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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243910, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278525

ABSTRACT

Abstract Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts repairing damages in DNA, such as lesions caused by cisplatin. Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) protein is involved in recognition of global genome DNA damages during NER (GG-NER) and it has been studied in different organisms due to its importance in other cellular processes. In this work, we studied NER proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites of humans and animals respectively. We performed three-dimensional models of XPC proteins from T. cruzi and T. evansi and observed few structural differences between these proteins. In our tests, insertion of XPC gene from T. evansi (TevXPC) in T. cruzi resulted in slower cell growth under normal conditions. After cisplatin treatment, T. cruzi overexpressing its own XPC gene (TcXPC) was able to recover cell division rates faster than T. cruzi expressing TevXPC gene. Based on these tests, it is suggested that TevXPC (being an exogenous protein in T. cruzi) interferes negatively in cellular processes where TcXPC (the endogenous protein) is involved. This probably occurred due interaction of TevXPC with some endogenous molecules or proteins from T.cruzi but incapacity of interaction with others. This reinforces the importance of correctly XPC functioning within the cell.


Resumo O reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos (NER) atua reparando danos no DNA, como lesões causadas por cisplatina. A proteína Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC) está envolvida no reconhecimento de danos pela via de reparação global do genoma pelo NER (GG-NER) e tem sido estudada em diferentes organismos devido à sua importância em outros processos celulares. Neste trabalho, estudamos proteínas do NER em Trypanosoma cruzi e Trypanosoma evansi, parasitos de humanos e animais, respectivamente. Modelos tridimensionais das proteínas XPC de T. cruzi e T. evansi foram feitos e observou-se poucas diferenças estruturais entre estas proteínas. Durante testes, a inserção do gene XPC de T. evansi (TevXPC) em T. cruzi resultou em crescimento celular mais lento em condições normais. Após o tratamento com cisplatina, T. cruzi superexpressando seu próprio gene XPC (TcXPC) foi capaz de recuperar as taxas de divisão celular mais rapidamente do que T. cruzi expressando o gene TevXPC. Com base nesses testes, sugere-se que TevXPC (sendo uma proteína exógena em T. cruzi) interfere negativamente nos processos celulares em que TcXPC (a proteína endógena) está envolvida. Isso provavelmente ocorreu pois TevXPC é capaz de interagir com algumas moléculas ou proteínas endógenas de T.cruzi, mas é incapaz de interagir com outras. Isso reforça a importância do correto funcionamento de XPC dentro da célula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Xeroderma Pigmentosum , DNA Damage/genetics , Computational Biology , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , DNA Repair/genetics
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 572-579, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922376

ABSTRACT

Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are necessary for meiosis in mammals. A sufficient number of DSBs ensure the normal pairing/synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Abnormal DSB repair undermines meiosis, leading to sterility in mammals. The DSBs that initiate recombination are repaired as crossovers and noncrossovers, and crossovers are required for correct chromosome separation. Thus, the placement, timing, and frequency of crossover formation must be tightly controlled. Importantly, mutations in many genes related to the formation and repair of DSB result in infertility in humans. These mutations cause nonobstructive azoospermia in men, premature ovarian insufficiency and ovarian dysgenesis in women. Here, we have illustrated the formation and repair of DSB in mammals, summarized major factors influencing the formation of DSB and the theories of crossover regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromosome Segregation , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/physiology , Humans , Mammals/genetics
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 555-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922362

ABSTRACT

Meiosis is an essential step in gametogenesis which is the key process in sexually reproducing organisms as meiotic aberrations may result in infertility. In meiosis, programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is one of the fundamental processes that are essential for maintaining homolog interactions and correcting segregation of chromosomes. Although the number and distribution of meiotic DSBs are tightly regulated, still abnormalities in DSB formation are known to cause meiotic arrest and infertility. This review is a detailed account of molecular bases of meiotic DSB formation, its evolutionary conservation, and variations in different species. We further reviewed the mutations of DSB formation genes in association with human infertility and also proposed the future directions and strategies about the study of meiotic DSB formation.


