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1.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 18-24, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775112

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater) was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11) that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275) mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.


Subject(s)
Industrial Waste , Phenol/metabolism , Waste Water/microbiology , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/metabolism , Biotransformation , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Iran , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil Microbiology , Yeasts/genetics , Yeasts/isolation & purification
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 172-176, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Time Factors
3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 359-366, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749714

ABSTRACT

Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Piper/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 397-406, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749738

ABSTRACT

Penicillum janthinellum SDX7 was isolated from aged petroleum hydrocarbon-affected soil at the site of Anand, Gujarat, India, and was tested for different pH, temperature, agitation and concentrations for optimal growth of the isolate that was capable of degrading upto 95%, 63% and 58% of 1%, 3% and 5% kerosene, respectively, after a period of 16 days, at optimal growth conditions of pH 6.0, 30 °C and 180 rpm agitation. The GC/MS chromatograms revealed that then-alkane fractions are easily degraded; however, the rate might be lower for branched alkanes, n-alkylaromatics, cyclic alkanes and polynuclear aromatics. The test doses caused a concentration-dependent depletion of carbohydrates of P. janthinellum SDX7 by 3% to 80%, proteins by 4% to 81% and amino acids by 8% to 95% upto 16 days of treatment. The optimal concentration of 3% kerosene resulted in the least reduction of the metabolites of P. janthinellum such as carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids with optimal growth compared to 5% and 1% (v/v) kerosene doses on the 12th and 16th day of exposure. Phenols were found to be mounted by 43% to 66% at lower and higher concentrations during the experimental period. Fungal isolate P. janthinellum SDX7 was also tested for growth on various xenobiotic compounds.


Subject(s)
Kerosene , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Xenobiotics/metabolism , Base Composition , Biotransformation , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Genes, rRNA , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , India , Molecular Sequence Data , Penicillium/genetics , Penicillium/isolation & purification , RNA, Fungal/genetics , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Temperature
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 59-65, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748250

ABSTRACT

Thermophilic and thermotolerant micro-organisms strains have served as the natural source of industrially relevant and thermostable enzymes. Although some strains of the Trametes genus are thermotolerant, few Trametes strains were studied at the temperature above 30 °C until now. In this paper, the laccase activity and the mycelial growth rate for Trametes trogii LK13 are superior at 37 °C. Thermostability and organic cosolvent tolerance assays of the laccase produced at 37 °C indicated that the enzyme possessed fair thermostability with 50% of its initial activity at 80 °C for 5 min, and could remain 50% enzyme activity treated with organic cosolvent at the concentration range of 25%–50% (v/v). Furthermore, the test on production of laccase and lignocellulolytic enzymes showed the crude enzymes possessed high laccase level (1000 U g−1) along with low cellulose (2 U g−1) and xylanase (140 U g−1) activity. Thus, T. trogii LK13 is a potential strain to be applied in many biotechnological processes.


Subject(s)
Laccase/metabolism , Trametes/enzymology , Trametes/growth & development , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Laccase/chemistry , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Solvents , Temperature , Trametes/cytology , Trametes/radiation effects
6.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(3): 620-632, 03/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744835

ABSTRACT

O estudo descreve os pontos de venda de alimentos e sua associação com sobrepeso/obesidade em escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Desenho transversal com amostra probabilística de 2.506 escolares de escolas públicas (n = 19) e privadas (n = 11). O sobrepeso/obesidade foi classificado pela referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde de 2007. Foram realizadas análises brutas e ajustadas por meio de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade foi de 34,2%. Na rede pública, foram verificados 19,6% de sobrepeso e 13,5% de obesidade. Na rede privada, observaram-se 22,4% de sobrepeso e 11,1% de obesidade. Na rede pública, foi encontrada associação entre sobrepeso/obesidade e utilização da padaria (p = 0,004). Na rede privada, observou-se que os escolares de famílias que utilizaram o supermercado apresentaram 26% menos de sobrepeso/obesidade do que os escolares que não utilizam esses pontos de venda de alimentos (p = 0,003). Os dados encontrados evidenciam a existência de associação entre a utilização de alguns tipos de pontos de venda de alimentos (supermercado e padaria) e a prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade na população escolar.


