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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 132-138, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839355

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mastitis adversely affects milk production and in general cows do not regain their full production levels post recovery, leading to considerable economic losses. Moreover the percentage decrease in milk production depends on the specific pathogen that caused the infection and enterobacteria are responsible for this greater reduction. Phenotypic tests are among the currently available methods used worldwide to identify enterobacteria; however they tend to misdiagnose the species despite the multiple tests carried out. On the other hand The Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique has been attracting attention for its precise identification of several microorganisms at species level. In the current study, 183 enterobacteria were detected in milk (n = 47) and fecal samples (n = 94) from cows, and samples from water (n = 23) and milk lines (n = 19). All these samples were collected from a farm in Rio de Janeiro with the specific purpose of presenting the MALDI-TOF MS technique as an efficient methodology to identify Enterobacteriaceae from bovine environments. The MALDI-TOF MS technique results matched the biochemical test results in 92.9% (170/183) of the enterobacteria species and the gyrB sequencing confirmed 100% of the proteomic technique results. The amino acid decarboxylation test made the most misidentifications and Enterobacter spp. was the most misidentified genus (76.9%, 10/13). These results aim to clarify the current biochemical errors in enterobacteria identification, considering isolates from a bovine environment, and show the importance for more careful readings of phenotypic tests which are often used in veterinary microbiology laboratories.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Enterobacteriaceae/classification , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolism , Phenotype , Cattle , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Proteomics/methods , Milk/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Mastitis, Bovine/diagnosis , Mastitis, Bovine/microbiology
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 925-930, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828207

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to examine mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. A total of 100 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different university-affiliated hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin were evaluated by agar dilution assay. DNA sequences of the QRDR of gyrA and parC were determined by the dideoxy chain termination method. Of the total 100 isolates, 64 were resistant to ciprofloxacin. No amino acid alterations were detected in gyrA or parC genes of the ciprofloxacin susceptible or ciprofloxacin intermediate isolates. Thr-83 → Ile substitution in gyrA was found in all 64 ciprofloxacin resistant isolates. Forty-four (68.75%) of them had additional substitution in parC. A correlation was found between the number of the amino acid alterations in the QRDR of gyrA and parC and the level of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin resistance of the P. aeruginosa isolates. Ala-88 → Pro alteration in parC was generally found in high level ciprofloxacin resistant isolates, which were suggested to be responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance. These findings showed that in P. aeruginosa, gyrA was the primary target for fluoroquinolone and additional mutation in parC led to highly resistant isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Mutation , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Iran/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(5): 499-504, oct. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-771616

ABSTRACT

Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs whose target is the synthesis of DNA. They directly inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two enzymes; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. They have been widely used for the treatment of several community and hospital acquired infections, in the food processing industry and in the agricultural field, making the increasing incidence of quinolone resistance a frequent problem associated with constant exposition to diverse microorganisms. Resistance may be achieved by three non-exclusive mechanisms; through chromosomic mutations in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, by reducing the intracytoplasmic concentrations of quinolones actively or passively and by Plasmid-Mediated Quinolones-Resistance genes, [Qnr determinant genes of resistance to quinolones, variant gene of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC(6')-Ib-c)] and encoding genes of efflux pumps (qepA and oqxAB)]. The future of quinolones is uncertain, however, meanwhile they continue to be used in an irrational way, increasing resistance to quinolones should remain as an area of primary priority for research.