Subject(s)
DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/genetics , Humans , Infertility/genetics , Meiosis/physiology
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880705

ABSTRACT

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification that regulates many biological processes, such as DNA damage repair. During DNA repair, ADP-ribosylation needs to be reversed by ADP-ribosylhydrolases. A group of ADP-ribosylhydrolases have a catalytic domain, namely the macrodomain, which is conserved in evolution from prokaryotes to humans. Not all macrodomains remove ADP-ribosylation. One set of macrodomains loses enzymatic activity and only binds to ADP-ribose (ADPR). Here, we summarize the biological functions of these macrodomains in DNA damage repair and compare the structure of enzymatically active and inactive macrodomains. Moreover, small molecular inhibitors have been developed that target macrodomains to suppress DNA damage repair and tumor growth. Macrodomain proteins are also expressed in pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, these domains may not be directly involved in DNA damage repair in the hosts or pathogens. Instead, they play key roles in pathogen replication. Thus, by targeting macrodomains it may be possible to treat pathogen-induced diseases, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
ADP-Ribosylation , COVID-19/metabolism , DNA Repair/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Models, Biological , Models, Molecular , N-Glycosyl Hydrolases/metabolism , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolism , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(3): 353-362, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090612

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Testicular germ cells tumor (TGCT) are associated with a high cure rate and are treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. However, a group of testicular cancer patients may have a very unfavorable evolution and insensitivity to the main therapeutic agent chemotherapy (CT) cisplatin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrence and overall survival related to the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), transglutaminase 2 (TG2) and excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in patients with TGCT treated with platinum combinations. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was performed with TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed and the expression was correlated with clinical and laboratory data. Results: Fifty patients were included, the mean age was 28.4 years (18 to 45), and 76% were non-seminoma. All patients were treated with standard cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin or cisplatin, and etoposide. Patient's analyzed immunodetection for NF-κB, TG2, and ERCC1 were positive in 76%, 54% and 42%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified that positive expressions to ERCC1 and NF-κB are independent risk factors for higher recurrence TGCT after chemotherapy (RR 2.96 and 3.16, respectively). Patients with positive expression of ERCC1 presented a poor overall survival rate for 10-year follow (p=0.001). Conclusions: The expression of ERCC1 and NF-κB give a worse prognosis for relapse, and only ERCC1 had an influence on the overall survival of TGCT patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. These may represent markers that predict poor clinical outcome and response to cisplatin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Testicular Neoplasms , Transglutaminases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Lung Neoplasms , Prognosis , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Retrospective Studies , Cisplatin , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/physiology , DNA-Binding Proteins , DNA Repair , Endonucleases
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND NME23/NDPKs are well conserved proteins found in all living organisms. In addition to being nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPK), they are multifunctional enzymes involved in different processes such as DNA stability, gene regulation and DNA repair among others. TcNDPK1 is the canonical NDPK isoform present in Trypanosoma cruzi, which has nuclease activity and DNA-binding properties in vitro. OBJECTIVES In the present study we explored the role of TcNDPK1 in DNA damage responses. METHODS TcNDPK1 was expressed in mutant bacteria and yeasts and over-expressed in epimastigotes. Mutation frequencies, tolerance to genotoxic agents and activity of DNA repair enzymes were evaluated. FINDINGS Bacteria decreased about 15-folds the spontaneous mutation rate and yeasts were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide and to UV radiation than controls. Parasites overexpressing TcNDPK1 were able to withstand genotoxic stresses caused by hydrogen peroxide, phleomycin and hidroxyurea. They also presented less genomic damage and augmented levels of poly(ADP)ribose and poly(ADP)ribose polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair. MAIN CONCLUSION These results strongly suggest a novel function for TcNDPK1; its involvement in the maintenance of parasite's genome integrity.