The study analyzes retail food outlets and their association with overweight/obesity in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. The study used a cross-sectional design with a random sample of 2,506 schoolchildren from public (n = 19) and private schools (n = 11). Overweight and obesity were classified according to World Health Organization guidelines for 2007, and crude and adjusted analyses were performed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was 34.2%. In public schools, 19.6% of the children were overweight and 13.5% were obese, as compared to 22.4% and 11.1% in private schools. An association was found in the public school system between overweight/obesity and the use of bakeries for food purchases (p = 0.004). In the private school system, children of families that bought groceries at the supermarket showed 26% less overweight/obesity compared to those who did not (p = 0.003). The data show an association between some types of food outlets (supermarkets and bakeries) and prevalence of overweight/obesity in the school-age population.


El estudio describe los puntos de venta de alimentos y su asociación con el sobrepeso/obesidad en escolares de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se trata de un estudio transversal con una muestra aleatoria de 2.506 escolares de las escuelas públicas (n = 19) y privadas (n = 11). El sobrepeso/obesidad se clasifica, en función de la OMS en 2007, con análisis ajustados y crudos que se realizaron mediante la regresión de Poisson. La prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue de un 34,2%. En el sistema público el resultado fue de un 19,6% sobrepeso y un 13,5% obesidad. En el privado se observó un 22,4% de sobrepeso y 11,1% obesidad. En el primero se encontró una correlación entre el sobrepeso/obesidad y el consumo de bollería (p = 0,004). En las escuelas privadas se observó que los escolares de familias que habían utilizado el supermercado tenían un 26% menos de sobrepeso/ obesidad que los niños en edad escolar que no utilizaron este punto de venta de alimentos (p = 0,003). En el momento del estudio existe una asociación entre el uso de algunos tipos de punto de venta de alimentos (supermercado y panadería) y la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad en escolares.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/chemistry , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/metabolism , Telomere/chemistry , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics , Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism , DNA, Fungal/metabolism , Enzyme Activation , HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Telomerase/metabolism , Telomere-Binding Proteins/genetics , Telomere-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Telomere/metabolism
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We investigated the species distribution and amphotericin B (AMB) susceptibility of Korean clinical Aspergillus isolates by using two Etests and the CLSI broth microdilution method. METHODS: A total of 136 Aspergillus isolates obtained from 11 university hospitals were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and beta-tubulin genomic regions. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMB were determined in Etests using Mueller-Hinton agar (Etest-MH) and RPMI agar (Etest-RPG), and categorical agreement with the CLSI method was assessed by using epidemiological cutoff values. RESULTS: ITS sequencing identified the following six Aspergillus species complexes: Aspergillus fumigatus (42.6% of the isolates), A. niger (23.5%), A. flavus (17.6%), A. terreus (11.0%), A. versicolor (4.4%), and A. ustus (0.7%). Cryptic species identifiable by beta-tubulin sequencing accounted for 25.7% (35/136) of the isolates. Of all 136 isolates, 36 (26.5%) had AMB MICs of > or =2 microg/mL by the CLSI method. The categorical agreement of Etest-RPG with the CLSI method was 98% for the A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. versicolor complexes, 87% for the A. terreus complex, and 37.5% for the A. flavus complex. That of Etest-MH was < or =75% for the A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, and A. versicolor complexes but was higher for the A. fumigatus complex (98.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Aspergillus species other than A. fumigatus constitute about 60% of clinical Aspergillus isolates, and reduced AMB susceptibility is common among clinical isolates of Aspergillus in Korea. Molecular identification and AMB susceptibility testing by Etest-RPG may be useful for characterizing Aspergillus isolates of clinical relevance.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , Hospitals , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tubulin/genetics
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1211-1220, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741270

ABSTRACT

A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Colombia , Cellulase/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Hydrolysis , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1293-1302, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741279

ABSTRACT

Xylanase (EC 3. 2. 1. 8), hydrolyzes xylo-oligosaccharides into D-xylose and required for complete hydrolysis of native cellulose and biomass conversion. It has broad range of applications in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and Agri-food industries. Fifty fungal species were isolated from the fouled soil around an oil refinery and screened for the production of xylanase enzyme by enrichment culture techniques. The isolated fungal strain was identified as Hypocrea lixii SS1 based on the results of biochemical tests and 18s rRNA sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 5 software. Further, Hypocrea lixii SS1 was tested for the ability to utilize the sunflower oil sludge (waste from the oil industry) as the sole carbon source for xylanase production. The growth characteristics of Hypocrea lixii SS1 were also studied and maximum growth was found on the 7th day of incubation. The fungus showed a remarkable xylanase production of 38.9 U/mL. Xylanase was purified using a combination of 0-50% NH4SO2 precipitation, DEAE-sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Single peak obtained in RP-HPLC confirms the purity of xylanase. Further the enzyme produced was affirmed as xylanase with its molecular weight (29 kDa) using SDS-PAGE.


