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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256942, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360223


Domestic donkey plays a key role as a draft animal in rural economy of Pakistan where its population is increasing every year. The complete mtDNA control region of forty randomly sampled donkeys was PCR- amplified and sequenced bi-directionally using specific primers. Distinct mtDNA haplotypes obtained in the current study (KY446001−KY446011) were subjected to haplotype (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) measures using DnaS as well as to phylogenetic, Network, and AMOVA analyses. There were a total 27 polymorphic sites present within 11 unique mtDNA haplotypes from the studied 40 animals from different regions. Neighbor-joining network and median-joining network both illustrated the splitting of all these haplotypes into two well-defined Nubian and Somali lineages, confirming African maternal origin of Pakistani domestic donkey. Diversity parameters h (0.967± 0.037) and π (0.02917± 0.00307) were found to reveal high levels of genetic diversity in Pakistani donkeys. AMOVA demonstrated only 1% of genetic differences between two mtDNA maternal lineages, pointing to lack of population substructure in Pakistani donkeys as is the case with worldwide domestic donkey population. Pakistani donkeys have African maternal origin and high levels of mtDNA diversity. High genetic diversity may be due to non-selective breeding and heteroplasmy. We herein provide the first report on mtDNA diversity of control region in Pakistani domestic donkey.

O burro doméstico possui um papel fundamental como animal de tração na economia rural do Paquistão, onde a população desse animal está aumentando a cada ano. A região de controle de mtDNA completa de 40 burros amostrados aleatoriamente foi ampliada por PCR e sequenciada bidirecionalmente por intermédio de primers específicos. Haplótipos distintos de mtDNA obtidos no estudo atual (KY446001 − KY446011) foram submetidos a medidas de haplótipo (h) e diversidade de nucleotídeos (π) por meio de DnaS, bem como análises filogenéticas, de rede e AMOVA. Havia um total de 27 sítios polimórficos presentes em 11 haplótipos de mtDNA exclusivos dos 40 animais estudados de diferentes regiões. A rede de união de vizinhos e a rede de união mediana ilustram a divisão de todos esses haplótipos em duas linhagens núbias e somalis bem definidas, confirmando a origem materna africana do burro doméstico do Paquistão. Os parâmetros de diversidade h (0,967 ± 0,037) e π (0,02917 ± 0,00307) revelaram altos níveis de diversidade genética em burros paquistaneses. AMOVA demonstrou apenas 1% de diferenças genéticas entre as duas linhagens maternas de mtDNA, apontando a falta de subestrutura populacional em burros paquistaneses, como é o caso da população mundial de burros domésticos. Os burros paquistaneses têm origem materna africana e altos níveis de diversidade de mtDNA. A alta diversidade genética pode ser por causa da reprodução não seletiva e de heteroplasmia. Aqui, fornecemos o primeiro relatório sobre a diversidade do mtDNA da região de controle em burros domésticos do Paquistão

Animals , Pakistan , Genetic Variation , DNA, Mitochondrial , Equidae
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928141


Black-bone silky fowl, sweet, pungent, and hot-natured, is one of the valuable domesticated birds with special economic value in China's genebank of poultry breed, which has a long history of medicinal and edible uses. It has the effects of tonifying liver and kidney, replenishing Qi and blood, nourishing yin, clearing heat, regulating menstruation, invigorating spleen, and securing essence. Therefore, it has remarkable efficacy of enhancing physical strength, tonifying blood, and treating diabetes and gynecological diseases. Various local black-bone silky fowl breeds have been generated due to the differences in environmental conditions, breed selection, and rearing conditions in different areas of China, which are mainly concentrated in Taihe, Wan'an, and Ji'an in Jiangxi province and Putian, Jinjiang, and Yongchun in Fujian province. The indigenous chicken breeds in China have different body sizes, appearance, coat colors, etc. The complex lineages lead to extremely unstable genetic traits. The diverse breeds similar in appearance result in the confusion in the market of silky fowl breeds. With the rapid development of molecular biological technology, the genetics of black-bone silky fowls has been intensively studied. This article reviews the research progress of the germplasm resources, genetic diversity, and breed identification of black-bone silky fowl in China at the morphology, chromosome, protein, and DNA levels. Further, it introduces the principles, application status, and limitations of DNA markers such as mitochondrial DNA, microsatellite markers, and SNPs. This review provides a theoretical basis for the mining of elite trait genes and the protection and utilization of local black-bone silky fowl germplasm resources in China.

