Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
1.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 11(2): 173-177, June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893247

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the extraction of dental DNA exposed to different chemical solutions. The sample was composed by 15 subjects, from which 5 samples of oral mucosal cells (reference population) and 15 teeth (experimental population) were collected. The experimental population was divided in three equal parts, which were exposed to different chemical solutions, namely hydrochloric acid (HCl) at 37 %, formaldehyde (CH2O) at 10 % and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) at 2.5 %. The DNA from the oral mucosa was extracted using organic method, while the dental DNA was extracted using the AFDIL method, including amplification by PCR and sequencing through capillary electrophoresis. The DNA exposed to hydrochloric acid dissolved, lacking extraction. The exposure of teeth to formaldehyde and sodium hypochlorite did not interfere in the extraction of DNA, once the amplification was visible in both experimental populations. The present outcomes demonstrated that DNA extraction may be limited under exposure to chemical solutions.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la extracción de ADN dental expuesto a diferentes soluciones químicas. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 15 sujetos, de los cuales se recogieron 5 muestras de células de la mucosa oral (población de referencia) y 15 dientes (población experimental). La población experimental se dividió en tres partes iguales, que fueron expuestas a diferentes soluciones químicas, a saber, ácido clorhídrico (HCl) al 37 %, formaldehído (CH2O) al 10 % e hipoclorito de sodio (NaOCl) al 2,5 %. El ADN de la mucosa oral se extrajo utilizando el método orgánico, mientras que el ADN dental se extrajo utilizando el método AFDIL, incluyendo la amplificación por PCR y la secuenciación a través de electroforesis capilar. El ADN expuesto al ácido clorhídrico se disolvió, careciendo de extracción. La exposición de los dientes al formaldehído e hipoclorito de sodio no interfirió en la extracción de ADN, una vez que la amplificación era visible en ambas poblaciones experimentales. Los resultados actuales demostraron que la extracción de ADN puede ser limitada bajo la exposición a soluciones químicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Dentistry/methods , Solutions , Tooth , DNA/analysis , Forensic Genetics
2.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842765

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Mycobacterium/isolation & purification , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Mycobacterium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Tuberculosis, Bovine/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Bovine/microbiology
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 20(7): 2157-2163, 07/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-749943

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a relação entre eventos estressores ocorridos no último ano na família de crianças e adolescentes com indicativos de problemas de saúde mental em uma amostra de estudantes de duas escolas de uma cidade no sul do Brasil. Estudo transversal com 1.075 estudantes matriculados em duas escolas públicas de ensino fundamental (uma estadual e outra municipal). Foi utilizado o Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire para avaliação de fatores emocionais e comportamentais da criança, e a Escala de Avaliação de Reajustamento Social de Holmes e Rahe (1967) para avaliar os eventos estressores. Foram utilizados o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão de Poisson, com ajuste robusto para variância, expressando os resultados em razão de prevalências (RP) e intervalos de confiança de 95%. As chances de apresentar problemas de hiperatividade foram 1,42 (IC 95% 1,10-1,83) vezes maiores no tercil intermediário e 1,37 (IC 95% 1,06-1,78) no tercil superior, quando comparados ao tercil inferior. Quanto aos problemas de relacionamento, as chances foram de 1,49 (IC 95% 1,15-1,93) vezes maiores no tercil superior ao serem comparados com o tercil inferior. Os resultados sugerem que fatores ambientais podem ser fortemente relacionados à etiologia dos transtornos mentais na infância e adolescência.


Abstract The scope of this article is to evaluate the relationship between stressor events that occurred last year in the family of children and adolescents that are indicative of mental health problems in a sample of students from two schools in a city in southern Brazil. It involved a cross-sectional study with 1,075 students enrolled in two public elementary schools. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess emotional and behavioral factors of the child and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) of Holmes and Rahe (1967) to assess stressor events. The chi-square and Poisson regression test with robust variance adjustment for expressing the results in the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence intervals of 95% were used. The chances of presenting problems of hyperactivity were 1.42 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.83) times higher in the intermediate tercile and 1.37 (95% CI 1.06-1.78) in the higher tercile compared with the lower tercile. With respect to relationship problems the chances were of 1.49 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.93) times higher in the higher tercile when compared with the lower tercile. The results suggest that environmental factors may be strongly related to the etiology of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus/classification , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Coagulase/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genotype , Methicillin Resistance , Reproducibility of Results , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Staphylococcus/genetics
4.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Jul-Aug ; 80 (4): 381
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154899

