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1.
Mycobiology ; : 200-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760539

ABSTRACT

Allelic differences in A and B mating-type loci are a prerequisite for the progression of mating in the genus Pleurotus eryngii; thus, the crossing is hampered by this biological barrier in inbreeding. Molecular markers linked to mating types of P. eryngii KNR2312 were investigated with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA to enhance crossing efficiency. An A4-linked sequence was identified and used to find the adjacent genomic region with the entire motif of the A locus from a contig sequenced by PacBio. The sequence-characterized amplified region marker 7-2299 distinguished A4 mating-type monokaryons from KNR2312 and other strains. A BLAST search of flanked sequences revealed that the A4 locus had a general feature consisting of the putative HD1 and HD2 genes. Both putative HD transcription factors contain a homeodomain sequence and a nuclear localization sequence; however, valid dimerization motifs were found only in the HD1 protein. The ACAAT motif, which was reported to have relevance to sex determination, was found in the intergenic region. The SCAR marker could be applicable in the classification of mating types in the P. eryngii breeding program, and the A4 locus could be the basis for a multi-allele detection marker.


Subject(s)
Breeding , Cicatrix , Classification , Dimerization , DNA , DNA, Intergenic , Inbreeding , Pleurotus , Transcription Factors
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 529-533, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951804

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Shigellosis remains a serious public health problem and an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to characterize fliC and the genetic relatedness of Shigella spp. isolated during a one-year period from children in a suspected outbreak in Tehran, Iran. Methods and results Fifty Shigella spp. were isolated from 3779 stool samples of children with diarrhea (prevalence rate: 1.32%). Among the isolates, 92% were characterized as Shigella sonnei, while 6% and 2% were identified as S. flexneri and S. boydii, respectively. S. dysenteriae was not recovered from the patients. All isolates were negative for fliC except for Shigella standard strains. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) profiles allowed differentiating the 50 isolates into 5 ERIC types, which were grouped into five clusters (ET1-ET5). Computer-assisted clustering of the strains showed a high degree of similarity among the isolates. Conclusion In conclusion, given the clonal correlation of the Shigella strains isolated in this study and the lack of fliC among them, we propose that probably a single or limited fliC-defected Shigella clone spread and caused the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Shigella/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Phylogeny , Shigella/classification , Shigella/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Flagellin/genetics , Iran/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773565

ABSTRACT

To accelerate the breeding process of cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis and increase its yield, it is important to identify molecular fingerprint of dominant O. sinensis. In the present study, we collected 3 batches of industrially cultivated O. sinensis product with higher yield than the others and compared their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with the wild and the reported. The ITS sequence was obtained by bidirectional sequencing and analyzed with molecular systematics as a DNA barcode for rapid and accurate identification of wild and cultivated O. sinensis collected. The ITS sequences of O. sinensis with detailed collection loci on NCBI were downloaded to construct a phylogenetic tree together with the sequences obtained from the present study by using neighbor-joining method based on their evolution relationship. The information on collection loci was analyzed with ArcGIS 10.2 to demonstrate the geographic distribution of these samples and thus to determine the origin of the dominant samples. The results showed that all wild and cultivated samples were identified as O. sinensis and all sequences were divided into seven phylogenetic groups in the tree. Those groups were precisely distributed on the map and the process of their system evolution was clearly presented. The three cultivated samples were clustered into two dominant groups, showing the correlation between the industrially cultivated samples and the dominant wild samples, which can provide references for its optimized breeding in the future.