Animals , Chickens/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Female , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Silk/genetics
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962520


ABSTRACT@#Orofacial clefts (OFC) are one of the most common birth defects that affects the lip, palate, or lip and palate of an infant. The deterioration of clefts is multifactorial involving multiple genes, various interactions from environmental factor and most forgotten, mitochondrial abnormality. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of mitochondrial activity related to non-syndromic OFC deformity. Despite its important role in cells, the study on mitochondrial activity in cleft pathology was scarce and almost forgotten compared to other genetic investigations. This systematic review was completed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. The literature search was done via the following databases: Google Scholar, Pubmed and Scopus with a total of nine studies of mitochondrial abnormalities were included. We hypothesise that mitochondria play an important role in early craniofacial development. A decreased in its function or activity may result in cleft lip formation. Hence, we would like to shed light on the remarkable role of mitochondria activity in the pathogenesis of non-syndromic OFC.

DNA, Mitochondrial , Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928354


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and pathogenic gene in a Chinese pedigree affected with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 8A (MTDPS8A).@*METHODS@#Whole exome sequencing was carried out for the patient. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the results, and PolyPhen-2 and PROVEAN software were used to predict the impact of amino acid changes on the function of the protein.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a two-month-old female, was admitted to the hospital for poor milk intake and poor mental response. Her clinical manifestations included feeding difficulty, shortness of breath and low muscle tone. Auxiliary laboratory test indicated that the infant was underdeveloped with abnormal liver, kidney, and heart functions accompanied by hyperlacticacidemia. She responded poorly to treatment and eventually died. Sequencing revealed that the child has carried compound heterozygous missense variants of the RRM2B gene, namely c.16delA (p.R6Gfs*22) and c.175G>C (p.A59P), which were respectively inherited from her father and mother, and both were newly discovered pathologic variants.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.16delA and c.175G>C compound heterozygous variants of the RRM2B gene probably underlay the pathogenesis of MTDPS8A. Above finding has strengthened the understanding of the clinical feature and genetic etiology of this disease and expanded the mutation spectrum of the RRM2B gene.

Cell Cycle Proteins , Child , China , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Humans , Infant , Mutation , Pedigree , Ribonucleotide Reductases , Exome Sequencing
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 447-451, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935965


Mitochondrial DNA is the mitochondria's own genetic material located within the mitochondrial matrix and is involved in cellular metabolism and energy supply. Mitochondrial DNA damage exacerbates oxidative stress by increasing the release of reactive oxygen species, while mitochondrial DNA release also triggers apoptosis and activates immune inflammatory responses through damage-related molecular patterns. Mitochondrial autophagy regulates mitochondrial DNA damage and release through a negative feedback mechanism to maintain intracellular homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that the occurrence and development of chronic liver disease are closely related to mitochondrial DNA-mediated immune inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

Apoptosis , Autophagy , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Liver Diseases , Mitochondria , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 457-461, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935720


