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1.
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(6): 764-768, Nov.Dec. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly. Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5'end or 3'end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery. Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5' end or 3' end of TERC was not found. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Propofol/pharmacology , Body Weight , DNA , Telomere , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Electroencephalography , Anesthesia, General , Leukocytes
3.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 88(3): 138-142, jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515202

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar el grupo RhD fetal a través del estudio del gen RHD en ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en plasma de embarazadas RhD negativo. Método: Se analizó la presencia de los genes RHD, SRY y BGLO en ADNfl obtenido de plasma de 51 embarazadas RhD negativo no sensibilizadas, utilizando una qPCR. Los resultados del estudio genético del gen RHD se compararon con el estudio del grupo sanguíneo RhD realizado por método serológico en muestras de sangre de cordón, y los resultados del estudio del gen SRY fueron cotejados con el sexo fetal determinado por ecografía. Se calcularon la sensibilidad, la especificidad, los valores predictivos y la capacidad discriminativa del método estandarizado. Resultados: El gen RHD estaba presente en el 72,5% de las muestras y el gen SRY en el 55,5%, coincidiendo en un 100% con los resultados del grupo RhD detectado en sangre de cordón y con el sexo fetal confirmado por ecografía, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Fue posible deducir el grupo sanguíneo RhD del feto mediante el estudio del ADN fetal que se encuentra libre en el plasma de embarazadas con un método molecular no invasivo desarrollado y validado para este fin. Este test no invasivo puede ser utilizado para tomar la decisión de administrar inmunoglobulina anti-D solo a embarazadas RhD negativo que portan un feto RhD positivo.


Objective: To determine the fetal RhD group through the study of the RHD gene in fetal DNA found free in plasma of RhD negative pregnant women. Method: The presence of the RHD, SRY and BGLO genes in fetal DNA obtained from plasma of 51 non-sensitized RhD negative pregnant women was analyzed using qPCR. The results of the genetic study of the RHD gene were compared with the RhD blood group study performed by serological method in cord blood samples, and the results of the SRY gene study were compared with the fetal sex determined by ultrasound. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and discriminative capacity of the standardized method were calculated. Results: The RHD gene was present in 72.5% of the samples and the SRY gene in 55.5%, coinciding 100% with the results of the RhD group detected in cord blood, and with the fetal sex confirmed by ultrasound, respectively. Conclusions: It was possible to deduce the RhD blood group of the fetus through the study of fetal DNA found free in the plasma of pregnant women with a non-invasive molecular method developed and validated for this purpose. This non-invasive test can be used to make the decision to administer anti-D immunoglobulin only to RhD-negative pregnant women carrying an RhD-positive fetus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/genetics , DNA , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/diagnosis , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/genetics , Phenotype , Prenatal Diagnosis , Rh-Hr Blood-Group System/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Rho(D) Immune Globulin , Genes, sry/genetics , Erythroblastosis, Fetal/blood , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Fetal Diseases/genetics , Fetal Diseases/blood , Genotype
4.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 261-267, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971134

