODS@#A total of 50 Zhejiang She ethnic group samples were sequenced with the ForenSeq kit on the MiSeq FGx platform. The data was analyzed using ForenSeqTM universal analysis software to obtain the motif structure and flank regions of the 58 STRs, then compared with PCR-CE typing results to test the consistency. At last, the allele frequency and population genetic parameters were calculated.@*RESULTS@#A total of 448 sequence polymorphic alleles were detected in 50 samples of Zhejiang She ethnic group. Compared with fragment length polymorphism detected by PCR-CE, 82 alleles were increased by MPS detection based on ForenSeq kit, and 7 SNPs variation were detected in the flanking regions of 6 loci. The 22 male individuals were genotyped, and total 19 haplotypes were detected in 24 Y chromosome STRs of these 22 males. The cumulative discrimination power of the 27 autosomal STRs was 1-8.87×10-30, the cumulative probability of exclusion of duo-testing was 0.999 999 962 640 657, the cumulative probability of exclusion of trios-testing was 0.999 999 999 999 633.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Based on MPS typing technology, using the ForenSeq kit greatly improves the detection efficiency. In addition, the 58 STRs have good genetic polymorphisms in Zhejiang She ethnic group, which are suitable for individual identification and paternity identification in forensic application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , DNA , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Ethnicity/genetics , Gene Frequency , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 639-645, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984065

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a multiplex PCR amplification system (EX20+30Y for short) of 19 autosomes, 30 Y-STR loci plus the gender indicator, and evaluate its forensic application value.@*METHODS@#With the six-color fluorescence labeling technology, a multiplex amplification system of 19 autosomal STR loci and 30 Y-STR loci plus the gender indicator was constructed. Blood samples from 210 unrelated individuals, 69 daily case samples and standard samples 9948 and 9947A were collected for loci detection and analysis. The EX20+30Y multiplex amplification system was evaluated by its sensitivity, mixed sample detection ability, species specificity, balance, direct amplification ability, sample applicability and anti-inhibition ability.@*RESULTS@#Multiplex amplification of blood samples from 210 unrelated individuals by the detection system obtained accurate genotyping results. The detection sensitivity of standard samples was 0.125 ng and the species specificity was high. The 69 samples from daily cases were genotyped correctly. Moreover, standard sample 9948 could be accurately genotyped even if the samples contained a certain concentration of inhibitors.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The multiplex amplification system established in this study can conduct combined examination of 19 autosomes, 30 Y-STR loci plus the gender indicator with accurate genotyping and high sensitivity. It has a good forensic application prospect.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Medicine/methods , Microsatellite Repeats , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Species Specificity
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 519-524, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985040

ABSTRACT

Genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), insertion/deletion (InDel), were discovered and widely used with the development of whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics technology. The origin and genetic structure of the modern population had been gradually revealed from the perspective of genetics. The study on biogeographic ancestry inference in the field of forensic genetics emerged and developed rapidly, providing clues and scientific basis for the determination of investigation direction and for the narrow of the scope of investigation in the process of case investigation. This paper briefly reviews the research progress, inference methods and development trends of DNA ancestry inference technology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Africa , Criminals , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Genetics/methods , Genetics, Population , Phylogeography , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 401-404, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984952

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To collect single piece of dandruff with microscopes to improve the regular EZ-tape method for DNA extraction and genotyping, increase the utilization of samples, reduce the miss rate as well as the proportion of genotyping results of mixed stains.@*METHODS@#The insides of the hats worn by two volunteers were stuck by EZ-tape and scotch tape respectively. DNA on EZ-tape was directly extracted using traditional method. Single piece of dandruff was collected from the scotch tapes under microscope. The two kinds of methods were both performed under continuous oscillation and standing digestion, respectively. DNA was extracted through Chelex-100 method, and STR genotypes were obtained after amplification and electrophoresis. The results of STR genotypes obtained by EZ-tape method and single piece of dandruff analytical method were compared.@*RESULTS@#Miss detections happened in 11 samples (45.8%) by EZ-tape method and only single-source typing results were obtained. Ten samples (41.7%) showed the genotype results of mixed stain and six of which showed allele insertions and deletions. The genotype results were obtained successfully using the single piece of dandruff analytical method, and two samples showed mixed stain genotype. The number of exact typing processed by oscillation was higher than that by standing digestion ( P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The oscillation during the DNA extraction process is in favour of the DNA releasing. Single piece of dandruff analytical method can be used to obtain single-source STR genotype with high successful ratio and low miss rate. This method can be a collection method of special samples such as dandruff in forensic practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , DNA/analysis , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Dandruff/genetics , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats , Resins, Synthetic
10.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 11(2): 173-177, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893247