Objective: To explore the clinical features of hepatocerebral mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS). Methods: The clinical data of 6 hepatocerebral MDS patients diagnosed in the Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University from January 2012 to December 2019 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Related literature published before January 2020 were searched with the key words of "DGUOK""MPV17""POLG""C10orf2" in PubMed, China national knowledge infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang database. Results: All the 6 hepatocerebral MDS cases were male. The age of onset ranged from 3 days to 8 months. The most common initial symptoms were cholestasis and developmental retrogression. The main clinical manifestations included hepatomegaly (4 cases), hypotonia (3 cases), growth retardation (4 cases), cholestasis (5 cases), coagulopathy (5 cases), hypoalbuminemia (3 cases), hypoglycemia (4 cases), hyperlactacidemia (5 cases), and abnormal blood metabolism screening (6 cases). The isotope hepatobiliary imaging revealed no gallbladder and intestinal tract development within 24 hours in 2 patients. Regarding the cranial imaging examination, the head CT found widening of the extracranial space in 1 case, the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found ventricular enlargement in 2 cases, and the brain ultrasound found peripheral white matter injury in 1 case. Two cases were lost to follow-up, one died of liver failure, and three died of multiple organ failure due to aggravated infection. Among the 6 cases, there were 3 with MPV17 variation (c.182T>C and c.279G>C were novel), 1 with POLG variation (c.2993G>A was novel), 1 with DGUOK variation (c.679G>A homozygous mutation, parthenogenetic diploid of chromosome 2) and 1 with C10orf2 variation (c.1186C>T and c.1504C>T were novel). The literature review found that 129, 100, 51 and 12 cases of hepatocerebral MDS were caused by DGUOK, MPV17, POLG and C10orf2 gene variations, respectively. And the most common clinical manifestations were liver dysfunction presented with cholestasis and elevated transaminase, metabolic disorders including hypoglycemia and hyperlactacidemia, and diverse neurologic symptoms including developmental retardation, hypotonia, epilepsy and peripheral neuropathy. Besides, 1/3 of the patients with C10orf2 variation developed renal tubular injury. Conclusions: Hepatocerebral MDS mainly present with liver dysfunction, metabolic disorder and neuromuscular impairment. Different genotypes show specific clinical manifestations.

Cholestasis , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemia/genetics , Infant , Liver Diseases/genetics , Male , Mitochondrial Diseases , Muscle Hypotonia , Retrospective Studies
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 584-591, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153386


Abstract The flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) also familiar with the name of the greater Indian fruit Bat belongs to the order Chiroptera and family Pteropodidae. Current research emphasis on the DNA barcoding of P. giganteus in Azad Jammu Kashmir. Bat sequences were amplified and PCR products were sequenced and examined by bioinformatics software. Congeneric and conspecific, nucleotide composition and K2P nucleotide deviation, haplotype diversity and the number of haplotypes were estimated. The analysis showed that all of the five studied samples of P. giganteus had low G contents (G 19.8%) than C (27.8%), A (25.1%) and T (27.3%) contents. The calculated haplotype diversity was 0.60% and the mean intraspecific K2P distance was 0.001% having a high number of transitional substitutions. The study suggested that P. giganteus (R=0.00) do not deviate from the neutral evolution. It was determined from the conclusion that this mtDNA gene is a better marker for identification of Bat species than nuclear genes due to its distinctive characteristics and may serve as a landmark for the identification of interconnected species at the molecular level and in the determination of population genetics.

Resumo A raposa-voadora (Pteropus giganteus), também conhecida como morcego indiano, pertence à ordem dos Chiroptera e à família Pteropodidae. A presente pesquisa dá ênfase ao código de barras de DNA de P. giganteus em Azad Jammu e Caxemira. Sequências genéticas dos morcegos foram amplificadas, e os produtos de PCR foram sequenciados e examinados por software de bioinformática. De espécies congenérica e coespecífica, foram estimados composição nucleotídica e desvio de nucleotídeos K2P, diversidade de haplótipos e número de haplótipos. A análise mostrou que todas as cinco amostras estudadas de P. giganteus apresentaram baixos teores de G (19,8%) em comparação com C (27,8%), A (25,1%) e T (27,3%). A diversidade de haplótipos calculada foi de 0,60%, e a distância média intraespecífica de K2P foi de 0,001%, com um elevado número de substituições transicionais. O estudo sugeriu que P. giganteus (R = 0,00) não se desviou da evolução neutra. É possível concluir que o gene mtDNA é um marcador favorável para identificação de espécies de morcegos do que genes nucleares por causa de suas características distintivas e pode servir como um marco para a identificação de espécies interconectadas em nível molecular e para a determinação genética de populações.