Las quinolonas son un grupo de antimicrobianos sintéticos de amplio espectro, cuyo objetivo es la síntesis del ADN. Inhiben directamente su replicación al interactuar con dos enzimas; ADN girasa y topoisomerasa IV. Se han utilizado ampliamente para el tratamiento de infecciones intra y extra-hospitalarias, en el campo de la agricultura y en el procesamiento de alimentos, lo que hace que el incremento de resistencia a quinolonas sea un problema cada vez más frecuente, asociado a la constante exposición de diversos microorganismos. La resistencia puede alcanzarse mediante tres mecanismos no excluyentes entre sí; a través de mutaciones cromosómicas en genes codificantes que afectan las regiones determinantes de resistencia a quinolonas de ADN girasa y topoisomerasa IV, al reducir las concentraciones intracitoplásmicas de quinolonas de manera activa o pasiva y por genes de resistencia a quinolonas mediados por plásmidos [genes de resistencia a quinolonas determinates de qnr, gen variante de la aminoglucósido acetil transferasa (AAC(6’)-lb-cr) y genes codificadores de bombas de eflujo (qepAy oqxAB)]. El futuro de las quinolonas es incierto; sin embargo, mientras continúen empleándose para el manejo de infecciones en el ser humano, el incremento de resistencia a quinolonas debe permanecer como un área de importancia primaria para la investigación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Quinolones/pharmacology , Acetyltransferases/genetics , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 753-757, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755797

ABSTRACT

Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Lactose/metabolism , Nalidixic Acid/therapeutic use , Ornithine Decarboxylase/genetics , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Decarboxylation/genetics , Decarboxylation/physiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ornithine/metabolism , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/drug effects , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/enzymology , Uropathogenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 885-892, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755834

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the species distribution, antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes and virulence traits of mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) isolated from pigs in Nsukka agricultural zone, Nigeria. Twenty mannitol-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcal (MRCoNS) strains harboring the mecA gene were detected among the 64 Staphylococcus isolates from 291 pigs. A total of 4 species were identified among the MRCoNS isolates, namely, Staphylococcus sciuri (10 strains), Staphylococcus lentus (6 strains), Staphylococcus cohnii (3 strains) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (one strain). All MRCoNS isolates were multidrug-resistant. In addition to β-lactams, the strains were resistant to fusidic acid (85%), tetracycline (75%), streptomycin (65%), ciprofloxacin (65%), and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (60%). In addition to the mecA and blaZ genes, other antimicrobial resistance genes detected were tet(K), tet(M), tet(L), erm(B), erm(C), aacA-aphD, aphA3, str, dfrK, dfrG, catpC221, and catpC223. Thirteen isolates were found to be ciprofloxacin-resistant, and all harbored a Ser84Leu mutation within the QRDR of the GyrA protein, with 3 isolates showing 2 extra substitutions, Ser98Ile and Arg100Lys (one strain) and Glu88Asp and Asp96Thr (2 strains). A phylogenetic tree of the QRDR nucleotide sequences in the gyrA gene revealed a high nucleotide diversity, with several major clusters not associated with the bacterial species. Our study highlights the possibility of transfer of mecA ...


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Fermentation/physiology , Mannitol/metabolism , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/metabolism , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Nigeria , Penicillin-Binding Proteins/genetics , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/genetics , Staphylococcus haemolyticus/pathogenicity , Swine/microbiology
6.
São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 97 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716086

ABSTRACT

Introdução. Quinolonas são antimicrobianos sintéticos que inibem as enzimas DNA-girase e topoisomerase IV resultando na morte bacteriana. São altamente eficazes no tratamento de infecções bacterianas, especialmente causadas por bactérias Gram negativas, e portanto amplamente utilizados na medicina humana e veterinária, na qual também são empregados como profiláticos. Porém, o uso indiscriminado e inadequado levou ao aumento de bactérias resistentes a estes compostos. Esta resistência pode ocorrer devido a mutações nas enzimas DNA-girase e topoisomerase IV, e também por genes contidos em plasmídeos. Estes últimos são os principais responsáveis pela disseminação e circulação da resistência entre o meio ambiente e o ambiente hospitalar. Objetivos. Pesquisar genes de resistência a antimicrobianos do grupo das quinolonas em bactérias Gram negativas de origem clínica e ambiental que apresentam resistência fenotípica a este grupo. Material e Métodos. 73 cepas de Enterobacteriaceae e Aeromonas sp. de origem clínica e ambiental foram selecionadas para o estudo, e avaliadas quanto à sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos do grupo das quinolonas e à pesquisa de genes de resistência a este mesmo grupo e mutações no gene que codifica a enzima DNA-girase por meio de PCR e sequenciamento. Resultados. Das 73 cepas previamente selecionadas para compor o estudo, 65 foram utilizadas, devido à exclusão de perfis clonais similares. Nestas, foram observados os genes, qnrS1 (1,5 por cento ), qnrS2 (26,2 por cento ), qnrB1 (3,1 por cento ), qnrB19 (12,3 por cento ), qnrD1 (1,5 por cento ), aac(6)-Ib-cr (10,8 por cento ), oqxA (43,1 por cento ) e oqxB (41,5 por cento ), e duas variantes determinadas qnrB-like (3,1 por cento ) e qnrB69-like (1,5 por cento ). Os genes qnrA, qnrC e qepA não foram identificados. Mutações na enzima DNA-girase foram observadas em 97,9 por cento das cepas positivas para algum dos genes pesquisados...