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction of dental DNA exposed to different chemical solutions. The sample was composed by 15 subjects, from which 5 samples of oral mucosal cells (reference population) and 15 teeth (experimental population) were collected. The experimental population was divided in three equal parts, which were exposed to different chemical solutions, namely hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 37 %, formaldehyde (CH2O) at 10 % and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 2.5 %. The DNA from the oral mucosa was extracted using organic method, while the dental DNA was extracted using the AFDIL method, including amplification by PCR and sequencing through capillary electrophoresis. The DNA exposed to hydrochloric acid dissolved, lacking extraction. The exposure of teeth to formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite did not interfere in the extraction of DNA, once the amplification was visible in both experimental populations. The present outcomes demonstrated that DNA extraction may be limited under exposure to chemical solutions.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la extracción de ADN dental expuesto a diferentes soluciones químicas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 15 sujetos, de los cuales se recogieron 5 muestras de células de la mucosa oral (población de referencia) y 15 dientes (población experimental). La población experimental se dividió en tres partes iguales, que fueron expuestas a diferentes soluciones químicas, a saber, ácido clorhídrico (HCl) al 37 %, formaldehído (CH2O) al 10 % e hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) al 2,5 %. El ADN de la mucosa oral se extrajo utilizando el método orgánico, mientras que el ADN dental se extrajo utilizando el método AFDIL, incluyendo la amplificación por PCR y la secuenciación a través de electroforesis capilar. El ADN expuesto al ácido clorhídrico se disolvió, careciendo de extracción. La exposición de los dientes al formaldehído e hipoclorito de sodio no interfirió en la extracción de ADN, una vez que la amplificación era visible en ambas poblaciones experimentales. Los resultados actuales demostraron que la extracción de ADN puede ser limitada bajo la exposición a soluciones químicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Dentistry/methods , Solutions , Tooth , DNA/analysis , Forensic Genetics
11.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Mycobacterium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/microbiology
12.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 281-283, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the effectiveness of direct amplification for the STR analysis of cartilage, and to accelerate the effectiveness of disaster victim identification.@*METHODS@#Eighty-eight cartilage samples were directly amplified by PowerPle® 21 kit, and the results of genotyping were compared with that obtained by the magnetic beads method.@*RESULTS@#In 88 cartilage samples, the STR genotypes were successfully detected from 84 samples by direct amplification and magnetic beads method, and both the results of genotyping by two method were consistent.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Direct amplification with PowerPlex® 21 kit can be used for STR genotyping of cartilages. This method is operated easily and promptly, which has a potential application in the individual identification of mass disasters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cartilage , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Disasters , Genotype , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Molecular Weight , Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 193-195, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984834

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To recognize the possibility of Y fragment deletion of Amelogenin gene intuitively and simply according to the genotyping graphs.@*METHODS@#By calculating the ratio of total peak height of genotyping graphs, the statistics of equilibrium distribution between Amelogenin and D3S1358 loci, Amelogenin X-gene and Amelogenin Y-gene, and different alleles of D3S1358 loci from 1 968 individuals was analyzed after amplified by PowerPlex® 21 detection kit.@*RESULTS@#Sum of peak height of Amelogenin X allele was not less than 60% that of D3S1358 loci alleles in 90.8% female samples, and sum of peak height of Amelogenin X allele was not higher than 70% that of D3S1358 loci alleles in 94.9% male samples.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The result of genotyping after amplified by PowerPlex® 21 detection kit shows that the possibility of Y fragment deletion should be considered when only Amelogenin X-gene of Amelogenin is detected and the peak height of Amelogenin X-gene is not higher than 70% of the total peak height of D3S1358 loci.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Alleles , Amelogenin/genetics , Asian People/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Genotype , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Population Groups
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 123-125, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the concentration of teeth DNA extracted by three different pretreatment methods and to explore a simple, economical and practical pretreatment method with high concentration of extracted DNA from teeth.@*METHODS@#A total number of 21 molars were collected from 7 corpses. The pretreatment of 3 molars from each individual was randomly performed by tooth crumb method, ball-milling method and liquid nitrogen milling method and 50 mg tooth crumb was weight and DNA was extracted by AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system. Subsequently, the concentration of DNA and corresponding STR genotyping of three methods were compared.@*RESULTS@#The DNA concentration extracted by tooth crumb method, ball-milling method and liquid nitrogen milling method was 0.055 6-1.989 1 ng/μL, 0.036 6-1.175 6 ng/μL and 0.037 8-1.249 0 ng/μL, respectively. The DNA concentration obtained by tooth crumb method was higher (P < 0.05) and the success rate of STR genotyping was high.@*CONCLUSION@#Combined with AutoMate Express forensic DNA extraction system, tooth crumb method is an efficient and feasible method to extract DNA from teeth, which can be applied in forensic practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA/isolation & purification , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Genotype , Tooth
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 49-53, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a 15-plex rapid STR multiplex amplification system.@*METHODS@#Fourteen auto-chromosome loci and one sex-chromosome were selected to compare the situations of allelic losses and nonspecific amplication under different conditions. FastStart Taq DNA polymerase and DNA standard sample 9947A were used during amplification and optimization process.15-plex rapid STR amplification system was achieved by performing various experiments including selection of amplification conditions and the volume of DNA polymerase, adjustment of inter-locus balance, optimization of rapid amplification, screening of reaction buffers, selection of reaction volume, and a variety of additives.@*RESULTS@#Using 10 μL rapid PCR system, including 1 ng DNA templates, 0.4 μL polymerase and 10xFastStart high fidelity reaction buffer, a complete and well-balance DNA profile of 15 STR loci for standard genomic DNA was obtained in 32 minutes, without the allele drop-out and non-specific amplicons. Meanwhile, 5% glycerinum, 0.01% gelatin, 0.05% gelatin and 5 mmol/L ammonium sulfate could be used as the reactive additive during the amplification procedure.@*CONCLUSION@#The 15-plex rapid STR multiplex amplification system can be used to decrease reaction time and enhance sample throughput.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Chromosome Mapping , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Genetics/methods , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Racial Groups/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tandem Repeat Sequences
16.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(7): 2157-2163, 07/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749943