Animals , Chiroptera/genetics , Pakistan , Haplotypes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10317, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249305


Physical performance is a multifactorial and complex trait influenced by environmental and hereditary factors. Environmental factors alone have been insufficient to characterize all outstanding phenotypes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the investigation of whole nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences, increasing our ability to understand interindividual variability in physical performance. Our objective was to evaluate the association of mitochondrial polymorphic loci with physical performance in Brazilian elite military personnel. Eighty-eight male military personnel who participated in the Command Actions Course of the Army were selected. Total DNA was obtained from blood samples and a complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Twenty-nine subjects completed the training program (FINISHED, 'F'), and fifty-nine failed to complete (NOT_FINISHED, 'NF'). The mtDNA from NF was slightly more similar to genomes from African countries frequently related to endurance level. Twenty-two distinct mtDNA haplogroups were identified corroborating the intense genetic admixture of the Brazilian population, but their distribution was similar between the two groups (FST=0.0009). Of 745 polymorphisms detected in the mtDNA, the position G11914A within the NADPH gene component of the electron transport chain, was statistically different between F and NF groups (P=0.011; OR: 4.286; 95%CI: 1.198-16.719), with a higher frequency of the G allele in group F individuals). The high performance of military personnel may be mediated by performance-related genomic traits. Thus, mitochondrial genetic markers such as the ND4 gene may play an important role on physical performance variability.

Humans , Male , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Military Personnel , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Physical Functional Performance , NADP
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(1): 65-74, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255022


A Síndrome de Leigh (SL) é uma doença neuro-metabólica congênita, que faz parte do grupo das encefalopatias fatais, com progressão e morte dentro de 2 anos, em média. A SL é causada por mutações no DNA que causam alterações na geração de ATP celular pelas mitocôndrias. As mitocôndrias contêm seu próprio DNA (mtDNA) e, ao contrário do DNA nuclear, o mtDNA é herdado somente da mãe. Mulheres portadores de mutações causadoras da SL podem vivenciar experiências muito tristes ao tentarem realizar o sonho da maternidade. As técnicas de substituição de mtDNA mutado com mtDNA saudável de doadora, oferecem a essas mulheres a possibilidade de terem uma criança geneticamente relacionada sem a SL. O desenvolvimento e a aplicação clínica de terapias de substituição de mtDNA já são uma realidade, tendo o primeiro bebê gerado a partir da técnica nascido em 2016. Mas será que essas técnicas são seguras? Neste trabalho, revisamos a SL e algumas técnicas de substituição de mtDNA já aplicadas em humanos, que envolvem a transferência de pronúcleos de zigotos ou de fuso acromático de oócitos. Concluímos que, apesar dos resultados promissores, ainda é cedo para assegurar a aplicabilidade clínica de técnicas de substituição de mtDNA em seres humanos. (AU)

Leigh syndrome (SL) is a congenital neurometabolic disease included in the group of fatal encephalopathies, with progression and death within 2 years on average. SL is caused by mutations in the DNA that cause changes in the generation of cellular ATP by mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA) and, unlike nuclear DNA, mtDNA is inherited only from the mother. Women with SL mutations may experience mournful situations when attempting to fulfill the dream of motherhood. Techniques for replacing mutant mtDNA with healthy donor mtDNA provide these women with the possibility of having a genetically related child without SL. The development and clinical application of mtDNA replacement therapies is a reality, and the first baby generated using the technique was born in 2016. However, are these techniques safe? In this article, we review SL and some mtDNA replacement techniques that have been used in humans, which involve zygote pronuclear transfer or oocyte spindle transfer. We conclude that, despite the promising results, it is too early to ensure that mtDNA replacement techniques are clinically applicable to humans. (AU)