Introduction. Quinolones are synthetic antimicrobial agents that inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes resulting in bacterial death. They are highly effective in the treatment of bacterial infections, especially the ones caused by Gram negative bacteria, as well as for prophylaxy. Therefore they are widely used in human and veterinary medicine. However, indiscriminate and improper use led to an increase of bacteria resistance to these compounds. This resistance can be due to mutations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes and also by genes contained in plasmids, which are mainly responsible for the spread and transmission of resistance between the environment and the hospital set. Objectives. To search for genes of resistance to quinolone antimicrobial agents in Gram-negative bacteria from clinical and environmental strains that present phenotypic resistance to this group. Material and Methods. 73 strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp., from clinical and environmental origin, were selected for this study, and evaluated for antimicrobial susceptibility of quinolone and search of resistance genes in this same group and also for mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme DNA gyrase by PCR and sequencing. Results. Of the 73 strains previously selected to compose this study, 65 were used, due to the exclusion of similar clonal profiles. In these, genes qnrS1 (1.5 per cent ), qnrS2 (26.2 per cent ) qnrB1 (3.1 per cent ), qnrB19 (12.3 per cent ) qnrD1 (1.5 per cent ) aac(6')-Ib-cr (10.8 per cent ) oqxA (43.1 per cent ) and oqxB (41.5 per cent ) were observed, and two variants were named as qnrB-like (3.1 per cent ) and qnrB69-like (1.5 per cent ). The qnrA, qnrC and qepA genes were not identified. Mutations in DNA gyrase enzyme were observed in 97.9 per cent of the positive strains for at least one of the genes studied. It was possible to establish the association of aac(6')-Ib-cr with class 1 integron gene in four strains...


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacteria/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Quinolones/therapeutic use , R Factors , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 239-242, 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709485

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Mutation, Missense , Mycoplasma Infections/microbiology , Mycoplasma hominis/drug effects , Reproductive Tract Infections/microbiology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Mycoplasma hominis/genetics , Mycoplasma hominis/isolation & purification
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the Mycobacterium abscessus group are the second most common pathogens responsible for lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in Korea. There is still a lack of studies investigating the genetic mechanisms involved in M. abscessus resistance to antibiotics other than clarithromycin. This study investigated the characteristics of drug resistance exhibited by M. abscessus clinical isolates from Korea. METHODS: We performed drug susceptibility testing for a total of 404 M. abscessus clinical strains. Subspecies were differentiated by molecular biological methods and examined for mutations in drug resistance-related genes. RESULTS: Of the 404 strains examined, 202 (50.00%), 199 (49.26%), and 3 (0.74%) strains were identified as M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii, respectively. Of the 152 clarithromycin-resistant strains, 6 possessed rrl mutations, while 4 of the 30 amikacin-resistant strains contained rrs mutations, and 5 of the 114 quinolone-resistant strains had gyr mutations. All mutant strains had high minimal inhibitory concentration values for the antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed the distribution of the strains with mutations in drug resistance-related genes was low in the M. abscessus group. Furthermore, we performed drug susceptibility testing and sequence analyses to determine the characteristics of these genes in the M. abscessus group.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Methyltransferases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Mycobacterium/drug effects , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 17(4): 431-437, July-Aug. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-683130