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic syndrome (HLH) children with different EB virus (EBV) DNA loads, and to explore the relationship between differential indicators and prognosis.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 73 children with HLH treated in our hospital from January 2015 to April 2022 were collected. According to EBV DNA loads, the children were divided into negative group (≤5×102 copies/ml), low load group (>5×102-<5×105 copies/ml) and high load group (≥5×105copies/ml). The clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes of the three groups were compared, and the ROC curve was used to determine the best cut-off value of the different indexes. Cox regression model was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting the prognosis of children, and to analyze the survival of children in each group.@*RESULTS@#The proportion of female children, the swelling rate of liver and spleen lymph nodes and the involvement rate of blood, liver, circulation and central nervous system in the high load group were higher than those in the negative group. The incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation(DIC) and central nervous system(CNS) involvement in the high load group were higher than those in the low load group. The liver swelling rate and circulatory system involvement rate in the low load group were higher than those in the negative group(P<0.05). PLT counts in the high load group were significantly lower than those in the negative group, and the levels of GGT, TBIL, CK-MB, LDH, TG, SF, and organ involvement were significantly higher than those in the negative group. The levels of CK, LDH, SF and the number of organ involvement in the high load group were significantly higher than those in the low load group. The levels of GGT and TBIL in low load group were significantly higher than those in negative group. In terms of treatment, the proportion of blood purification therapy in the high and low load group was significantly higher than that in the negative group(P<0.01). ROC curve analysis showed that the best cut-off values of PLT, LDH, TG and SF were 49.5, 1139, 3.12 and 1812, respectively. The appellate laboratory indicators were dichotomized according to the cut-off value, and the differential clinical symptoms were included in the Cox regression model. Univariate analysis showed that LDH>1139 U/L, SF>1812 μg/L, dysfunction of central nervous system, number of organ damage, DIC and no blood purification therapy were the risk factors affecting the prognosis of children (P<0.05); Multivariate analysis shows that PLT≤49.5×109/L and dysfunction of central nervous system were risk factors affecting the prognosis of children (P<0.05). Survival analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the survival rate among the three groups.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of adverse prognostic factors in children with HLH in the EBV-DNA high load group is higher, and there is no significant difference in the survival rate of the three groups after blood purification therapy. Therefore, early identification and application of blood purification therapy is of great significance for children with HLH in the high load group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Female , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , DNA , Prognosis
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 842-857, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970409

ABSTRACT

The modern bio-fermentation industry requires design and creation of efficient microbial cell factories for directed conversion of raw materials to target products. The main criteria for assessing the performance of microbial cell factories are their product synthesis capacity and stability. Due to the deficiencies of plasmids in gene expression such as instability and being easy to lose, integration of genes into chromosome is often a better choice for stable expression in microbial hosts. To this end, chromosomal gene integration technology has received much attention and has developed rapidly. In this review, we summarize the recent research progresses of chromosomal integration of large DNA fragments in microorganisms, illustrate the principles and features of various technologies, highlight the opportunity brought by the CRISPR-associated transposon systems, and prospect future research direction of this technology.


Subject(s)
Chromosomes , Plasmids , DNA , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 807-841, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970408

ABSTRACT

This article summarizes the reviews and original research papers published in Chinese Journaol of Biotechnology in the area of biomanufacturing driven by engineered organisms in the year of 2022. The enabling technologies including DNA sequencing, DNA synthesis, and DNA editing as well as regulation of gene expression and in silico cell modeling were highlighted. This was followed by discussing the biomanufacturing of biocatalytics products, amino acids and its derivatives, organic acids, natural products, antibiotics and active peptides, functional polysaccharides, and functional proteins. Lastly, the technologies for utilizing C1 compounds and biomass as well as synthetic microbial consortia were discussed. The aim of this article was to help the readers to gain insights into this rapidly developing field from the journal point of view.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Microbial Consortia , DNA , Biological Products , Publications , Synthetic Biology
7.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 372-379, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986800

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the utility of stool-based DNA test of methylated SDC2 (mSDC2) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in residents of Shipai Town, Dongguan City. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Using a cluster sampling method, residents of 18 villages in Shipai Town, Dongguan City were screened for CRC from May 2021 to February 2022. In this study, mSDC2 testing was employed as a preliminary screening method. Colonoscopy examination was recommended for individuals identified as high-risk based on the positive mSDC2 tests. The final screening results, including the rate of positive mSDC2 tests, the rate of colonoscopy compliance, the rate of lesions detection, and the cost-effectiveness of screening, were analyzed to explore the benefits of this screening strategy. Results: A total of 10 708 residents were enrolled and completed mSDC2 testing, giving a participation rate of 54.99% (10 708/19 474) and a pass rate of 97.87% (10 708/10 941). These individuals included 4 713 men (44.01%) and 5 995 women (55.99%) with a mean age of (54.52±9.64) years. The participants were allocated to four age groups (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-74 years), comprising 35.21%(3770/10 708), 36.25% (3882/10 708), 18.84% (2017/10 708), and 9.70% (1039/10 708) of all participants, respectively. mSDC2 testing was positive in 821/10 708 (7.67%) participants, 521 of whom underwent colonoscopy, resulting in a compliance rate of 63.46% (521/821). After eliminating of 8 individuals without pathology results, data from 513 individuals were finally analyzed. Colonoscopy detection rate differed significantly between age groups (χ2=23.155, P<0.001),ranging from a low of 60.74% in the 40-49 year age group to a high of 86.11% in the 70-74 year age group. Colonoscopies resulted in the diagnosis of 25 (4.87%) CRCs, 192 (37.43%) advanced adenomas, 67 (13.06%) early adenomas, 15 (2.92%) serrated polyps, and 86 (16.76%) non- adenomatous polyps. The 25 CRCs were Stage 0 in 14 (56.0%) individuals, stage I in 4 (16.0%), and Stage II in 7(28.0%). Thus, 18 of the detected CRCs were at an early stage. The early detection rate of CRCs and advanced adenomas was 96.77% (210/217). The rate of mSDC2 testing for all intestinal lesions was 75.05% (385/513). In particular, the financial benefit of this screening was 32.64 million yuan, and the benefit-cost ratio was 6.0. Conclusion: Screening for CRCs using stool-based mSDC2 testing combined with colonoscopy has a high lesion detection rate and a high cost-effectiveness ratio. This is a CRC screening strategy that deserves to be promoted in China.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colonoscopy/methods , Mass Screening/methods , Adenoma/diagnosis , DNA , Syndecan-2/genetics
8.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 359-387, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982590