Subject(s)
Breeding , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Genes, Mating Type, Fungal , Hypocreales , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812354

ABSTRACT

To accelerate the breeding process of cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis and increase its yield, it is important to identify molecular fingerprint of dominant O. sinensis. In the present study, we collected 3 batches of industrially cultivated O. sinensis product with higher yield than the others and compared their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences with the wild and the reported. The ITS sequence was obtained by bidirectional sequencing and analyzed with molecular systematics as a DNA barcode for rapid and accurate identification of wild and cultivated O. sinensis collected. The ITS sequences of O. sinensis with detailed collection loci on NCBI were downloaded to construct a phylogenetic tree together with the sequences obtained from the present study by using neighbor-joining method based on their evolution relationship. The information on collection loci was analyzed with ArcGIS 10.2 to demonstrate the geographic distribution of these samples and thus to determine the origin of the dominant samples. The results showed that all wild and cultivated samples were identified as O. sinensis and all sequences were divided into seven phylogenetic groups in the tree. Those groups were precisely distributed on the map and the process of their system evolution was clearly presented. The three cultivated samples were clustered into two dominant groups, showing the correlation between the industrially cultivated samples and the dominant wild samples, which can provide references for its optimized breeding in the future.


Subject(s)
Breeding , DNA, Fungal , Genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Genes, Mating Type, Fungal , Hypocreales , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(1): 101-108, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L., and the most promising strain was identified by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine fungi were isolated, and 28 presented some phytotoxic symptoms against the target plant. Fungus VP51 belonging to the genus Diaporthe showed the most pronounced herbicidal activity. The Brazilian Pampa biome is a potential resource for the development of new and sustainable chemical compounds for modern agriculture.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/metabolism , Fungi/metabolism , Herbicides/metabolism , Phylogeny , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S/genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Plant Weeds/microbiology , Fermentation , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72751

ABSTRACT

Toxascaris leonina is a common parasitic nematode of wild mammals and has significant impacts on the protection of rare wild animals. To analyze population genetic characteristics of T. leonina from South China tiger, its mitochondrial (mt) genome was sequenced. Its complete circular mt genome was 14,277 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2 non-coding regions. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A and T. The most common start codon and stop codon were TTG and TAG, and 4 genes ended with an incomplete stop codon. There were 13 intergenic regions ranging 1 to 10 bp in size. Phylogenetically, T. leonina from a South China tiger was close to canine T. leonina. This study reports for the first time a complete mt genome sequence of T. leonina from the South China tiger, and provides a scientific basis for studying the genetic diversity of nematodes between different hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Bias , China , Codon, Initiator , Codon, Terminator , DNA, Intergenic , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Variation , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Mammals , Phylogeny , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis , Tigers , Toxascaris
7.
Mycobiology ; : 155-161, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729725

ABSTRACT

The most economically important species used in a wide range of fermentation industries throughout Asia belong to Aspergillus section Flavi, which are morphologically and phylogenetically indistinguishable, with a few being toxigenic and therefore a major concern. They are frequently isolated from Korean fermentation starters, such as nuruk and meju. The growing popularity of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages has led to a demand for their quality enhancement, therefore requiring selection of efficient non-toxigenic strains to assist effective fermentation. This study was performed to classify the most efficient strains of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from various types of traditional wheat nuruk, based on a polyphasic approach involving molecular and biochemical evaluation. A total of 69 strains were isolated based on colony morphology and identified as Aspergillus oryzae/flavus based on internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequencing. Interestingly, none were toxigenic based on PCR amplification of intergenic regions of the aflatoxin cluster genes norB-cypA and the absence of aflatoxin in the culture supernatants by thin-layer chromatography analysis. Saccharification capability of the isolates, assessed through α-amylase and glucoamylase activities, revealed that two isolates, TNA24 and TNA15, showed the highest levels of activity. Although the degrees of variation in α-amylase and glucoamylase activities among the isolates were higher, there were only slight differences in acid protease activity among the isolates with two, TNA28 and TNA36, showing the highest activities. Furthermore, statistical analyses showed that α-amylase activity was positively correlated with glucoamylase activity (p < 0.001), and therefore screening for either was sufficient to predict the saccharifying capacity of the Aspergillus strain.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Alcoholic Beverages , Amylases , Asia , Aspergillus , Calmodulin , Chromatography, Thin Layer , DNA, Intergenic , Fermentation , Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase , Mass Screening , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Triticum
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812543