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leigh Disease , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e210012, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279478


The guitarfishes Pseudobatos horkelii and Pseudobatos percellens meet the criteria for threatened status as Critically Endangered (CR) and Endangered (EN), respectively. Both species occur in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Considering the lack of data on the genetic structure of these species, the present study evaluated the genetic variability and population structure of the P. horkelii and P. percellens in the southern region of Brazil and the northern coast of Argentina, based on sequences of mitochondrial DNA, Control Region (D-loop). Samples of P. horkelii (n = 135) were analyzed in six localities situated in Northern Argentina, along the Brazilian states' coast. The mean of nucleotide diversity was 0.0053, the ΦST was 0.4277 and demographic analysis of P. horkelii suggests the existence of stability of the populations, with D = 0.9929, FS = 2.0155, SSD = 0.0817, R = 0.2153. In P. percellens (n = 101) were analyzed from six Brazilian localities along the coast of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo. The mean nucleotide diversity was 0.0014 and ΦST value of 0.2921, the demographic analysis indicates a high migration rate of P. percellens among the localities evaluated, with D = 0.5222, FS = 0.3528, SSD = 0.01785, R = 0.3890.(AU)

As raias violas Pseudobatos horkelii e Pseudobatos percellens, são listados como "Criticamente em Perigo" (CR) e "Em Perigo" (EN), respectivamente. Ambas as espécies ocorrem no Sul do Oceano Atlântico. Considerando a falta de dados sobre a estrutura genética dessas espécies, o presente estudo avaliou a variabilidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. horkelii e P. percellens na região sudeste do Brasil e litoral norte da Argentina, com base em sequências de DNA mitocondrial, região de controle (D-loop). Amostras de 135 indivíduos de P. horkelii analisados em seis localidades, situadas no norte da Argentina e ao longo da costa dos estados brasileiros. A média da diversidade nucleotídica foi de 0.0053, o índice ΦST foi de 0.4277 e a análise demográfica de P. horkelii, indicou a existência de estabilidade das populações, com D = 0.9929, Fus = 2.0155, SSD = 0.0817, R = 0.2153. Em 101 exemplares de P. percellens, foram analisados em seis localidades brasileiras ao longo do litoral de Santa Catarina, Paraná e São Paulo. A diversidade nucleotídica média foi de 0.0014 e o valor ΦST de 0.2921, a análise demográfica indicou uma alta taxa de migração de P. percellens entre as localidades analisadas, com D = 0.5222, FS = 0.3528, SSD = 0.01785, R = 0.3890.(AU)

Animals , Genetic Variation , Skates, Fish , Genetic Structures , DNA, Mitochondrial
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210054, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351163


Gymnogeophagus labiatus and G. lacustris have been long recognized as sister species exhibiting different ecological requirements. Gymnogeophagus labiatus occurs in rock bottom rivers in the hydrographic basins of Patos Lagoon (HBP) and Tramandaí River (HBT), while G. lacustris is exclusive from sand bottom coastal lagoons of the HBT. In this study, we used molecular markers, morphological measurements and data from nuptial male coloration to investigate the evolutionary relationship between these species in each hydrographic basin. We found, for all data sets, a closer relationship between G. labiatus and G. lacustris from the HBT than between G. labiatus populations from HBT and HBP. In particular, lip area had a large intraspecific plasticity, being uninformative to diagnose G. lacustris from G. labiatus. Molecular clock-based estimates suggest a recent divergence between species in the HBT (17,000 years ago), but not between G. labiatus from HBP and HBT (3.6 millions of years ago). Finally, we also found a divergent G. labiatus genetic lineage from the Camaquã River, in the HBP. These results show that the current taxonomy of G. labiatus and G. lacustris does not properly represent evolutionary lineages in these species.(AU)