Subject(s)
Trypanosoma cruzi/enzymology , DNA Damage , Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase/metabolism , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase/genetics , DNA Repair
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e101, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132700

ABSTRACT

Abstract The DNA repair system involves genes and proteins that are essential for the maintenance of genome integrity and the consequent control of various cellular processes. Alterations in these genes and proteins play a role in tumor development and progression and might be associated with prognosis. The aims of this study were to analyze the immunoexpression of two DNA repair proteins, XPF and XRCC1, in lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (LLSCC) and oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), and to investigate possible associations with clinical and histopathological parameters. The immunohistochemical expression of XPF and XRCC1 was analyzed semi-quantitatively in 40 cases each of LLSCC and OTSCC. The chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, was used to investigate the association between expression of the proteins and clinicopathological characteristics. The cytoplasmic immunoexpression of XPF was high in OTSCC (95% of the cases analyzed) but low in LLSCC (52.5%). Among the clinicopathological parameters evaluated, a statistically significant association was observed between high nuclear expression of XRCC1 and the absence of regional lymph node metastasis in patients diagnosed with OTSCC (p=0.006). The high protein expression of XPF and XRCC1 in OTSCC and LLSCC suggests an important role in the development and progression of these tumors. Our study found an association between high nuclear expression of XRCC1 and the absence of loco-regional metastasis in cases diagnosed as OTSCC, suggesting a role of this protein in tumor progression.


Subject(s)
Lip Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Immunohistochemistry , DNA Repair , X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 , Lip
8.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 99 p. figuras, tabelas.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1102465

ABSTRACT

A síndrome do Xeroderma Pigmentoso (XP) ocorre frente à herança monogênica e bialélica de variantes germinativas patogênicas de perda ou redução de função em genes das vias de reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos ou síntese translesão. Consequentemente, é estabelecida deficiência na correção de lesões induzidas, principalmente por radiação ultravioleta, favorecendo alta sensibilidade à radiação solar e risco aumentado para o desenvolvimento de múltiplas lesões cutâneas pré-malignas e malignas. Visto que a heterogeneidade na manifestação clínica da síndrome é uma questão em discussão na literatura, para investigar este aspecto propusemos avaliar o perfil de variantes germinativas e variantes somáticas de tumores cutâneos e não cutâneos de indivíduos portadores de XP. Foi realizado o sequenciamento de alto desempenho utilizando a plataforma NextSeq (Illumina) para avaliar as regiões codificantes de 114 genes selecionados pela sua relevância em desordens dermatológicas, tumorigênese e fisiologia cutânea e resposta de dano ao DNA. Seis pacientes com fenótipo clínico da síndrome do XP e portadores de variantes germinativas clinicamente relevantes nos genes XPC ou POLH/XPV foram avaliados no estudo. Variantes germinativas de significado incerto foram identificadas, em heterozigose, no DNA de leucócito de cinco dos seis pacientes avaliados ocorrendo nos genes DNAH11, PCDHB3, RGS22, SLC27A5, TTN e UGT2B10 e nenhuma das variantes identificadas apresentou perda de heterozigose do alelo selvagem nos tecidos tumorais. O polimorfismo de risco para carcinoma basocelular de pele (CBC) rs3769823[A] no gene CASP8 não foi identificado em apenas um caso do estudo, o qual desenvolveu o menor número de tumores. O polimorfismo de risco rs1126809[A] no gene TYR foi detectado apenas no caso que apresentou o maior número de CBC. Amostras de DNA de nove CBCs de tecido armazenado em parafina e duas amostras de tumor gástrico de uma mesma peça cirúrgica, de tecido armazenado em parafina e congelado a fresco, foram avaliadas de forma pareada com o DNA de leucócito correspondente, para pesquisa de variantes somáticas. Variantes somáticas não foram identificadas na amostra de CBC da paciente XP-C com fenótipo menos agressivo da síndrome. O total de 235 variantes missense e 29 variantes de perda de função foram identificadas em 71 genes para sete amostras de CBC, mínimo de 11 e máximo de 127 variantes por amostra, com 85,2% destas apresentando frequência alélica ≥20%. Com exceção de um CBC, mais de 95% das variantes somáticas identificadas representam alterações tipicamente fotoinduzidas (C:G>T:A e G:C>T:A). Embora pacientes XP acumulem maior número de mutações devido deficiência no mecanismo de reparo, não observamos carga mutacional diferente do observado em CBCs esporádicos. Vinte e sete genes apresentaram variantes somáticas em mais de uma amostra de CBC. Nenhum gene foi compartilhado entre as sete amostras de CBC. Entre os genes alterados em maior número de tumores estão incluídos genes drivers de CBC (LATS1, NOTCH2, PTCH1, PTPN14 e TP53), bem como genes não clássicos na carcinogênese do CBC (APC, FLG e TTN). Uma variante driver em SMO foi recorrente em três CBCs de um mesmo paciente. Duas variantes somáticas foram identificadas no tumor gástrico de tecido congelado a fresco ocorrendo nos genes GLI3 e RB1, não sendo as mesmas detectadas no tecido armazenado em parafina. Nesse trabalho, ressalta-se a heterogeneidade na manifestação clínica da síndrome do XP e a identificação de dois polimorfismos de risco, bem como destaca-se o papel central das vias Sonic Hedgehog e Hippo na carcinogênese do CBC de pacientes XP (AU)


The Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) syndrome occurs on base of biallelic inheritance of pathogenic germline variants of loss of function or function reduction in genes that plays role in nucleotide excision repair and translesion synthesis. Consequently, patients are deficient in correct DNA lesions mainly induced by ultraviolet radiation, present high sensitivity to solar radiation and increased risk for the development of multiple premalignant and malignant skin lesions. Since the heterogeneity in the clinical manifestation is under constantly discussion in the literature, to investigate it we proposed to explore the profile of germline variants and somatic variants in skin and non-skin tumors from XP patients. High-performance sequencing using the NextSeq (Illumina) platform was performed to assess the coding regions of 114 genes selected for their relevance in dermatological disorders, skin carcinogenesis, cutaneous physiology and DNA damage response. Six patients with clinical phenotype of XP syndrome and carriers of clinically relevant germline variants in the XPC or POLH/XPV genes were evaluated in the study. Heterozygous germline variants of uncertain significance were identified in the leukocyte DNA from five of the six patients occurring in DNAH11, PCDHB3, RGS22, SLC27A5, TTN and UGT2B10 genes. None of the identified variants showed loss of heterozygosity of the wild allele in tumor tissues. The CASP8 risk polymorphism for basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC) rs3769823[A] was not identified in only one case of the study which developed the minor number of tumors. The TYR risk polymorphism rs1126809[A] was detected only in the case with the highest number of BCC. Somatic variants were investigated in DNA from nine samples of BCCs (tissue stored in paraffin) and two samples of gastric tumor from the same surgical (tissue stored in paraffin and fresh frozen), all paired with the corresponding leukocyte DNA. Somatic variants were not identified in the BCC sample of XP-C patient with a less aggressive syndrome phenotype. A total of 235 missense variants and 29 loss of function variants were identified in 71 genes for seven BCC samples. A minimum of 11 and a maximum of 127 variants per sample were detected, with 85.2% showing an allelic frequency ≥20%. Except for one BCC, more than 95% of the identified somatic variants represented typically photoinduced mutations (C:G>T:A and G:C>T:A). Although XP patients accumulate a greater number of mutations due to deficiency in the repair mechanism, we did not observe different mutational load compared with sporadic BCCs. Twenty-seven genes showed somatic variants in more than one BCC sample. Genes shared between the seven BCC samples were not found. Among the altered genes in a greater number of tumors, it was identified BCC driver genes (LATS1, NOTCH2, PTCH1, PTPN14 and TP53), as well as genes non-classical for BCC carcinogenesis (APC, FLG and TTN). A driver variant in SMO was recurrent in three BCCs from the same patient. Two somatic variants in GLI3 and RB1 genes were identified occurring only in the fresh frozen tissue of gastric tumor, not in the tissue stored in paraffin. In this work, the heterogeneous clinical manifestation of XP syndrome is highlighted, as well as the identification of two risk polymorphisms. In addition, this work emphasizes the central role of the Sonic Hedgehog and Hippo pathways in BCC carcinogenesis of XP patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Skin Neoplasms , Stomach Neoplasms , Xeroderma Pigmentosum , Carcinoma, Basal Cell , DNA Repair , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Ultraviolet Rays
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that plays an important role in DNA repair. This is the first study assessing the prevalence of PALB2 mutations in early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer patients from Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PALB2 mutation screening was performed in 370 Pakistani patients with early-onset and familial breast/ovarian cancer, who were negative for BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, CHEK2, and RAD51C mutations, using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mutations were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Novel PALB2 alterations were analyzed for their potential effect on protein function or splicing using various in silico prediction tools. Three-hundred and seventy-two healthy controls were screened for the presence of the identified (potentially) functional mutations. RESULTS: A novel nonsense mutation, p.Y743*, was identified in one familial breast cancer patient (1/127, 0.8%). Besides, four in silico-predicted potentially functional mutations including three missense mutations and one 5' untranslated region mutation were identified: p.D498Y, novel p.G644R, novel p.E744K, and novel c.-134_-133delTCinsGGGT. The mutations p.Y743* and p.D498Y were identified in two familial patients diagnosed with unilateral or synchronous bilateral breast cancer at the ages of 29 and 39, respectively. The other mutations were identified in an early-onset (≤ 30 years of age) breast cancer patient each. All five mutations were absent in 372 healthy controls suggesting that they are disease associated. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that PALB2 mutations account for a small proportion of early-onset and hereditary breast/ovarian cancer cases in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Breast Neoplasms , Chromatography, Liquid , Codon, Nonsense , Computer Simulation , DNA Repair , Germ-Line Mutation , Humans , Mass Screening , Mutation, Missense , Pakistan , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1167-1179, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763163