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the potential factors include gene mutation, efflux pump and alteration of permeability associated with quinolone-resistance of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis and to evaluate the degree of synergistic activity of efflux pump inhibitors when combined with ciprofloxacin against resistant isolates. METHODS: Antimicrobial resistance patterns of fifty-eight Salmonella isolates were tested. Five isolates were selected to study the mechanism of resistance associated with quinolone group, including mutation in topoisomerase-encoding gene, altered cell permeability, and expression of an active efflux system. In addition, the combination between antibiotics and efflux pump inhibitors to overcome the microbial resistance was evaluated. RESULTS: Five Salmonella isolates totally resistant to all quinolones were studied. All isolates showed alterations in outer membrane proteins including disappearance of some or all of these proteins (Omp-A, Omp-C, Omp-D and Omp-F). Minimum inhibitory concentration values of ciprofloxacin were determined in the presence/absence of the efflux pump inhibitors: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, norepinephrin and trimethoprim. Minimum inhibitory concentration values for two of the isolates were 2-4 fold lower with the addition of efflux pump inhibitors. All five Salmonella isolates were amplified for gyrA and parC genes and only two isolates were sequenced. S. Enteritidis 22 had double mutations at codon 83 and 87 in addition to three mutations at parC at codons 67, 76 and 80 whereas S. Typhimurium 57 had three mutations at codons 83, 87 and 119, but no mutations at parC. CONCLUSIONS: Efflux pump inhibitors may inhibit the major AcrAB-TolC in Salmonella efflux systems which are the major efflux pumps responsible for multidrug resistance in Gramnegative clinical isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Membrane Transport Proteins/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65461

ABSTRACT

The use of quinolone for treatment of rickettsial diseases remains controversial. Recent clinical studies suggest that quinolone is not as effective as others in patients with rickettsial diseases including scrub typhus, although the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the mutation in gyrA associated with quinolone resistance. We prospectively enrolled scrub typhus patients, collected blood samples and clinical data from October, 2010 to November, 2011. Among the 21 patients enrolled, one initially received ciprofloxacin for 3 days but was switched to doxycycline due to clinical deterioration. We obtained the gyrA gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi from 21 samples (20 Boryong strain, 1 Kato strain) and sequenced the quinolone resistance-determining region. All of 21 samples had the Ser83Leu mutation in the gyrA gene, which is known to be associated with quinolone resistance. This suggests that quinolones may be avoided for the treatment of serious scrub typhus.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amino Acid Sequence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Ciprofloxacin/therapeutic use , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Orientia tsutsugamushi/classification , Phylogeny , Prospective Studies , Scrub Typhus/drug therapy , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 16(2): 136-141, May-Apr. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate gyrA and gyrB mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) clinical strains from 93 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Hubei Province, China, and analyze the association between mutation patterns of the genes and ofloxacin resistance level. RESULTS: Among 93 MTB clinical isolates, 61 were ofloxacin-resistant by the proportion method, and 32 were ofloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB. No mutation in the gyrB gene was found in any MTB strains. In the 61 ofloxacin-resistant isolates, 54 mutations were observed in the gyrA gene. Only one mutation in the gyrA gene was found in ofloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB isolates. In this study, the mutation patterns of gyrA involved seven patterns of single codon mutation (A90V, S91P, S91T, D94N, D94Y, D94G or D94A) and two patterns of double codons mutation (S91P & D94H, S91P & D94A). The ofloxacin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of three patterns of single codon mutations in the gyrA gene (codons 94, 90 and 91) showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The gyrA mutations at codons 90, 91 and 94 constitute the primary mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in MTB, and mutations at codon 91 in the gyrA gene may be associated with low-level resistance to ofloxacin.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , China , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics
12.
Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis [The]. 2012; 61 (4): 349-353
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-160137