Gymnogeophagus labiatus e G. lacustris vêm sendo consideradas espécies irmãs que possuem diferentes exigências ecológicas. Gymnogeophagus labiatus ocorre em rios de fundo de pedra nas bacias hidrográficas da Laguna dos Patos (HBP) e do rio Tramandaí (HBT), enquanto G. lacustris é exclusivo da HBT, ocorrendo em lagoas costeiras de fundo de arenoso. Nesse estudo, foram usados marcadores moleculares, medidas morfológicas e dados sobre a coloração nupcial em machos para investigar a relação evolutiva entre estas espécies em cada bacia hidrográfica. Para todos os conjuntos de dados foi observada uma relação mais próxima entre G. labiatus e G. lacustris da HBT do que entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT. Em particular, a área do lábio teve uma grande plasticidade intraespecífica, não sendo informativa para diagnosticar G. lacustris de G. labiatus. Estimativas baseadas no relógio molecular sugeriram uma divergência recente entre as espécies da HBT (17.000 anos atrás), mas não entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT (3,6 milhões de anos atrás). Finalmente, também foi encontrada uma linhagem genética de G. labiatus divergente no rio Camaquã, na HBP. Esses resultados mostram que a taxonomia atual de G. labiatus e G. lacustris não representa adequadamente as linhagens evolutivas nessas espécies.(AU)

Animals , Weights and Measures , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Adaptation, Physiological , Hydrography , Cichlids
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880843


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of detecting maternal hereditary mitochondrial tRNA@*METHODS@#We performed sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from 2070 cases of maternal hereditary mitochondrial disease in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, and identified 3 patients with m.15927G>A mutation.Buccal swabs and blood samples were obtained from the 3 patients (mutation group) and 3 normal volunteers (control group).After extracting whole genomic DNA from all the samples, the DNA concentration and purity were analyzed.The PCR products were subjected to dot blot hybridization, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing analysis to verify the feasibility of detecting m.15927G>A mutation using buccal swabs.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in DNA concentration extracted from buccal swabs and blood samples in either the mutation group or the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buccal swabs collection accurate is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of m.15927G>A mutation.

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis, DNA
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 314-319, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130868


Abstract Background: Although not fully understood, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and variations in mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Methods: Forty six patients with systemic sclerosis and forty nine healthy subjects were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR used to measure the relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (oxidized purines) of each sample. Results: The mean mtDNAcn was lower in patients with systemic sclerosis than in healthy controls whereas the degree of mtDNA damage was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage. Study limitations: The lack of simultaneous analysis and quantification of DNA oxidative damage markers in serum or urine of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that alteration in mtDNAcn and increased oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Scleroderma, Systemic/genetics , Scleroderma, Systemic/blood , DNA Damage , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/blood , Oxidative Stress/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190073, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098411


The ancient catfish family Diplomystidae, with seven species endemic to rivers of southern South America, represents one of the oldest branches of the diverse order Siluriformes. With most species endangered, new reports of these species become extremely valuable for conservation. Currently, it is assumed that Diplomystes species inhabit only Andean (large) basins, and that they are extinct from coastal (small) basins from which their presence have not been recorded since 1919. Here, we document new records of the family Diplomystidae in the Laraquete and Carampangue basins, two coastal basins from the Nahuelbuta Coast Range, Chile, with no previous reports. This finding represents the rediscovery of the genus in coastal basins in more than a Century. Based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, the collected specimens were found to be closely related to Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis from the Andean Biobío Basin, but sufficiently differentiated to suggest that coastal basin populations are a different management unit. These populations are important because, contrary to previous thoughts, they prove these catfish can survive in small river networks, providing unique opportunities for research and conservation. The conservation category of Critically Endangered (CE) is recommended for the populations from the Laraquete and Carampangue basins.(AU)