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The DNA damage response (DDR) is a multi-complex network of signaling pathways involved in DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis. In the case of biliary tract cancer (BTC), the strategy of DDR targeting has not been evaluated, even though many patients have DNA repair pathway alterations. The purpose of this study was to test the DDR-targeting strategy in BTC using an ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) inhibitor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of nine human BTC cell lines were used for evaluating anti-tumor effect of AZD6738 (ATR inhibitor) alone or combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents through MTT assay, colony-forming assays, cell cycle analyses, and comet assays. We established SNU478-mouse model for in vivo experiments to confirm our findings. RESULTS: Among nine human BTC cell lines, SNU478 and SNU869 were the most sensitive to AZD6738, and showed low expression of both ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p53. AZD6738 blocked p-Chk1 and p-glycoprotein and increased γH2AX, a marker of DNA damage, in sensitive cells. AZD6738 significantly increased apoptosis, G2/M arrest and p21, and decreased CDC2. Combinations of AZD6738 and cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents exerted synergistic effects in colony-forming assays, cell cycle analyses, and comet assays. In our mouse models, AZD6738 monotherapy decreased tumor growth and the combination with cisplatin showed more potent effects on growth inhibition, decreased Ki-67, and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling than monotherapy with each drug. CONCLUSION: In BTC, DDR targeting strategy using ATR inhibitor demonstrated promising antitumor activity alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. This supports further clinical development of DDR targeting strategy in BTC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Ataxia Telangiectasia , Biliary Tract Neoplasms , Biliary Tract , Cell Cycle , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line , Cisplatin , Comet Assay , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , DNA , Humans , Mice , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Identification of biomarkers to predict recurrence risk is essential to improve adjuvant treatment strategies in stage II/III gastric cancer patients. This study evaluated biomarkers for predicting survival after surgical resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This post-hoc analysis evaluated patients from the CLASSIC trial who underwent D2 gastrectomywith orwithout adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) at the Yonsei Cancer Center. Tumor expressions of thymidylate synthase (TS), excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining to determine their predictive values. RESULTS: Among 139 patients, IHC analysis revealed high tumor expression of TS (n=22, 15.8%), ERCC1 (n=23, 16.5%), and PD-L1 (n=42, 30.2%) in the subset of patients. Among all patients, high TS expression tended to predict poor disease-free survival (DFS; hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; p=0.053), whereas PD-L1 positivity was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.33; p=0.001) and overall survival (OS; HR, 0.38; p=0.009) in multivariate Cox analysis. In the subgroup analysis, poor DFS was independently predicted by high TS expression (HR, 2.51; p=0.022) in the adjuvant chemotherapy subgroup (n=66). High PD-L1 expression was associated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.25; p=0.011) and OS (HR, 0.22; p=0.015) only in the surgery-alone subgroup (n=73). The prognostic impact of high ERCC1 expression was not significant in the multivariate Cox analysis. CONCLUSION: This study shows that high TS expression is a predictive factor for worse outcomes on capecitabine plus oxaliplatin adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas PD-L1 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in locally advanced gastric cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Capecitabine , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , DNA Repair , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms , Thymidylate Synthase
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776717