ABSTRACT

Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have been used with increasing frequency over the past decade. Fluoroquinolones have in vitro and in vivo activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, resistance to fluoroquinolones in cases of tuberculosis is not routinely assessed. Mutations in a small region of gyrA, called quinolone resistance-determining region [QRDR] and, less frequently, in gyrB are the primary mechanism of FQ resistance in M. tuberculosis. PCR-based techniques provide new possibilities for the rapid diagnosis of first- and second-line drug resistance. There were 40 consecutive adults, who had culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis during the study period. Mutations were observed in the QRDRs of both gyrA and gyrB in 22 isolates [55%]. Only gyrA +ve in 7[17.5%] isolates. Only gyrB +ve in 5[12.5%] isolates. Total gyrA +ve in 29[72.5%] and total gyrB +ve in 28[70%] isolates. Both gyrA and gyrB -ve in 6 [15%]. The incidence of FO-resistant M. tuberculosis is gradually increasing to alarming levels this may be due to wide spread use of this vital groups of drugs in community-acquired pneumonia and urinary tract infections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Fluoroquinolones , Bacterial Proteins/blood , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135747

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Diverse mechanisms have been identified in enteric bacteria for their adaptation and survival against multiple classes of antimicrobial agents. Resistance of bacteria to the most effective fluoroquinolones have increasingly been reported in many countries. We have identified that most of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were resistant to several antimicrobials in a diarrhoea outbreak at Ahmedabad during 2000. The present study was done to identify several genes responsible for antimicrobial resistance and mobile genetic elements in the ETEC strains. Methods: Seventeen ETEC strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients were included in this study. The antimicrobial resistance was confirmed by conventional disc diffusion method. PCR and DNA sequencing were performed for the identification of mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs). Efflux pump was tested by inhibiting the proton-motive force. DNA hybridization assay was made for the detection of integrase genes and the resistance gene cassettes were identified by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Results: Majority of the ETEC had GyrA mutations at codons 83 and 87 and in ParC at codon 80. Six strains had an additional mutation in ParC at codon 108 and two had at position 84. Plasmid-borne qnr gene alleles that encode quinolone resistance were not detected but the newly described aac(6’)-Ib-cr gene encoding a fluoroquinolne-modifying enzyme was detected in 64.7 per cent of the ETEC. Class 1 (intI1) and class 2 (intI2) integrons were detected in six (35.3%) and three (17.6%) strains, respectively. Four strains (23.5%) had both the classes of integrons. Sequence analysis revealed presence of dfrA17, aadA1, aadA5 in class 1, and dfrA1, sat1, aadA1 in class 2 integrons. In addition, the other resistance genes such as tet gene alleles (94.1%), catAI (70.6%), strA (58.8%), blaTEM-1(35.2%), and aphA1-Ia (29.4%) were detected in most of the strains. Interpretation & conclusions: Innate gene mutations and acquisition of multidrug resistance genes through mobile genetic elements might have contributed to the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in ETEC. This study reinforces the necessity of utilizing molecular techniques in the epidemiological studies to understand the nature of resistance responsible for antimicrobial resistance in different species of pathogenic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/drug effects , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerase IV/drug effects , DNA Topoisomerase IV/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Escherichia coli/classification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/genetics , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Genes, MDR/genetics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Integrons/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation/drug effects , Mutation/genetics , Quinolones/pharmacology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135690