ABSTRACT

Background: Information is scarce about the presence of molecular alterations related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin and about the effect of this infection in the number of Langerhans cells present in these tumors. Aims: To determine the presence of HPV in genital skin squamous cell carcinomas and to see the relationship between HPV infection and changes in the expression of Ki-67 antigen (Ki-67), p53 protein (p53), retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and E-cadherin and to alterations in Langerhans cell density, if any. Methods: A descriptive, comparative, retrospective and cross-sectional study was performed with all the cases diagnosed as squamous cell carcinomas of the genital skin at the Dermatopathology Service from 2001 to 2011. The diagnosis was verified by histopathological examination. The presence of HPV was examined using chromogenic in situ hybridization, and protein expression was studied via immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The 34 cases studied were verified as squamous cell carcinomas and 44.1% were HPV positive. The degree of expression of pRb was 17.50% ±14.11% (mean ± SD) in HPV-positive cases and 29.74% ±20.38% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0236). The degree of expression of Ki-67 was 47.67% ±30.64% in HPV-positive cases and 29.87% ±15.95% in HPV-negative cases (P = 0.0273). Conclusion: HPV infection was related to lower pRb expression and higher Ki-67 expression in comparison with HPV negative samples. We could not find a relationship between HPV infection and the degree of expression of p53 and E-cadherin or with Langerhans cell density.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/genetics , Genital Neoplasms, Male/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Male/genetics , Humans , Langerhans Cells/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Young Adult
6.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2014 Apr-Jun ; 20 (2): 148-152
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156651

ABSTRACT

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. RESUITS: Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Gene Frequency , Genetic Loci/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genetics, Population/methods , Genotyping Techniques/methods , Humans , India , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Population Groups/genetics
7.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2014; 15 (1): 15-23
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154343

ABSTRACT

The genus Cocculus belongs to the family Menispermaceae which comprises about 35 species of shrubs or woody climbers. Only one species, Cocculus pendulus is found in Egypt. This plant is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicine. Despite the wide occurrence of C. pendulus in the Egyptian deserts, attention was paid only to its distribution and morphological description ignoring the biochemical constitution, the genome makeup and environmental aspects which are not given due consideration. Since no information about the genome of C. pendulus is available, the current study deals with molecular investigation of C. pendulus expressed by DNA fingerprinting of the young leaves of this plant using amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] technique with four primer combinations. The obtained results revealed a total of 228 bands with an average of 57 bands for each primer combination, of which 61 bands were polymorphic [26.8%] ranging in size from 59 to 570 bp. The number of amplicons/primer pairs ranged from 48 [E-AGG/M-CAC] to 72 [E-AAC/M-CAG] while the number of polymorphic amplicons varied from 13 to 21 with polymorphism percentage of 22.03-29.17%. Thus the average number of polymorphic fragments/combinations was 15. In this regard, the combination E-AGG/M-CAC was more efficient as confirmed by computing the discriminating power [D] of all primer combinations. Also, the AFLP marker gives a complete informative and highly discriminative picture about C. pendulus as shown by [PIC = 0.99]


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Polymorphism, Genetic
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145743

ABSTRACT

Forensic Onychology (Greek word, Onuks = nail, Logia = study of) is the subject which deals with study of fingernails and toenails for better administration of justice in the court of law. Identification means determination of individuality of a person. Nails are important tissues for human identification. One of the major advantages of utilizing nail is that, in comparison with other tissues, sample size and sampling process can be considered relatively non invasive and non destructive and yet each nail retains a discrete record of detailed information on genetic inheritance, drug use, pathology, diet and location history as well as exposure to explosives residues or other pollutants. In contrast to soft tissues, nails survive relatively well in the decomposition environment. Furthermore, in contrast to other long lasting tissues (such as bone and teeth) nails are easy to decontaminate from external sources of DNA. Thus examination of nail is very useful in many ways against crime. In this paper, we discussed about structure and method of analysis of nail, utility of examination, drug use and nails and detection of DNA from nails.