ABSTRACT

Hyoscyami Semen, the mature dried seed of Hyoscyamus niger L., has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat human diseases. Hyoscyami Semen is found in local markets in China. In markets, sellers and buyers commonly inadvertently mix the seeds of H. niger with the seeds of related species such as Hygrophila salicifolia (Vahl) Nees, Astragalus complanatus R. Br., Cuscuta australis R. Br., Cuscuta chinensis Lam., and Impatiens balsamina L. because of their similar morphologies or similar names. Thus, developing a reliable method for discriminating H. niger seeds from its adulterants is necessary to reduce confusion and ensure the safe use of Hyoscyami Semen. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of high-resolution melting analysis combined with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) with internal transcribed spacer 2 to discriminate H. niger. Our results show that Bar-HRM successfully identified the adulterants and detected the proportion of H. niger DNA extract within an admixture. In particular, HRM detected H. niger DNA extract in A. complanatus DNA extract at concentrations as low as 1%. In conclusion, the Bar-HRM method developed in the present study for authenticating H. niger is rapid and cost-effective. It can be used in the future to guarantee the purity of Hyoscyami Semen for the clinical use.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , Chemistry , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Chemistry , Genetics , Discriminant Analysis , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Hyoscyamus , Genetics , Seeds , Genetics , Transition Temperature
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 903-910, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755814

ABSTRACT

Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3), A. sydowii (SBCM7) and A. fumigatus (SBC4). The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g). For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g) and 4.0 (573 U/g), respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus fumigatus/enzymology , Aspergillus niger/enzymology , Cellulose/metabolism , /metabolism , Kluyveromyces/enzymology , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylosidases/metabolism , beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolation & purification , Aspergillus fumigatus/metabolism , Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Aspergillus niger/metabolism , Base Sequence , Biomass , Brazil , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Fermentation , Kluyveromyces/isolation & purification , Kluyveromyces/metabolism , Lignin/metabolism , Molecular Typing , Mycological Typing Techniques , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 769-776, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755829

ABSTRACT

The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p < 0.05). A relatively high relationship was observed between total phenols and flavonoids or anthocyanins (r2 > 0.60). However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2 < 0.40). In conclusion, comparisons showed that wild isolate 4 and cultivated strains A15 and H1 had higher antioxidant capacity than the others (p < 0.05). This result identifies these mushrooms as good candidates for further investigation.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agaricus/metabolism , Anthocyanins/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biphenyl Compounds/metabolism , Flavonoids/metabolism , Phenols/metabolism , Picrates/metabolism , Agaricus/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Iran , Oxidation-Reduction , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 235-241, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-112054

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of RNAs, perform important functions in biological processes. However, the role of circRNAs in the mammary gland remains unknown. The present study is aimed at identifying and characterizing the circRNAs expressed in the mammary gland of lactating rats. METHODS: Deep sequencing of RNase R-enriched rat lactating mammary gland samples was performed and circRNAs were predicted using a previously reported computational pipeline. Gene ontology terms of circRNA-producing genes were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 6,824 and 4,523 circRNAs were identified from rat mammary glands at two different lactation stages. Numerous circRNAs were specifically expressed at different lactation stages, and only 1,314 circRNAs were detected at both lactation stages. The majority of the candidate circRNAs map to noncoding intronic and intergenic regions. The results demonstrate a circular preference or specificity of some genes. DAVID analysis revealed an enrichment of protein kinases and related proteins among the set of genes encoding circRNAs. Interestingly, four protein-coding genes (Rev3l, IGSF11, MAML2, and LPP) that also transcribe high levels of circRNAs have been reported to be involved in cancer. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide the basis for comparison between breast cancer profiles and for selecting representative circRNA candidates for future functional characterization in breast development and breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Phenomena , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , DNA, Intergenic , Female , Gene Ontology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Introns , Lactation , Mammary Glands, Human , Phosphotransferases , Protein Kinases , Rats , Ribonucleases , RNA , RNA, Untranslated , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223790