ABSTRACT

DNA double-stranded break (DSB) is one of the most catastrophic damages of genotoxic insult. Inappropriate repair of DNA DSBs results in the loss of genetic information, mutation, and the generation of harmful genomic rearrangements, which predisposes an organism to immunodeficiency, neurological damage, and cancer. The tumor repressor p53 plays a key role in DNA damage response, and has been found to be mutated in 50% of human cancer. p53, p63, and p73 are three members of the p53 gene family. Recent discoveries have shown that human p53 gene encodes at least 12 isoforms. Different p53 members and isoforms play various roles in orchestrating DNA damage response to maintain genomic integrity. This review briefly explores the functions of p53 and its isoforms in DNA DSB repair.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair , Humans , Mice , Protein Isoforms , Physiology , Tumor Protein p73 , Physiology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Genetics , Physiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764314

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the most common cause of death worldwide. Annually, more than ten million new cancer cases are diagnosed, and more than six million deaths occur due to cancer. Nonetheless, over 80% of human cancer may be preventable through proper nutrition. Numerous nutritional compounds are effective in preventing cancer. Selenium and zinc are essential micronutrients that have important roles in reducing oxidative stress and protecting DNA from the attack of reactive oxygen species. Selenium is an essential trace element that possesses several functions in many cellular processes for cancer prevention. Meanwhile, zinc may have protective effects on tumor initiation and progression, and it is an essential cofactor of several mammalian proteins. Results show that both selenium and zinc provide an effective progression of DNA repair system; thus, cancer development that originated from DNA damage is decreased. Results mostly focus on the separate effects of these two elements on different cell types, tissues, and organs, and their combined effects are largely unknown. This review aimed to emphasize the joint role of selenium and zinc specifically on DNA repair for cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , DNA , Humans , Joints , Micronutrients , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Selenium , Trace Elements , Zinc
15.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 297-305, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The characteristic expression of DNA damage response proteins in familial breast cancers with BRCA1, BRCA2, or non-BRCA1/2 mutations has not been analyzed in Chinese patients. Our study aimed to assess the differential expression of microcephalin 1 (BRIT1), ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM), checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2), BRCA1, RAD51 recombinase (RAD51), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) and establish the profile of Chinese familial breast cancers with different mutation status. METHODS: We constructed five tissue microarrays from 183 familial breast cancer patients (31 with BRCA1 mutations; 14 with BRCA2 mutations, and 138 with non-BRCA1/2 mutations). The DNA response and repair markers used for immunohistochemistry analysis included BRIT1, ATM, CHEK2, BRCA1, RAD51, and PARP-1. The expressions of these proteins were analyzed in BRCA1/2 mutated tumors. The association between pathologic characteristics with BRCA1/2 mutation status was also analyzed. RESULTS: In familial breast cancer patients, BRCA1 mutated tumors were more frequent with high nuclear grade, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative, low Ki-67, and positive CK5/6. BRCA1 mutated tumors had lower CHEK2 and higher cytoplasmic BRIT1 expression than BRCA2 and non-BRCA1/2 mutation tumors. BRCA2-associated tumors showed higher CHEK2 and cytoplasmic RAD51 expression than those in other groups. Nuclear PARP-1 expression in BRCA1/2-associated tumors was significantly higher than in non-BRCA1/2 mutation tumors. Moreover, we found quite a few of negative PARP-1 expression cases in BRCA1/2 mutated groups. CONCLUSION: The clinicopathologic findings of BRCA1-associated Chinese familial breast cancers were similar to the results of other studies. Chinese familial breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations might have distinctive expression of different DNA damage response proteins. The reduced expression of PARP-1 in Chinese BRCA1/2 mutated breast cancer patients could influence the therapeutic outcome of PARP-1 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Checkpoint Kinase 2 , Cytoplasm , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , DNA , Estrogens , Genes, BRCA1 , Genes, BRCA2 , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Phosphotransferases , Rad51 Recombinase , ErbB Receptors
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1904-1908, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773951