Subject(s)
Crime/genetics , Crime/legislation & jurisprudence , DNA Fingerprinting/legislation & jurisprudence , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Forensic Genetics/legislation & jurisprudence , Forensic Genetics/methods , Humans , Nails/analysis , Nails/pathology , Substance Abuse Detection/legislation & jurisprudence , Substance Abuse Detection/methods
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143487

ABSTRACT

In last few years, DNA analysis methods are applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, i.e., after fire exposure or mass disaster.Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification.DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA Fingerprinting/statistics & numerical data , Forensic Anthropology/legislation & jurisprudence , Forensic Anthropology/methods , Forensic Dentistry/legislation & jurisprudence , Forensic Dentistry/methods , Humans , Tooth/genetics
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139003

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Infections due to seafood associated Salmonella serovars are great risk to public health. Different phenotypic characteristics have been used previously for epidemiological investigation of Salmonella. Beyond the phenotypic characterization, a reliable genetic level discriminatory method is required. Therefore, this study was attempted to use different phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting methods for investigation of genetic diversity among seafood associated nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars. Methods: Fifty eight seafood associated Salmonella isolates were included in this study. All isolates were serotyped and epidemiological investigation was carried out using molecular fingerprinting methods, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence based-PCR (ERIC-PCR) along with whole cell protein profiling using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in our study. Results: Among the 58 Salmonella isolates, S. Weltevreden was observed to be the most predominant serovar. Typing of Salmonella serovars using RAPD and ERIC-PCR suggested the existence of a genetic diversity. Though both PCR based techniques were found to have a good discriminatory index, a better discriminatory ability was observed when the results obtained by the two techniques were combined and taken for composite analysis. Protein profiling of whole cells using SDS-PAGE demonstrated the presence of several bands with two bands of sizes 38 kDa and 46 kDa common among all 58 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study shows that use of protein profiling in combination with established typing methods such as RAPD and ERIC-PCR may provide useful information in typing of non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates associated with seafood and to develop strategies to protect public from Salmonella infections.


Subject(s)
DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique/methods , Salmonella/genetics , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Seafood/microbiology , Serotyping/methods
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62046

ABSTRACT

Stellantchasmus falcatus is a minute intestinal fluke in the family Heterophyidae. Metacercariae, the infective stage, were reported in a marine fish, mullet Liza subviridis, and a fresh water fish, Dermogenus pusillus, in Thailand. Adults were found in chicks, rats, cats, and humans. Morphological studies were done for comparing Stellantchasmus sp. worms found in 2 different fish hosts; their shapes and organ arrangements were very similar except for the prepharynx length. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare their DNA fingerprints using the HAT-RAPD method for both types of Stellantchasmus and several other related species. Ten arbitrarily selected primers (OPA-04, OPA-09, OPN-02, OPN-03, OPN-09, OPN-12, OPP-11, OPR-15, OPX-13, and OPAD-01) were used. It was found that OPA-09, OPN-03, and OPAD-01 were able to generate S. falcatus specific fragments in mullets which consisted of 200, 760, and 280 bp, respectively. In addition, the results of morphologic, DNA fingerprinting, and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the fresh water and marine specimens of Stellantchamus may be different species.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Heterophyidae/anatomy & histology , Phylogeny , Thailand
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we used high-resolution DNA typing to investigate the distribution of HLA alleles and haplotypes in Koreans. METHODS: HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 alleles were genotyped at the allelic (4-digit) level in 474 healthy Koreans. HLA genotyping was performed in two steps. Initially, serologic typing or generic-level DNA typing was performed using the PCR-sequence-specific oligonucleotide method, and then allelic DNA typing (exons 2 and 3 for class I, and exon 2 for DRB1) was carried out using the PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism method or sequence-based typing. HLA allele and haplotype frequencies and linkage disequilibrium values were calculated by the maximum likelihood method using a computer program developed for the 11th International Histocompatibility Workshop. RESULTS: A total of 21 HLA-A, 40 HLA-B, 22 HLA-C, and 29 HLA-DRB1 alleles were found in Koreans. The most frequent alleles in each locus with frequencies of > or =10% were, in decreasing order of frequency, as follows: A*24:02, A*02:01, A*33:03; B*51:01; C*01:02, C*03:03; and DRB1*09:01. The numbers of two- and three-locus haplotypes with frequencies of >0.5% were as follows: 44 A-C, 42 B-C, 51 A-B, 52 B-DRB1, 42 A-C-B, and 34 A-B-DRB1. Thirteen A-B-DRB1 haplotypes with frequencies of > or =1.0% comprised 26.0% of the total haplotypes. The six most common haplotypes were as follows: A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*13:02 (3.7%), A*33:03-B*44:03-DRB1*07:01 (3.0%), A*33:03-B*58:01-DRB1*13:02 (3.0%), A*24:02-B*07:02-DRB1*01:01 (2.8%), A*30:01-B*13:02-DRB1*07:01 (2.3%), and A*11:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:06 (2.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The information obtained in this study can be used as basic data for Koreans in the fields of organ transplantation, disease association, and anthropologic studies.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Asians/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genotype , HLA-A Antigens/genetics , HLA-B Antigens/genetics , HLA-C Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , Republic of Korea
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 12(4): 11-12, Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-558554