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives In drug resistant, especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used as second line drugs. However, the incidence of FQ-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is rapidly increasing which may be due to extensive use of FQs in the treatment of various other diseases. The most important known mechanism i.e., gyrA mutation in FQ resistance is not observed in a significant proportion of FQ resistant M. tuberculosis isolates suggesting that the resistance may be because of other mechanisms such as an active drug efflux pump. In this study we evaluated the role of the efflux pumps in quinolone resistance by using various inhibitors such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and verapamil, in clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. Methods A total of 55 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates [45 ofloxacin (OFL) resistant and 10 ofloxacin sensitive] were tested by Resazurin microtitre assay (REMA) to observe the changes in ofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels in presence of efflux inhibitors as compared to control (without efflux inhibitor). Results The MIC levels of OFL showed 2-8 folds reduction in presence of CCCP (16/45; 35.5%), verapamil (24/45; 53.3%) and DNP (21/45; 46.6%) while in case of isolates identified as OFL sensitive these did not show any effect on ofloxacin MICs. In 11 of 45 (24.5%) isolates change in MIC levels was observed with all the three inhibitors. Overall 30 (66.6%) isolates had reduction in OFL MIC after treatment with these inhibitors. A total of eight isolates were sequenced for gyrA gene, of which, seven (87.5%) showed known mutations. Of the eight sequenced isolates, seven (87.5%) showed 2 to 8 fold change in MIC in presence of efflux inhibitors. Interpretation & conclusions Our findings suggest the involvement of active efflux pumps of both Major Facilitator Super Family (MFS) family (inhibited by CCCP and DNP) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters (inhibited by verapamil) in the development of OFL resistance in M. tuberculosis isolates. Epidemiological significance of these findings needs to be determined in prospective studies with appropriate number of samples / isolates.


Subject(s)
2,4-Dinitrophenol/pharmacology , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone/pharmacology , Computational Biology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Ofloxacin/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity , Verapamil/pharmacology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex are important opportunistic bacterial pathogens and present significant therapeutic challenges in the treatment of nosocomial infections. In the present study, we investigated the integrons and various genes involved in resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones in 56 imipenem-nonsusceptible Acb complex isolates. METHODS: This study included 44 imipenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii, 10 Acinetobacter genomic species 3, and 2 Acinetobacter genomic species 13TU strains isolated in Daejeon, Korea. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Etest. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify the genes that potentially contribute to each resistance phenotype. RESULTS: All A. baumannii isolates harbored the blaOXA-51-like gene, and 21 isolates (47.7%) co-produced OXA-23. However, isolates of Acinetobacter genomic species 3 and 13TU only contained blaIMP-1 or blaVIM-2. Most Acb complex isolates (94.6%) harbored class 1 integrons, armA, and/or aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). Of particular note was the fact that armA and aph(3')-Ia were only detected in A. baumannii isolates, which were highly resistant to amikacin (MIC50> or =256) and gentamicin (MIC50> or =1,024). In all 44 A. baumannii isolates, resistance to fluoroquinolones was conferred by sense mutations in the gyrA and parC. However, sense mutations in parC were not found in Acinetobacter genomic species 3 or 13TU isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Several differences in carbapenem, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolone resistance gene content were detected among Acb complex isolates. However, most Acb complex isolates (87.5%) possessed integrons, carbapenemases, AMEs, and mutations in gyrA. The co-occurrence of several resistance determinants may present a significant threat.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Imipenem/pharmacology , Integrons/genetics , Methyltransferases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-193617

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been traditionally used as a vaccine against tuberculosis. Further, intravesical administration of BCG has been shown to be effective in treating bladder cancer. Although BCG contains a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, complications such as M. bovis BCG infection caused by BCG administration are extremely rare. Here, we report a case of BCG infection occurring after intravesical BCG therapy. A 67-yr-old man presented with azotemia and weight loss. He had been diagnosed with bladder cancer 4 yr back, and had undergone transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and intravesical BCG (Tice strain) therapy at that time. An acid-fast bacterial strain was isolated from his urine sample. We did not detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein 64 (MPT-64) antigen in the isolates obtained from his sample, and multiplex PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay indicated that the isolate was a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, but was not M. tuberculosis. Finally, sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA and DNA gyrase, subunit B (gyrB) suggested that the organism was M. bovis or M. bovis BCG. Although we could not confirm that M. bovis BCG was the causative agent, the results of the 3 molecular methods and the MPT-64 antigen assay suggest this finding. This is an important finding, especially because M. bovis BCG cannot be identified using common commercial molecular genetics tools.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intravesical , Aged , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Humans , Male , Mycobacterium Infections/diagnosis , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/therapy
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 188-191, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136367