ABSTRACT

Background@#Base excision repair (BER) plays an important role in the maintenance of genome integrity and anticancer drug resistance. This study aimed to explore the role of BER gene polymorphisms in response to chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.@*Methods@#During the period from November 2009 to January 2016, a total of 152 patients diagnosed with NSCLC Stage IIIB and IV in the First Hospital of Jilin University were admitted into this study. The XRCC1 G28152A, MUTYH G972C, HOGG1 C1245G, and PARP1 T2444C polymorphisms of all the patients were detected by mass spectrometry. The logistic regression was used for statictical analysis. All tests were bilateral test, and a P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.@*Results@#The logistic regression model showed that the response rate of chemotherapy of the PARP1 T2444C polymorphisms, CC genotype (odds ratio [OR]: 5.216, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.568-17.352, P = 0.007), TC genotype (OR: 2.692, 95% CI: 1.007-7.198, P = 0.048), as well as the genotype of TC together with CC (OR: 3.178, 95% CI: 1.229-8.219, P = 0.017) were significantly higher than those of TT wild type. There was no relationship between the MUTYH G972C, XRCC1 G28152A, and HOGG1 C1245G gene polymorphisms and chemosensitivity.@*Conclusions@#The PARP1 2444 mutation allele C might be associated with the decreased sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC. These findings may be helpful in designing individualized cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Genetics , DNA Repair , DNA-Binding Proteins , Female , Genotype , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Retrospective Studies , X-ray Repair Cross Complementing Protein 1 , Genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772974

ABSTRACT

DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for maintaining genome stability and protecting cells from tumorigenesis. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifications play an important role in DDR, from signaling DNA damage to mediating DNA repair. In this report, we found that the E3 ligase ring finger protein 126 (RNF126) was recruited to UV laser micro-irradiation-induced stripes in a RNF8-dependent manner. RNF126 directly interacted with and ubiquitinated another E3 ligase, RNF168. Overexpression of wild type RNF126, but not catalytically-inactive mutant RNF126 (CC229/232AA), diminished ubiquitination of H2A histone family member X (H2AX), and subsequent bleomycin-induced focus formation of total ubiquitin FK2, TP53-binding protein 1 (53BP1), and receptor-associated protein 80 (RAP80). Interestingly, both RNF126 overexpression and RNF126 downregulation compromised homologous recombination (HR)-mediated repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Taken together, our findings demonstrate that RNF126 negatively regulates RNF168 function in DDR and its appropriate cellular expression levels are essential for HR-mediated DSB repair.