La familia de bagres Diplomystidae, con siete especies endémicas de ríos del sur de Sudamérica, es uno de los linajes mas antiguos del diverso orden Siluriformes. Al estar la mayoría de las especies amenazadas, nuevos registros de éstas son extremadamente valiosos para su conservación. Actualmente, se ha asumido que los Diplomystidos se distribuyen solo en cuencas Andinas (más grandes), y que sus especies estarían extintas en cuencas de menor tamaño como las costeras, sin registros desde 1919. En este trabajo documentamos la familia Diplomistidae en las cuencas de Carampangue y Laraquete, dos cuencas costeras de la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta, Chile, lo que representa el primer registro de esta familia en estas cuencas costeras. Además, este hallazgo representa el re-descubrimiento de la familia en cuencas costeras después de un siglo. Sobre la base de análisis de ADN mitocondrial, los especímenes colectados se relacionaron más cercanamente con poblaciones de la especie Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis presente en la cuenca del Biobío. Sin embargo, existen diferencias genéticas suficientes entre las poblaciones costeras y las del Biobío para justificar su separación como unidad de manejo distinta. Estas poblaciones costeras son importantes porque demuestran que los Diplomístidos pueden sobrevivir en cuencas de pequeño tamaño, ofreciendo oportunidades únicas para su investigación y conservación. Se recomienda la categoría de conservación En Peligro Critico de Extinción (CR) para las poblaciones de las cuencas Laraquete y Carampangue.(AU)

Catfishes/classification , Catfishes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828313


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular etiology for a Chinese family with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents.Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing was carried out to detect potential variants. Suspected variant was validated by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A novel homozygous frameshift variant c.505_508delTATC was identified in the patient, for which both his mother and father were carriers.@*CONCLUSION@#The frameshift variant c.505_508delTATC probably underlies the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in this patient. The result also enriched the variant spectrum of DGUOK gene.

Asian People , Genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Female , Frameshift Mutation , Humans , Mutation , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) , Genetics , Syndrome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942085


OBJECTIVE@#Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) 8344 A>G (m.8344A>G) mutation is the common mutation associated with mitochondrial myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome. Herein we report a rare case with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes/MERRF/Leigh (MELAS/MERRF/Leigh) overlap syndrome caused by m.8344A>G mutation.@*METHODS@#The clinical and imaging data of the patient were collected and an open muscle biopsy was carried out. We further employed molecular genetic analyses to detect mtDNA mutation in the proband and his mother. And then a clinical and neuroimaging follow-up was performed.@*RESULTS@#This patient was a 25-year-old male, who developed exercise intolerance since the age of 6. At age 10, he suffered from acute episodes of hemianopia, and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed occipital stroke-like lesions and cranial magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) revealed a lactate peak corresponding to the lesion. After that the patient presented slowly progressive psychomotor decline. He had myoclonic seizures and cerebellar ataxia since the age of 12. At age 21, he was admitted to our hospital because of confusion and cranial MRI revealed symmetrical lesions in bilateral posterior putamen, thalami and midbrain. Then repeated MRI showed progression of original lesions and new frontal multiple stroke-like lesions. Symptomatic and rehabilitation treatment relieved his condition. Follow-up cranial MRI at age 24 showed the lesions in basal ganglia and thalami diminished, and the midbrain lesions even completely vanished. Muscle pathology indicated the presence of numerous scattered ragged-red fibers (RRF), suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder. Polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) detected the m.8344A>G mutation of the MT-TK gene encoding mitochondrial transfer RNA for lysine in the patient's blood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of the whole mitochondrial genome identified that the proportion of m.8344A>G was 90%, and no other mtDNA mutation was detected. Sanger sequencing further identified this mutation both in the proband and his mother's blood, although the mutation load was much lower in his mother's blood with approximately 10% heteroplasmy.@*CONCLUSION@#The present study is the first to describe a patient with m.8344A>G mutation in association with the MELAS/MERRF/Leigh overlap syndrome, which expands the phenotypic spectrum of the m.8344A>G mutation.