Subject(s)
Soil Microbiology , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Xylosidases/analysis , Chromatography, Liquid , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phylogeny , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichoderma/enzymology , Trichoderma/growth & development , Xylosidases/chemistry , Xylosidases/isolation & purification
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 411-416, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723096

ABSTRACT

The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5) cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Vitis/microbiology , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Brazil , Colony Count, Microbial , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Mycological Typing Techniques , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Yeasts/genetics
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 515-522, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723109

ABSTRACT

Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/chemistry , Candida/classification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Brazil , Cluster Analysis , Candida/genetics , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mycological Typing Techniques , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 551-557, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723120

ABSTRACT

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo 1835) Vuillemin is an effective alternative control agent against some agricultural pests and biological vectors of important diseases such as Chagas disease. In this work we studied an isolate of Beauveria bassiana from of the town of San Antonio Rayón, Puebla, Mexico and its entomopathogenic effects on Meccus pallidipennis (Stal 1872). Phylogenetic analysis using molecular comparison of the ITS and EF1α genes, showed that the resulting cladogram places the BUAP 04 strain with a relationship closer to the AFAO 9-6 strain, within the diversity of the B. bassiana sensu lato group. Although there was the possibility that BUAP 04 strain was a direct descendant of strains used in campaigns of biologic control, molecular study allowed us to recognize that it was a different fungus due to numerous inserts. A strain isolated from a T. dimiata was evaluated for pathogenicity against another triatoma (Meccus pallidipennis) species obtaining an LC50 of 4.16 x 10(6) spores/mL, confirming that the BUAP 04 strain is virulent for M. pallidipennis and could be a good prospect for formulations to control M. pallidipennis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Beauveria/growth & development , Triatoma/microbiology , Triatoma/physiology , Beauveria/classification , Beauveria/genetics , Beauveria/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Mexico , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Survival Analysis , Virulence
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Jan; 52(1): 89-96
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150337

ABSTRACT

Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCCB 123 was grown in a synthetic medium for β-1,3 glucanase production. From the culture filtrate, β-1,3 glucanase was purified with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The enzyme was a metallozyme as its β-1,3 glucanase activity got inhibited by the metal chelator EDTA. Optimum pH and temperature for β-1,3 glucanase activity on laminarin was found to be 7 and 50 °C respectively. The MCCB 123 β-1,3 glucanase was found to have good lytic action on a wide range of fungal isolates, and hence its application in fungal DNA extraction was evaluated. β-1,3 glucanase purified from the culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa MCCB 123 could be used for the extraction of fungal DNA without the addition of any other reagents generally used. Optimum pH and temperature of enzyme for fungal DNA extraction was found to be 7 and 65 °C respectively. This is the first report on β-1,3 glucanase employed in fungal DNA extraction.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/isolation & purification , Glycoside Hydrolases/chemistry , Molecular Weight , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Substrate Specificity , Temperature
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 127-134, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709465

ABSTRACT

Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81UmL-1, specific activity 78 U mg-1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 ºC. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+,Cu2+,Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2.H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL-1 enzyme activities.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins/metabolism , Peroxidases/isolation & purification , Peroxidases/metabolism , Pleurotus/enzymology , Biotransformation , Chemical Precipitation , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme Activators/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Metals/metabolism , Open Reading Frames , Peroxidases/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Temperature
15.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 135-142, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709467