ABSTRACT

Among 155 clinical respiratory isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in Korea, 6 (3.9%) isolates had reduced levofloxacin susceptibility (MICs > or = 0.5 microg/mL). These six isolates had no significant quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE. This phenomenon suggests that neither evolution nor spread of any significant QRDRs mutations in clinical isolates occurred in Korea. Therefore, continued surveillance is necessary to observe the evolution of antibiotic-resistance and take measures to avoid the spread of drug-resistant clones.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/genetics , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Korea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Ofloxacin/pharmacology
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 188-191, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136366

ABSTRACT

Among 155 clinical respiratory isolates of Haemophilus influenzae in Korea, 6 (3.9%) isolates had reduced levofloxacin susceptibility (MICs > or = 0.5 microg/mL). These six isolates had no significant quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE. This phenomenon suggests that neither evolution nor spread of any significant QRDRs mutations in clinical isolates occurred in Korea. Therefore, continued surveillance is necessary to observe the evolution of antibiotic-resistance and take measures to avoid the spread of drug-resistant clones.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/genetics , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Korea , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Ofloxacin/pharmacology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30862

ABSTRACT

Although Corynebacterium amycolatum can cause opportunistic infections, it is commonly considered as contaminant. In this report, we present a case of bacteremia caused by C. amycolatum with a novel mutation in the gyrA gene that confers high-level quinolone resistance to the organism.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/microbiology , Corynebacterium/drug effects , Corynebacterium Infections/diagnosis , DNA Gyrase/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mutation , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2009 Apr; 46(2): 147-153
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135187

ABSTRACT

The quinolones exert their anti-bacterial activity by binding to DNA gyrase A (GyrA), an essential enzyme in maintenance of DNA topology within bacterial cell. The mutations conferring resistance to quinolones arise within the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) of GyrA. Therefore, quinolones interaction with wild and mutated GyrA can provide the molecular explanation for resistance. Resistant strains of Salmonella enterica of our hospital have shown mutations in the QRDR of GyrA of serine 83 (to phenylalanine or tyrosine) or aspartic acid 87 (to glycine or tyrosine). In order to understand the association between observed resistance and structural alterations of GyrA with respect to quinolone binding, we have studied the interaction of mutated QRDR of GyrA with nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin by molecular modeling using GLIDE v4. Analysis of interaction parameters like G-score has revealed reduced interaction between nalidixic acid/ciprofloxacin with QRDR of GyrA in all four mutated cases of resistant strains. The mutation of Ser83 to Phe or Tyr shows least binding for nalidixic acid, while Asp87 to Gly or Tyr exhibits minimal binding for ciprofloxacin. The study also highlights the important role of arginines at 21, 91 and His at 45, which form strong hydrogen bonds (at < 3 Å) with quinolones. The hydrophilic OH group of Serine 83, which is in close proximity to the quinolone binding site is replaced by aromatic moieties of Tyr or Phe in mutated GyrA. This replacement leads to steric hindrance for quinolone binding. Therefore, quinolone resistance developed by Salmonella appears to be due to the decreased selectivity and affinity of nalidixic acid/ciprofloxacin to QRDR of GyrA.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Ciprofloxacin/chemistry , Ciprofloxacin/metabolism , DNA Gyrase/chemistry , DNA Gyrase/genetics , DNA Gyrase/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutant Proteins/chemistry , Mutant Proteins/genetics , Mutant Proteins/metabolism , Mutation , Nalidixic Acid/chemistry , Nalidixic Acid/metabolism , Protein Binding
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