Subject(s)
Carrier Proteins , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Metabolism , Genomic Instability , HeLa Cells , Histones , Metabolism , Humans , Nuclear Proteins , Metabolism , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering , Genetics , Signal Transduction , Tumor Suppressor p53-Binding Protein 1 , Metabolism , Ubiquitin , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases , Genetics , Metabolism , Ubiquitination
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#: To screen genes involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage repair in rats with septic acute kidney injury (SAKI).@*METHODS@#: Forty male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into SAKI group (=28) and sham operation group (=12). The SAKI mouse model was established by cecal ligation and puncture. Blood and kidney samples were collected at 8, 24, and 48 h after surgery. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were measured by a dry biochemical analyzer. Serum inflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. Histopathological changes were observed with HE staining. The mtDNA damage repair related genes were screened by RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis; the mRNA and protein expression levels of related genes were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemisry, respectively.@*RESULTS@#: Symptoms of sepsis were observed in SAKI group, and 16 out of 28 mice were died in the SAKI group; serum TNF-α, IL-6, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were higher than those in the sham group (<0.05 or <0.01). Histopathological examination in SAKI group showed that renal tubular epithelial cells were swollen, inflammatory cells infiltrated, and a large number of cell vacuoles were seen, suggesting successful modeling. Mitochondrial DNA damage repair related genes and were screened out. The expression of these genes was detected by real-time RT-PCR, and the results were consistent with RNA sequencing trends. Immunohistochemical staining showed that Gadd45α was mainly expressed in the nucleus of renal tubular epithelial cells, and the positive rate of Gadd45α in SAKI group was higher than that in the sham operation group (<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#: and genes are involved in mtDNA damage repair in rats with SAKI, indicating that these genes may be used as new targets for prevention and treatment of SAKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Animals , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatinine , Blood , DNA Repair , Genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Random Allocation , Rats , Sepsis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742229

ABSTRACT

Giardia lamblia, an anaerobic, amitochondriate protozoan parasite causes parasitic infection giardiasis in children and young adults. It produces pyruvate, a major metabolic product for its fermentative metabolism. The current study was undertaken to explore the effects of pyruvate as a physiological antioxidant during oxidative stress in Giardia by cysteine-ascorbate deprivation and further investigation upon the hypothesis that oxidative stress due to metabolism was the reason behind the cytotoxicity. We have estimated intracellular reactive oxygen species generation due to cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in Giardia. In the present study, we have examined the effects of extracellular addition of pyruvate, during oxidative stress generated from cysteine-ascorbate deprivation in culture media on DNA damage in Giardia. The intracellular pyruvate concentrations at several time points were measured in the trophozoites during stress. Trophozoites viability under cysteine-ascorbate deprived (CAD) medium in presence and absence of extracellular pyruvate has also been measured. The exogenous addition of a physiologically relevant concentration of pyruvate to trophozoites suspension was shown to attenuate the rate of ROS generation. We have demonstrated that Giardia protects itself from destructive consequences of ROS by maintaining the intracellular pyruvate concentration. Pyruvate recovers Giardia trophozoites from oxidative stress by decreasing the number of DNA breaks that might favor DNA repair.


Subject(s)
Child , Culture Media , DNA Breaks , DNA Damage , DNA Repair , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Giardiasis , Humans , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Parasites , Pyruvic Acid , Reactive Oxygen Species , Trophozoites , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741476

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There are numerous prostate cancer-related genes that involve in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Among the genes, DNA mismatch repair genes recognize and repair misincorporated nucleotides during DNA replication. In this analysis, we evaluated the association of hMSH2 which is one of the mismatch repair genes, with risk of aggressive prostate cancer and prostate cancer recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed in 46 patients who diagnosed prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between January 2006 and December 2012 at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We evaluated an association between the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining and various clinical variables including prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, pathological stage, and biochemical recurrence. The intensity of immunostaining for hMSH2 was divided into 2 groups: low expression group (immunostaining score < 2) and high expression group (immunostaining score ≥2). RESULTS: Although seminal vesicle invasion was marginally associated with the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining, PSA, Gleason score, lymph node metastasis, presence of lymphatic, perineural, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension were not associated with the degree of hMSH2 immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, the association of biochemical recurrence free survival with hMSH2 expression was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The hMSH2 expression was marginally associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer such as seminal vesicle invasion. Further evaluation with a larger number of cases is needed to verify these results.


Subject(s)
Base Pair Mismatch , Carcinogenesis , DNA Mismatch Repair , DNA Repair , DNA Replication , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nucleotides , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms , Recurrence , Seminal Vesicles
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