ABSTRACT

Microsporidia are eukaryotic organisms that cause zoonosis and are major opportunistic pathogens in HIV-positive patients. However, there is increasing evidence that these organisms can also cause gastrointestinal and ocular infections in immunocompetent individuals. In Korea, there have been no reports on human infections with microsporidia to date. In the present study, we used real-time PCR and nucleotide sequencing to detect Encephalitozoon intestinalis infection in seven of 139 human diarrheal stool specimens (5%) and Encephalitozoon hellem in three of 34 farm soil samples (8.8%). Genotype analysis of the E. hellem isolates based on the internal transcribed spacer 1 and polar tube protein genes showed that all isolates were genotype 1B. To our knowledge, this is the first report on human E. intestinalis infection in Korea and the first report revealing farm soil samples as a source of E. hellem infection. Because microsporidia are an important public health issue, further large-scale epidemiological studies are warranted.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/parasitology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Agriculture , Base Sequence , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Encephalitozoon/genetics , Encephalitozoonosis/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Female , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Typing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Soil/parasitology , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812499

ABSTRACT

Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Intergenic , DNA, Plant , Drug Contamination , Humans , Lepidium , Genetics , Phytotherapy
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237737

ABSTRACT

In this study, 31 Notopterygium incisum populations were analyzed using ITS sequences to investigate the genetic structure. The results showed that: the ITS region ranged in size from 634 to 635 bp and base composition was with high G + C content of 57.8%. Thirty-one polymorphic sites were detected from 402 sequences of 31 populations of N. incisum, and the proportion of polymorphic sites was 4.88%, in which parsimony informative sites were up to 12. And 31 haplotypes were identified based on these polymorphic sites. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) indicated that high genetic differentiation (57%) existed among population, and gene flow was low (N(m) = 0.38) among populations. Phylogenetic relationships of 31 haplotypes were analyzed using NJ method with N. forbesiias an out-group. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 31 haplotypes from different populations mixed together and did not form distinct geographically separated clades.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Classification , Genetics , Base Sequence , China , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237672

ABSTRACT

To establish a molecular identification method for Bletillae Rhizoma, this paper extracted genome DNA from Bletillae Rhizoma and its adulterants. The sequences of rDNA ITS2 were sequenced after amplifying. Then multiple alignments of ITS2 were constructed phylogenetic tree with Neighbor Joining by MEGA 5. 1 and found out SNPs loci. The result showed that rDNA ITS2 region could identify Bletillae Rhizoma and its adulterants. There existed the SNPs loci, which could identify Bletilla striata and B. ochracea. Furthermore, we designed specific primers against the SNPs loci of B. striata and B. ochracea, then screened primers and optimized the PCR amplification conditions. Finally, the DNA of B. striata and B. ochracea were specifically amplified by BJ59-412F, BJ59-412R and HHBJ-225R. The length of amplification products were respectively about 350 bp and 520 bp that were effectively identified of B. striata and B. ochracea. While, the adulterants of Bletillae Rhizoma were no-reaction occurring. To sum up, the amplification conditions of the primers can identify B. striata, B. ochracea and their adulterants successfully at the same time. This method was easy, time-saving, and reliable, which can be used as a rapid method for molecular identification of Bletillae Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA Primers , Genetics , DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Molecular Sequence Data , Orchidaceae , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Rhizome , Classification , Genetics
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 955-959, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728802

ABSTRACT

Malaria in La Guajira, the most northern state of Colombia, shows two different epidemiological patterns. Malaria is endemic in the municipality of Dibulla whereas in Riohacha it is characterised by sporadic outbreaks. This study aimed to establish whether differences in transmission patterns could be attributed to different vector species. The most abundant adult female species were Anopheles aquasalis, exclusive to Riohacha, and Anopheles darlingi, restricted to Dibulla. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified using morphology and the molecular markers internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome c oxidase I. All specimens (n = 1,393) were tested by ELISA to determine natural infection rates with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. An. darlingi was positive for P. vivax 210, with an infection rate of 0.355% and an entomological inoculation rate of 15.87 infective bites/person/year. Anopheles albimanus larvae were the most common species in Riohacha, found in temporary swamps; in contrast, in Dibulla An. darlingi were detected mainly in permanent streams. Distinctive species composition and larval habitats in each municipality may explain the differences in Plasmodium transmission and suggest different local strategies should be used for vector control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium , Anopheles/anatomy & histology , Biomarkers , Cities , Colombia , DNA, Intergenic , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Geography , Malaria/parasitology , Species Specificity
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 189-196, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705824