Acidosis, Lactic , Adult , Child , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Male , Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathies , Mutation , Stroke , Young Adult
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 23-29, Nov. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087353


Background: Snakes are found on every continent in the world except Antarctica, and on smaller land masses. Being ecologically important, they also cause a large number of bites, leading to millions of deaths. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences are being used to identify, characterize, and infer genetic biodiversity among different snake species. Furthermore, phylogenetics helps in inferring the relationships and evolutionary histories among these species. Black cobra is one of the four most venomous snakes in Pakistan. Four mitochondrial (ND4, Cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA) and four nuclear (C-mos, RAG-1, BDNF, and NT3) genes were used to trace diversity and infer the phylogenetic relationship of black cobra in Pakistan. Results: Almost similar phylogenies were obtained through maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, showing two species of cobra in Pakistan, namely, black cobra (Naja naja) and brown cobra (Naja oxiana). All Naja species were divided into three clades: black cobra (N. naja) and brown cobra (N. oxiana) cladding with different species of Naja; N. naja (Pakistan) cladding with N. naja from Nepal; and N. oxiana showed close relationship with Naja kaouthia from Thailand and Naja siamensis from Thailand. Conclusion: It was confirmed genetically that there are two cobra species in Pakistan, i.e., black and brown cobras. This study will help in not only genetic conservation but also developing anti-venom against snake species.

Naja naja/genetics , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , DNA, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Elapidae/genetics , Biodiversity
Rev. invest. clín ; 71(4): 237-245, Jul.-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289692


Abstract Background Mitochondrial and oxidative stress has been related to obesity and breast cancer being this cancer more frequent and more aggressive in postmenopausal women with obesity. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women with breast cancer and obesity present different somatic mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) when compared to women with normal body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods We included six Mexican-Mestizo postmenopausal women bearing breast cancer and who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. BMI was determined in each case. Patients’ genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes and tumor tissue samples. Whole mtDNA sequence was determined by MitoChip v2.0 mitochondrial resequencing array, and data were analyzed using the GeneChip Sequence Analysis Software. Tumor mtDNA sequence was compared with matched leukocyte mtDNA sequence. Results Three women had a normal BMI and three presented obesity. Overall, we found 64 genetic variants: 53.1% were somatic mutations and 46.9% were polymorphisms; 44.1% were in the non-coding region and 55.9% were in genes that encode for mitochondrial proteins. Among the somatic mutations, 67.7% were in patients with normal BMI and 32.3% in patients with obesity. Conclusions We did not find a higher frequency of mitochondrial somatic mutations in postmenopausal women with breast cancer and obesity compared to those with normal BMI. However, results could be due to the small number of women studied.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Postmenopause , Genome, Mitochondrial , Obesity/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Genetic , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Mastectomy, Segmental/methods , Body Mass Index , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Mastectomy/methods , Mexico
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 367-375, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042538


Abstract Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.

Resumo Renicolídeos são parasitos que habitam túbulos renais e ureteres de aves que se alimentam de moluscos e peixes. Puffinus puffinus, ave marinha migratória, foi registrada como hospedeiro definitivo de Renicola spp. Estudos relacionados com as espécies de renicolídeos e as lesões renais resultantes são importantes para o entendimento das causas de óbito de aves marinhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os trematódeos renicolídeos e avaliar os achados histológicos em dois P. puffinus encalhados no litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os parasitos foram avaliados por ensaios histológicos, ultraestruturais e moleculares, enquanto as alterações teciduais foram analisadas por métodos histológicos. As características morfológicas e morfométricas dos parasitos, juntamente com a reação em cadeia da polimerase e sequenciamento (regiões ribossomal e mitocondrial), identificaram a espécie como Renicola sloanei. Os resultados também sugerem que este helminto pode ser a forma adulta de Cercaria pythionike. A dilatação dos ductos coletores foi o principal achado histológico renal. Em conclusão, R. sloanei foi identificado, e pela primeira vez P. puffinus foi descrito como hospedeiro deste digenético induzindo alterações renais discretas.

Animals , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Kidney/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trematoda/classification , Trematoda/genetics , Trematoda/ultrastructure , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Helminth/genetics