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a relação entre eventos estressores ocorridos no último ano na família de crianças e adolescentes com indicativos de problemas de saúde mental em uma amostra de estudantes de duas escolas de uma cidade no sul do Brasil. Estudo transversal com 1.075 estudantes matriculados em duas escolas públicas de ensino fundamental (uma estadual e outra municipal). Foi utilizado o Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire para avaliação de fatores emocionais e comportamentais da criança, e a Escala de Avaliação de Reajustamento Social de Holmes e Rahe (1967) para avaliar os eventos estressores. Foram utilizados o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão de Poisson, com ajuste robusto para variância, expressando os resultados em razão de prevalências (RP) e intervalos de confiança de 95%. As chances de apresentar problemas de hiperatividade foram 1,42 (IC 95% 1,10-1,83) vezes maiores no tercil intermediário e 1,37 (IC 95% 1,06-1,78) no tercil superior, quando comparados ao tercil inferior. Quanto aos problemas de relacionamento, as chances foram de 1,49 (IC 95% 1,15-1,93) vezes maiores no tercil superior ao serem comparados com o tercil inferior. Os resultados sugerem que fatores ambientais podem ser fortemente relacionados à etiologia dos transtornos mentais na infância e adolescência.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the relationship between stressor events that occurred last year in the family of children and adolescents that are indicative of mental health problems in a sample of students from two schools in a city in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,075 students enrolled in two public elementary schools. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess emotional and behavioral factors of the child and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) of Holmes and Rahe (1967) to assess stressor events. The chi-square and Poisson regression test with robust variance adjustment for expressing the results in the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence intervals of 95% were used. The chances of presenting problems of hyperactivity were 1.42 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.83) times higher in the intermediate tercile and 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78) in the higher tercile compared with the lower tercile. With respect to relationship problems the chances were of 1.49 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.93) times higher in the higher tercile when compared with the lower tercile. The results suggest that environmental factors may be strongly related to the etiology of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/classification , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Coagulase/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Methicillin Resistance , Reproducibility of Results , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Staphylococcus/genetics
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 454-461, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To establish a method of fingerprint position, sample transfer and fingerprint DNA extraction in contact samples.@*METHODS@#Sixty-six cases were visualized by 502 glue fingerprint fumigation. Two methods, ordinary wipe and acetone wipe, were used to transfer cast-off cells of fingerprints from testing samples, respectively. DNA was extracted and purified by ultramicro magnetic bead kit. The data was resolved on genetic analysis after amplification.@*RESULTS@#In 33 samples, 30 samples got better STR analysis by acetone wipe method. The peak range was 1,000-4,000 RFU and peak shapes were equable. It was hard to get ideal STR typing by ordinary wipe method.@*CONCLUSION@#The samples are visualized by 502 glue fingerprint fumigation and the case-off cells are transferred by acetone wipe method. The method shows better STR analysis result, which might be a better method for forensic science practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adhesives , DNA/isolation & purification , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Medicine , Fumigation/methods
18.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Jul-Aug ; 80 (4): 381
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154899

ABSTRACT

Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), p53 protein (p53), retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD) in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236). The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273). Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Male/genetics , Humans , Langerhans Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Young Adult
20.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Apr-Jun ; 20 (2): 148-152
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156651

ABSTRACT

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. RESUITS: Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Gene Frequency , Genetic Loci/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genetics, Population/methods , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Humans , India , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Population Groups/genetics
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