ABSTRACT

Base editor (BE) is a gene-editing tool developed by combining the CRISPR/Cas system with an individual deaminase, enabling precise single-base substitution in DNA or RNA without generating a DNA double-strand break (DSB) or requiring donor DNA templates in living cells. Base editors offer more precise and secure genome-editing effects than other conventional artificial nuclease systems, such as CRISPR/Cas9, as the DSB induced by Cas9 will cause severe damage to the genome. Thus, base editors have important applications in the field of biomedicine, including gene function investigation, directed protein evolution, genetic lineage tracing, disease modeling, and gene therapy. Since the development of the two main base editors, cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs), scientists have developed more than 100 optimized base editors with improved editing efficiency, precision, specificity, targeting scope, and capacity to be delivered in vivo, greatly enhancing their application potential in biomedicine. Here, we review the recent development of base editors, summarize their applications in the biomedical field, and discuss future perspectives and challenges for therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Therapy , DNA/genetics
9.
International Journal of Oral Science ; (4): 17-17, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982475

ABSTRACT

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) escape from the immune system is mediated through several immunosuppressive phenotypes that are critical to the initiation and progression of tumors. As a hallmark of cancer, DNA damage repair is closely related to changes in the immunophenotypes of tumor cells. Although flap endonuclease-1 (FEN1), a pivotal DNA-related enzyme is involved in DNA base excision repair to maintain the stability of the cell genome, the correlation between FEN1 and tumor immunity has been unexplored. In the current study, by analyzing the clinicopathological characteristics of FEN1, we demonstrated that FEN1 overexpressed and that an inhibitory immune microenvironment was established in OSCC. In addition, we found that downregulating FEN1 inhibited the growth of OSCC tumors. In vitro studies provided evidence that FEN1 knockdown inhibited the biological behaviors of OSCC and caused DNA damage. Performing multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC), we directly observed that the acquisition of critical immunosuppressive phenotypes was correlated with the expression of FEN1. More importantly, FEN1 directly or indirectly regulated two typical immunosuppressive phenotype-related proteins human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1), through the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)/janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway. Our study highlights a new perspective on FEN1 action for the first time, providing theoretical evidence that it may be a potential immunotherapy target for OSCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , DNA , Down-Regulation , Flap Endonucleases/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Phenotype , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck , Tumor Microenvironment , Janus Kinases/metabolism
10.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 829-836, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982353