ABSTRACT

In Colombia, knowledge of the yeast and yeast-like fungi community is limited because most studies have focused on species with clinical importance. Sediments and water represent important habitats for the study of yeast diversity, especially for yeast species with industrial, biotechnological, and bioremediation potential. The main purpose of this study was to identify and compare the diversity of yeast species associated with sediment and water samples from two artificial lakes in Universidad del Valle (Cali-Colombia). Yeast samplings were performed from fifteen sediment samples and ten water samples. Grouping of similar isolates was initially based on colony and cell morphology, which was then complemented by micro/mini satellite primed PCR banding pattern analysis by using GTG5 as single primer. A representative isolate for each group established was chosen for D1/D2 domain sequencing and identification. In general, the following yeast species were identified: Candida albicans, Candida diversa, Candida glabrata, Candida pseudolambica, Cryptococcus podzolicus, Cryptococcus rajasthanensis, Cryptococcus laurentii, Williopsis saturnus, Hanseniaspora thailandica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Torulaspora pretoriensis, Tricosporon jirovecii, Trichosporon laibachii and Yarrowia lypolitica. Two possible new species were also found, belonging to the Issatchenkia sp. and Bullera sp. genera. In conclusion, the lakes at the Universidad del Valle campus have significant differences in yeast diversity and species composition between them.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Lakes/microbiology , Yeasts/classification , Yeasts/isolation & purification , Colombia , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Water Microbiology , Yeasts/genetics
16.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(1): 248-254, 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709468

ABSTRACT

The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8SITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13-epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 µgmL-1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 µgmL-1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 µgmL-1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Endophytes/chemistry , Garlic/microbiology , Trichoderma/chemistry , Trichodermin/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification , Botrytis/drug effects , Cluster Analysis , Colletotrichum/drug effects , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/genetics , /genetics , Rhizoctonia/drug effects , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Trichoderma/classification , Trichoderma/isolation & purification , Trichodermin/isolation & purification
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(4): 1241-1250, Oct.-Dec. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705264

ABSTRACT

The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. This work describes the isolation and characterization of MAP kinase gene, Cgl-SLT2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A DNA sequence, including 1,633 bp of Cgl-SLT2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via DNA walking and cloned. To analyze gene function, a gene disruption cassette containing hygromycin-resistant gene was constructed, and Cgl-SLT2 was inactivated via gene deletion. Analysis on Cgl-slt2 mutant revealed a defect in vegetative growth and sporulation as compared to the wild-type strain. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, hyperbranched hyphal morphology was observed in the mutant. Conidia induction for germination on rubber wax-coated hard surfaces revealed no differences in the percentage of conidial germination between the wild-type and Cgl-slt2 mutant. However, the percentage of appressorium formation in the mutant was greatly reduced. Bipolar germination in the mutant was higher than in the wild-type at 8-h post-induction. A pathogenicity assay revealed that the mutant was unable to infect either wounded or unwounded mangoes. These results suggest that the Cgl-SLT2 MAP kinase is required for C. gloeosporioides conidiation, polarized growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum/growth & development , Colletotrichum/pathogenicity , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Spores, Fungal/growth & development , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gene Deletion , Hyphae/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Mangifera/microbiology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Open Reading Frames , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Virulence
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(3): 983-991, July-Sept. 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-699830

ABSTRACT

A field experiment established in 1980 was conducted to evaluate the effects of open drainage ditch applied for water removal on bacterial and fungal communities of cold waterlogged paddy soils in 2011. In this experiment, traditional plate counting and temperature gradient gel electrophoresis were employed to characterize the abundance and diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities. Four different distances from the open drainage ditch, 5, 15, 25 and 75 m with different degrees of drainage were designed for this study. Maximum populations of culturable aerobic bacteria and fungi were at 15-m distance while minimum populations were at 75-m distance. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in fungal populations were observed at all distances from open drainage ditch. The highest diversity of the bacterial community was found at a distance of 25 m, while that of the fungal community was observed at a distance of 5 m. Sequencing of excised TGGE bands indicated that the dominant bacteria at 75-m distance belonged to anaerobic or microaerobic bacteria. Relationships between microbial characteristics and soil physicochemical properties indicated that soil pH and available nitrogen contents were key factors controlling the abundance of culturable aerobic bacteria and fungi, while soil water capacity also affected the diversity of fungal community. These findings can provide the references for better design and advanced management of the drainage ditches in cold waterlogged paddy soils.