ABSTRACT

The systematic study of the genetic fingerprint (genomics) and the biochemistry (metabolites) that goes with a specific cellular process requires the characterization of all the small molecules that form the profile of metabolites and the associated genes. The metabolome represents the collection of all the metabolites during certain process in an organism. The transcriptome represents the gene expression profile, all the messengers RNA in a defined condition. Then to understand the whole process, the studies of metabolites must be accompanied with studies of the gene expression, hence the metabolome must be accompanied by the transcriptome, so we can identify genes and metabolites whose synthesis is induced by a specific process, an infection or stress. Studies of metabolomics generate an enormous amount of data, then they need mathematical and computational tools to establish the correlations between the biochemical and genetic data, and to build up networks that represent the complex metabolic interactions that occur in each case, using tools like Graph and Networks Theory to elucidate the emergent properties inherent to the complex interactions of the metabolic maps. This paper describes the major mathematical tools that can be used for these studies, with emphasis on a semi-qualitative proposal known as the kinetic structural model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Genetic , Metabolism/genetics , /methods , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , /methods
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151023

ABSTRACT

Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii has been performed in 23 PCR positive blood samples from stray cats in Korea. We used 2 separate PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of SAG2 gene, amplifying the 5'and 3'ends of the locus. The results revealed that all samples belonged to the type I clonal lineage. Although T. gondii organisms were not isolated from the samples, the results of the present study represent that stray cats with T. gondii infection should be seriously concerned in our environment. Adequate and continuous control programs of stray cats are needed to reduce the risk of transmission of T. gondii as a zoonotic infection threatening the public health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Blood/parasitology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats , Cluster Analysis , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Genotype , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Toxoplasma/classification , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/parasitology
16.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 12(5): 423-429, Oct. 2008. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505357

ABSTRACT

Proteus mirabilis is one of the most important pathogens associated with complicated urinary tract infections (acute pyelonephritis, bladder infections, kidney stones) and bacteremia, affecting patients with anatomical abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and long-term urinary catheterization. For epidemiological purposes, various molecular typing methods, such as pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) or ribotyping, have been developed for this pathogen. However, these methods are labor intensive and time-consuming. We evaluated the discriminatory power of several PCR-based fingerprinting methods (RAPD, ISSR, ERIC-PCR, BOX-PCR and rep-PCR) for P. mirabilis clinical isolates. Typing patterns and clustering analysis indicated that RAPD, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR differentiated P. mirabilis strains from Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, and Morganella morganii. With the exception of rep-PCR, the methods gave medium to high discriminatory efficiency in P. mirabilis. In general, the results obtained with RAPD, BOX-PCR and ERIC-PCR were in good agreement. We concluded that a combination of ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR results is a rapid and reliable alternative for discrimination among P. mirabilis clinical isolates, contributing to epidemiological studies.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Proteus mirabilis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Proteus mirabilis/classification , Proteus mirabilis/isolation & purification , Reproducibility of Results , Young Adult
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(5): 497-500, Aug. 2008. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-491962