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#This study aims to investigate the genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and to analyze the effects of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#PBMCs were collected from 19 patients with SSc (SSc group) and 18 healthy persons (control group). Among SSc patients, there were 10 patients with ILD (SSc with ILD subgroup) and 9 patients without ILD (SSc without ILD subgroup). The genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression level were analyzed by using Illumina 450K methylation chip and Illumina HT-12 v4.0 gene expression profiling chip. The effect of DNA methylation on Wnt/β-catenin and chemokine signal pathways was investigated.@*RESULTS@#Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 71 hypermethylated CpG sites and 98 hypomethylated CpG sites in the SSc with ILD subgroup compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. Transcriptome analysis distinguished 164 upregulated genes and 191 downregulated genes in the SSc with ILD subgroup as compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup. In PBMCs of the SSc group, 35 genes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while frizzled-1 (FZD1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 (MAPK9), mothers against DPP homolog 2 (SMAD2), transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B (WNT5B) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of dickkopf homolog 2 (DKK2), FZD1, MAPK9 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). In PBMCs of the SSc group, 38 genes in chemokine signaling pathway were hypomethylated, while β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16), FGR, and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1C (NCF1C) mRNA expressions were upregulated as compared with the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SSc without ILD subgroup, the mRNA expressions of ARRB1, CXCL10, CXCL16 were upregulated in the SSc with ILD subgroup, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles between SSc with ILD and SSc without ILD. The expression levels of multiple genes in Wnt/β- catenin and chemokine signaling pathways are upregulated, which might be associatea with the pathogenesis of SSc.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Methylation , Transcriptome , beta Catenin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Ligands , DNA , RNA, Messenger/genetics
11.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 500-507, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the renoprotective effect of resveratrol (RSV) on sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) signaling pathway and expression of its downstream molecules including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and transformation growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs).@*METHODS@#The rat GMCs line (HBZY-1) were cultured and randomly divided into 5 groups, including control, LPS (100 ng/mL), and 5, 10, 20 µmol/L RSV-treated groups. In addition, SphK1 inhibitor (SK-II) was used as positive control. GMCs were pretreated with RSV for 2 h and treated with LPS for another 24 h. GMCs proliferation was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The proteins expression of SphK1, p-c-Jun and TGF-β1 in GMCs were detected by Western blot, and DNA-binding activity of AP-1 was performed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The binding activity between RSV and SphK1 protein was detected by AutoDock Vina and visualized by Discovery Studio 2016.@*RESULTS@#LPS could obviously stimulate GMCs proliferation, elevate SphK1, p-c-Jun and TGF-β1 expression levels and increase the DNA-binding activity of AP-1 (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas these effects were significantly blocked by RSV pretreatment. It was also suggested that the effect of RSV was similar to SK-II (P>0.05). Moreover, RSV exhibited good binding affinity towards SphK1, with docking scores of -8.1 kcal/moL and formed hydrogen bonds with ASP-178 and LEU-268 in SphK1.@*CONCLUSION@#RSV inhibited LPS-induced GMCs proliferation and TGF-β1 expression, which may be independent of its hypoglycemic effect on preventing the development of mesangial cell fibrosis and closely related to the direct inhibition of SphK1 pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mesangial Cells , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Transcription Factor AP-1 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Cell Proliferation , DNA , Cells, Cultured
12.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 357-361, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the changes in cell free-DNA (cf-DNA), a marker of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in neonates with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and to evaluate its relationship with the severity and early diagnosis of ARDS.@*METHODS@#The neonates diagnosed with ARDS in the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University from January 2021 to June 2022 were enrolled in the prospective study. The neonates were divided into mild, moderate, and severe ARDS groups based on the oxygen index (OI) (4≤OI<8, 8≤OI<16, and OI≥16, respectively). The control group was selected from jaundice neonates who were observed in the neonatal department of the hospital during the same period, and they had no pathological factors causing neonatal jaundice. Peripheral blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, and day 7 after admission for the ARDS group, and on the day of admission for the control group. Serum cf-DNA levels were measured using a fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of serum cf-DNA levels with serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels.@*RESULTS@#A total of 50 neonates were enrolled in the ARDS group, including 15 neonates with mild ARDS, 25 with moderate ARDS, and 10 with severe ARDS. Twenty-five neonates were enrolled in the control group. Compared with the control group, the serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in all ARDS groups were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with the mild ARDS group, the serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in the moderate and severe ARDS groups were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the increase was more significant in the severe ARDS group (P<0.05). The serum levels of cf-DNA, IL-6, and TNF-α in all ARDS groups were significantly increased on day 3 after admission and significantly decreased on day 7 after admission compared with those on day 1 after admission (P<0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between serum cf-DNA levels and IL-6 levels as well as TNF-α levels in 50 neonates with ARDS (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is an excessive expression of NETs in neonates with ARDS, and dynamic monitoring of serum cf-DNA levels has certain clinical value in evaluating the severity and early diagnosis of ARDS in neonates.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Humans , Extracellular Traps , Prospective Studies , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-6 , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , DNA
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 240-246, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981856

ABSTRACT

Tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR is a common abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis, which brings difficulties and uncertainties to the evaluation of the evidence weight in actual cases. This paper reviews the types, formation mechanism, occurrence frequency, genetic pattern and quantitative evaluation of evidence of the tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR in forensic DNA analysis. This paper mainly explains the formation mechanism and genetic patterns based on different types of tri-allelic pattern. This paper also discusses the determination of tri-allelic pattern and the quantitative method of evidence evaluation in paternity testing and individual identification. This paper aims to provide references for scientific and standardized analysis of this abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , DNA/genetics , Forensic Medicine , Gene Frequency , Microsatellite Repeats
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 161-167, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981850

ABSTRACT

With the advance of molecular biology, DNA analysis technology has been widely applied in forensic science. Non-human DNA analysis can be used in some special cases and has unique forensic value to provide investigation clues and trial basis. Animal DNA typing plays a more prominent role in the detection of all kinds of non-human DNA related cases and is the main content of forensic non-human DNA analysis. This paper reviews the development history, present situation, advantages and disadvantages of animal DNA typing according to its technology, characteristic, challenges facing forensic science application scenarios, and also its future development.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Medicine , DNA/analysis , Forensic Sciences , Molecular Biology , Forensic Genetics
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2743-2761, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981230

ABSTRACT

Nitrate is the main form of inorganic nitrogen that crop absorbs, and nitrate transporter 2 (NRT2) is a high affinity transporter using nitrate as a specific substrate. When the available nitrate is limited, the high affinity transport systems are activated and play an important role in the process of nitrate absorption and transport. Most NRT2 cannot transport nitrates alone and require the assistance of a helper protein belonging to nitrate assimilation related family (NAR2) to complete the absorption or transport of nitrates. Crop nitrogen utilization efficiency is affected by environmental conditions, and there are differences between varieties, so it is of great significance to develop varieties with high nitrogen utilization efficiency. Sorghum bicolor has high stress tolerance and is more efficient in soil nitrogen uptake and utilization. The S. bicolor genome database was scanned to systematically analyze the gene structure, chromosomal localization, physicochemical properties, secondary structure and transmembrane domain, signal peptide and subcellular localization, promoter region cis-acting elements, phylogenetic evolution, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) recognition and annotation, and selection pressure of the gene family members. Through bioinformatics analysis, 5 NRT2 gene members (designated as SbNRT2-1a, SbNRT2-1b, SbNRT2-2, SbNRT2-3, and SbNRT2-4) and 2 NAR2 gene members (designated as SbNRT3-1 and SbNRT3-2) were identified, the number of which was less than that of foxtail millet. SbNRT2/3 were distributed on 3 chromosomes, and could be divided into four subfamilies. The genetic structure of the same subfamilies was highly similar. The average value of SbNRT2/3 hydrophilicity was positive, indicating that they were all hydrophobic proteins, whereas α-helix and random coil accounted for more than 70% of the total secondary structure. Subcellular localization occurred on plasma membrane, where SbNRT2 proteins did not contain signal peptides, but SbNRT3 proteins contained signal peptides. Further analysis revealed that the number of transmembrane domains of the SbNRT2s family members was greater than 10, while that of the SbNRT3s were 2. There was a close collinearity between NRT2/3s of S. bicolor and Zea mays. Protein domains analysis showed the presence of MFS_1 and NAR2 protein domains, which supported executing high affinity nitrate transport. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that SbNRT2/3 were more closely related to those of Z. mays and Setaria italic. Analysis of gene promoter cis-acting elements indicated that the promoter region of SbNRT2/3 had several plant hormones and stress response elements, which might respond to growth and environmental cues. Gene expression heat map showed that SbNRT2-3 and SbNRT3-1 were induced by nitrate in the root and stem, respectively, and SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-3 were induced by low nitrogen in the root and stem. Non-synonymous SNP variants were found in SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT2-1a. Selection pressure analysis showed that the SbNRT2/3 were subject to purification and selection during evolution. The expression of SbNRT2/3 gene and the effect of aphid infection were consistent with the expression analysis results of genes in different tissues, and SbNRT2-1b and SbNRT3-1 were significantly expressed in the roots of aphid lines 5-27sug, and the expression levels of SbNRT2-3, SbNRT2-4 and SbNRT3-2 were significantly reduced in sorghum aphid infested leaves. Overall, genome-wide identification, expression and DNA variation analysis of NRT2/3 gene family of Sorghum bicolor provided a basis for elucidating the high efficiency of sorghum in nitrogen utilization.


Subject(s)
Nitrate Transporters , Nitrates/metabolism , Sorghum/metabolism , Anion Transport Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Sorting Signals/genetics , Nitrogen/metabolism , DNA , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2465-2484, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981212

ABSTRACT

Large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome refers to the genetic modification of large fragments of DNA using knockout, integration and translocation. Compared to small-scale gene editing, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for the simultaneous modification of more genetic information, which is important for understanding the complex mechanisms such as multigene interactions. At the same time, large-scale genetic manipulation of the genome allows for larger-scale design and reconstruction of the genome, and even the creation of entirely new genomes, with great potential in reconstructing complex functions. Yeast is an important eukaryotic model organism that is widely used because of its safety and easiness of manipulation. This paper systematically summarizes the toolkit for large-scale genetic manipulation of the yeast genome, including recombinase-mediated large-scale manipulation, nuclease-mediated large-scale manipulation, de novo synthesis of large DNA fragments and other large-scale manipulation tools, and introduces their basic working principles and typical application cases. Finally, the challenges and developments in large-scale genetic manipulation are presented.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Editing , Genetic Engineering , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Translocation, Genetic
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 45-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the effects of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method in forensic DNA identification and to explore these two methods in forensic DNA identification.@*METHODS@#The genome DNA of THP-1 cells in different quantities was extracted by the cell lysis method and magnetic beads method, and the DNA content was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The cell lysis method and magnetic beads method were used to type the STR of human blood with different dilution ratios.@*RESULTS@#When the numbers of THP-1 cell were 100, 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by cell lysis method were (1.219±0.334), (5.081±0.335), (9.332±0.318) ng, respectively; and the DNA content extracted by magnetic beads method were (1.020±0.281), (3.634±0.482), (7.896±0.759) ng, respectively. When the numbers of THP-1 cells were 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by the cell lysis method was higher than that by the magnetic beads method. The sensitivity of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method was similar in STR typing of human blood at different dilution ratios. Complete STR typing could be obtained at 100, 300 and 500-fold dilutions of blood samples, but could not be detected at 700-fold dilution. STR typing of undiluted human blood could not be detected by cell lysis method.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cell lysis method is easy to operate and can retain template DNA to the maximum extend. It is expected to be suitable for trace blood evidence tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forensic Medicine , DNA/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Magnetic Phenomena , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Microsatellite Repeats
18.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 39: e39001, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425129

ABSTRACT

Molecular markers are important tools in the characterization of plant genetic diversity and can provide support for conservation strategies for endangered populations. The different molecular techniques involve the evaluation of many individuals; therefore, it is crucial to have fast, efficient, and inexpensive methods for DNA extraction. Given the importance of the Aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) it is pertinent to optimize a protocol that allows the obtainment of intact and pure DNA, aiming to assist conservation strategies for this species that is threatened with extinction. Thus, this study aimed to compare five DNA extraction methods: Dellaporta et al. (1983), Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified, Ferreira and Grattapaglia (1995), Romano and Brasileiro (2015), and Khanuja et al. (1999) and optimize the most efficient protocol for M. urundeuva. The modified DNA extraction protocol proposed by Doyle and Doyle (1987), using 100 mg of leaf tissue and 6 µl of ß-mercaptoethanol was the protocol that presented the sharpest bands after DNA electrophoresis and after the reactions of amplification employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Therefore, it is suggested to use the protocol described by Doyle and Doyle (1987) modified for the extraction of DNA from young M. urundeuva leaves to carry out techniques involving molecular markers.


Subject(s)
DNA/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Anacardiaceae , Cetrimonium
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e385723, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519884

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study evaluated the DNA damage caused by repeated doses of xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in the liver and kidneys. Methods: In this study, 60 rats were used. The rats were divided into group 1 (xylazine-ketamine), and group 2 (medetomidine-ketamine), and these anesthetic combinations were administered to the rats at repeated doses with 30-min intervals. The effects of these anesthetic agents on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene for DNA damage were investigated. Results: According to the gene expression results, it was observed that a single dose of xylazine-ketamine was 2.9-fold expressed, while first and second repeat doses did not show significant changes in expression levels. However, in the case of the third repetition, it was observed to be 3.8-fold overexpressed. In the case of medetomidine-ketamine administration, it was observed that a single-dose application resulted in a 1.04-fold expression, while the first and the third repeat doses showed a significant down expression. The samples from the second repeat dose administration group were found to have insignificant levels of expression. Conclusions: This study can contribute to understanding the safe anesthetic combination in research and operations in which xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine combinations are used.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Xylazine/administration & dosage , DNA , Gene Expression Profiling , Anesthesia , Ketamine/administration & dosage
20.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-5, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411474

ABSTRACT

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate molecular and immunological methods and to propose a workflow using them for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis routine. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed, including 121 liquid cultures from a TB laboratory located in the extreme south of Brazil. All cultures were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by in-house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted by the CTAB method (PCR-CTAB) for IS6110 detection. These cultures were subjected to faster tests than this one, the immunological MPT64 assay and the PCR using DNA extracted by thermal lysis method (PCR-TL), and these were evaluated for MTBC identification using PCR-CTAB as a reference method. Results: The sensitivity of MPT64 assay and PCR-TL to identify MTBC in positive cultures by PCR-CTAB were 73.6% (89/121) and 98.3% (119/121), respectively. We proposed a workflow based on the use of MPT64 assay in liquid cultures suggestive of MTBC, and in case of a negative result, we suggest the performance of PCR-TL. The PCR-CTAB is suggested only if faster tests are negative. Conclusions: Methods capable of confirming MTBC in cultures should continue to be standardized, tested, and optimized to meet the ideal requirements of simplicity, quickness, and effectiveness. The molecular and immunological methods evaluated have differences in the execution and detection of MTBC in cultures, but they are rapid tools for laboratory TB diagnosi


Objetivos: O estudo objetivou avaliar métodos molecular e imunológico e propor um fluxo de trabalho utilizando-os para a rotina de diagnóstico da tuberculose (TB). Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal retrospectivo, incluindo 121 culturas líquidas de um laboratório de TB localizado no extremo sul do Brasil. Todas as culturas foram positivas para o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (CMTB) por Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) in-house para detecção do IS6110, usando DNA extraído pelo método CTAB (PCR-CTAB). Essas culturas foram submetidas a testes mais rápidos que este, o ensaio imunológico MPT64 e a PCR com DNA extraído pelo método de lise térmica (PCR-LT), e estas foram avaliadas para identificação de CMTB usando PCR-CTAB como método de referência. Resultados: A sensibilidade do ensaio MPT64 e da PCR-LT para identificar o CMTB em culturas positivas pela PCRCTAB foi de 73,6% (89/121) e 98,3% (119/121), respectivamente. Propusemos um fluxo de trabalho baseado no uso do ensaio MPT64 em culturas líquidas sugestivas de CMTB e, em caso de resultado negativo, sugerimos a realização de PCR-LT. Sugere-se a PCR-CTAB apenas se os testes mais rápidos forem negativos. Conclusões: Os métodos capazes de confirmar o CMTB em culturas devem continuar sendo padronizados, testados e otimizados para atender aos requisitos ideais de simplicidade, rapidez e eficácia. Os métodos molecular e imunológico avaliados apresentam diferenças na execução e detecção do CMTB em culturas, mas são ferramentas rápidas para o diagnóstico laboratorial da TB.


Subject(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Cetrimonium , Mycobacterium
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