Subject(s)
Biota , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Chemical Phenomena , Fungi/classification , Fungi/isolation & purification , Soil Microbiology , Cluster Analysis , Cold Temperature , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Drainage , Genes, rRNA , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Molecular Sequence Data , Nitrogen/analysis , Phylogeny , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , RNA, Fungal/genetics , /genetics , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Soil/chemistry
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 657-665, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688573

ABSTRACT

Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the ­characte­rization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization.


Subject(s)
Mycorrhizae/classification , Mycorrhizae/isolation & purification , Pinus/microbiology , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Plant/chemistry , DNA, Plant/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Mycorrhizae/genetics , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Phylogeny , Portugal , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
São Paulo; s.n; 2009. 140 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-566895

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho realizamos a análise das variações na expressão gênica global do fungo aquático Blastocladiella emersonii submetido ao estresse de carência de oxigênio (hipóxia), utilizando a técnica de microarranjos de cDNA em lâminas contendo 3773 genes distintos. Nos experimentos de hipóxia gradual (diminuição gradual da concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, seguido de reoxigenação) e hipóxia direta (diminuição direta da concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, seguido de reoxigenação) observamos que 650 genes foram diferencialmente expressos em pelo menos uma das condições de estresse e que 534 deles mostraram-se afetados (direta ou indiretamente) pela disponibilidade de oxigênio, uma vez que apresentaram recuperação (ou tendência à recuperação) da sua expressão aos níveis normais, quando as células foram reoxigenadas. Além de modular a expressão de diversos genes sem função conhecida, B. emersonii responde à hipóxia reajustando a expressão de genes responsáveis pela produção e consumo de energia. Pelo menos transcricionalmente, este fungo favorece o metabolismo anaeróbico, através da indução de genes que codificam enzimas da via glicolítica e lactato desidrogenase, ao passo que no ciclo do ácido cítrico, a maioria dos genes encontram-se reprimidos ou não sofrem alteração na expressão. Processos dispendiosos em energia como síntese protéica, metabolismo de aminoácidos, enovelamento de proteínas e transporte por membrana apresentaram perfis predominantemente de repressão gênica quando em carência de oxigênio. Ainda utilizando a técnica de microarranjos, mostramos semelhanças entre os perfis transcricionais nos experimentos hipóxia e de carência de Fe2+ (tratamento com quelante de Fe2+ 2,2´-dipyridyl) sugerem que estes estresses estão de alguma forma relacionados, fornecendo bons indícios de que o íon Fe2+ possa ter um papel importante no mecanismo sensor de oxigênio e/ou de resposta a hipóxia em B. emersonii. Além disso, o tratamento prévio de células...


In this work we analyzed global gene expression changes in the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii submitted to oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), using cDNA microarrays containing 3,773 distinct genes. In gradual hypoxia (gradual decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration, followed by reoxygenation) and direct hypoxia (direct decrease of dissolved oxygen concentration, followed by reoxygenation) we observed 650 differentially expressed genes in at least one of the stress conditions tested, 534 of them being affected (directly or indirectly) by oxygen availability, since they showed recovery of normal expression levels or a tendency to recover, when cells were reoxygenated. Besides modulating many genes with no previously assigned function, B. emersonii responds to hypoxia by readjusting the expression levels of genes responsible for energy production and consumption. At least transcriptionally, this fungus seems to favour anaerobic metabolism through the induction of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase, while in the TCA-cycle, most genes were repressed or unchanged. Energy-costly processes like protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism, protein folding and transport had their gene expression profiles predominantly repressed during oxygen deprivation. Microarray experiments also showed similarities between the transcriptional profile of genes in hypoxia and iron (II) deprivation (treatment with the iron (II) chelator 2,2/'-dipyridyl), suggesting that these stresses are somehow related, giving good evidence that Fe2+ ion could have a role in the mechanism of oxygen sensing and/or response to hypoxia in B. emersonii. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells subjected to hypoxia with the antibiotic geldanamycin, a known inhibitor of the heat shock protein HSP90, caused a significant decrease in the induction of certain hypoxic genes, indicating that this fungus could have a mechanism similar to that of the mammalian hypoxia transcription factor...


Subject(s)
Blastocladiella/genetics , Aquatic Fungi/methods , Gene Expression , Oxygen , Biochemistry , Molecular Biology/methods , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , Hypoxia
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