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to understand how Romanian group B streptococcus (GBS) strains fit into the global GBS population structure. Colonising isolates recovered from adult human females were tested for antibiotic resistance, were molecularly serotyped based on the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) gene cluster and further characterised using a set of molecular markers (surface protein genes, pilus-encoded islands and mobile genetic elements inserted in the scpB-lmb intergenic region). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to complement the MLST clonal distribution pattern of selected strains. Among the 55 strains assigned to six cps types (Ia, Ib, II-V), 18 sequence types (STs) were identified by MLST. Five STs represented new entries to the MLST database. The prevalent STs were ST-1, ST-17, ST-19 and ST-28. Twenty molecular marker profiles were identified. The most common profiles (rib+GBSi1+PI-1, rib+GBSi1+PI-1, PI-2b and alp2/3+PI-1, PI-2a) were associated with the cps III/ST-17 and cps V/ST-1 strains. A cluster of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains was detected among the cps V/ST-19 members; these strains shared alp1 and IS1548 and carried PI-1, PI-2a or both. Our results support the usefulness of implementing an integrated genotyping system at the reference laboratory level to obtain the reliable data required to make comparisons between countries.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Genetic Variation , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , DNA, Intergenic/analysis , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Fimbriae, Bacterial/physiology , Genes, Bacterial , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences/physiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Romania , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Vaginal Smears , Virulence
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121888

ABSTRACT

Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Base Sequence , Cholangiocarcinoma/diagnosis , Cholangiopancreatography, Magnetic Resonance , Common Bile Duct/pathology , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Intergenic/genetics , Diagnosis, Differential , Fasciola hepatica/genetics , Fascioliasis/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Neglected Diseases/diagnosis , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210972

ABSTRACT

Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) parasitize a wide range of marine animals, mammals serving as the definitive host and different fish species as intermediate or paratenic hosts. In this study, 18 fish species were investigated for Anisakis infection. Katsuwonus pelamis, Euthynnus affinis, Caranx sp., and Auxis thazard were infected with high prevalence of Anisakis type I, while Cephalopholis cyanostigma and Rastrelliger kanagurta revealed low prevalence. The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in K. pelamis and A. thazard was 49.7 and 5.6, respectively. A total of 73 Anisakis type I larvae collected from K. pelamis and A. thazard were all identified as Anisakis typica by PCR-RFLP analysis. Five specimens of Anisakis from K. pelamis and 15 specimens from A. thazard were sequenced using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and 6 specimens from A. thazard and 4 specimens from K. pelamis were sequenced in mtDNA cox2 region. Alignments of the samples in the ITS region showed 2 patterns of nucleotides. The first pattern (genotype) of Anisakis from A. thazard had 100% similarity with adult A. typica from dolphins from USA, whereas the second genotype from A. thazard and K. pelamis had 4 base pairs different in ITS1 region with adult A. typica from USA. In the mtDNA cox2 regions, Anisakis type I specimens from A. thazard and K. pelamis showed similarity range from 94% to 99% with A. typica AB517571/DQ116427. The difference of 4 bp nucleotides in ITS1 regions and divergence into 2 subgroups in mtDNA cox2 indicating the existence of A. typica sibling species in the Makassar Strait.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/epidemiology , Anisakis/isolation & purification , Cluster Analysis , DNA Fingerprinting , DNA, Intergenic/chemistry , Fish Diseases/epidemiology , Genotype , Indonesia/epidemiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prevalence , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
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