ABSTRACT

The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus is closely related to Bacillus thuringiensis, although any genetic relationship between the two strains is still in debate. Using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, we established the genetic relationships between Brazilian sympatric populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis simultaneously collected from two geographically separate sites. We observed the formation of both B. thuringiensis and B. cereus clusters, as well as strains of B. cereus that are more closely related to B. thuringiensis than to other B. cereus strains. In addition, lower genetic variability was observed among B. thuringiensis clusters compared to B. cereus clusters, indicating that either the two species should be categorized as separate or that B. thuringiensis may represent a clone from a B. cereus background.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Bacillus thuringiensis/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Genetic Variation , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Bacillus thuringiensis/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , Soil Microbiology
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118706

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp. are a major cause of diarrhoea in developing countries mainly affecting children and HIV-infected individuals with low CD4 counts. The infection is self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts, but can be severe and persistent in the immunocompromised and malnourished. Treatment is less than optimal and no vaccine is currently available. In the West, the ability of this protozoan parasite to survive in the environment for a long duration and cause explosive outbreaks in susceptible populations has led to its inclusion as a category B pathogen for biodefence. Reports on the prevalence of cryptosporidial diarrhoea in HIV-infected adults from different parts of India from the mid-1990s have ranged from 0.7% to 83% in symptomatic and from 1.4% to 57% in asymptomatic individuals, with very high rates in both groups in the northeastern states. Several studies in India have also documented a correlation between CD4 count <200 cells/cmm and symptomatic cryptosporidiosis. Among children with diarrhoea, the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis has ranged from 1.1% to 18.9%. Other susceptible populations studied include patients with malignancies and transplant recipients. Molecular tools have permitted speciation and genotyping, leading to more detailed epidemiological studies than were possible with microscopy alone. Using these methods, the common cryptosporidial species reported to affect both HIV-infected adults and children in India are C. hominis and C. parvum. With easier access to antiretroviral therapy for Indian patients with HIV, the effect on the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and aetiology of HIV-related diarrhoea remains to be seen. Therefore, data from different parts of India form a necessary baseline against which the effect of antiretroviral therapy can be evaluated.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Animals , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Child , Child, Preschool , Cryptosporidiosis/diagnosis , Cryptosporidium/classification , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Prevalence , Risk Factors
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(2): 193-200, feb. 2008. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-483239

ABSTRACT

Autosomal and Y chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms are the most commonly used molecular tools for determination of kinship. Aim: To report a revision of 1,120 kinship cases (paternity and others) analyzed in our laboratory. Material and methods: Revision of all kinship cases analyzed between years 2001-2006. Autosomal and Y chromosome STRs and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were analyzed in DNA extracted from blood samples. Results: Paternity was excluded in 27.2 percent of cases. This figure did not change significantly along years. Most paternity exclusions were confirmed by the discordance in 5 genetic markers (30.5 percent), followed by exclusion of 4 and 6 genetic markers (20.3 and 20 percent respectively). Two studied cases were paternal and maternal exclusions, corresponding to a change of children between two families. In one case, the paternal line was assessed through Y chromosome markers, studying 16 STRs of this chromosome, positively confirming this paternal relationship. Another case was analyzed for maternal line using mitochondrial DNA analysis. In six cases, a genetic marker with a paternal-sibling mutation, was observed. The criteria for the determination of mutation was the finding of only one discordant marker between at ¡east thirteen markers analyzed in each case. Also, an increase or decrease in one unit repeated in tandem (tetranucleotide) between the alleged father and the son was also required. One subject had a double mutation. In this case, paternity was confirmed analyzing thirteen autosomic STRs and five Y-STRs. Conclusions: The authors have acquired great expertise in kinship analysis and had established criteria to solve complex kinship cases.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Male , Chromosomes, Human, Y/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Paternity , Genetic Markers/genetics , Retrospective Studies
20.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 7(1): 271-275, Jan. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-553794

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and sixty unrelated subjects who asked for paternity testing at two Bolivian Laboratories in La Paz and Santa Cruz were studied. The loci D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO were typed from blood samples, amplifying DNA by polymerase chain reactions and electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were estimated by simple counting and the unbiased heterozygosity was calculated. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was studied and gene frequencies were compared between the two samples. All loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg law and allele frequencies were similar in samples from the two cities. The Bolivian gene frequencies estimated were significantly different from those described for Chile and the United States Hispanic-Americans for most of the loci.


Subject(s)
Humans , Genetics, Population , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Bolivia , Gene Frequency , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Linkage Disequilibrium , Polymerase Chain Reaction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL