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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 584-591, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153386

ABSTRACT

Abstract The flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) also familiar with the name of the greater Indian fruit Bat belongs to the order Chiroptera and family Pteropodidae. Current research emphasis on the DNA barcoding of P. giganteus in Azad Jammu Kashmir. Bat sequences were amplified and PCR products were sequenced and examined by bioinformatics software. Congeneric and conspecific, nucleotide composition and K2P nucleotide deviation, haplotype diversity and the number of haplotypes were estimated. The analysis showed that all of the five studied samples of P. giganteus had low G contents (G 19.8%) than C (27.8%), A (25.1%) and T (27.3%) contents. The calculated haplotype diversity was 0.60% and the mean intraspecific K2P distance was 0.001% having a high number of transitional substitutions. The study suggested that P. giganteus (R=0.00) do not deviate from the neutral evolution. It was determined from the conclusion that this mtDNA gene is a better marker for identification of Bat species than nuclear genes due to its distinctive characteristics and may serve as a landmark for the identification of interconnected species at the molecular level and in the determination of population genetics.


Resumo A raposa-voadora (Pteropus giganteus), também conhecida como morcego indiano, pertence à ordem dos Chiroptera e à família Pteropodidae. A presente pesquisa dá ênfase ao código de barras de DNA de P. giganteus em Azad Jammu e Caxemira. Sequências genéticas dos morcegos foram amplificadas, e os produtos de PCR foram sequenciados e examinados por software de bioinformática. De espécies congenérica e coespecífica, foram estimados composição nucleotídica e desvio de nucleotídeos K2P, diversidade de haplótipos e número de haplótipos. A análise mostrou que todas as cinco amostras estudadas de P. giganteus apresentaram baixos teores de G (19,8%) em comparação com C (27,8%), A (25,1%) e T (27,3%). A diversidade de haplótipos calculada foi de 0,60%, e a distância média intraespecífica de K2P foi de 0,001%, com um elevado número de substituições transicionais. O estudo sugeriu que P. giganteus (R = 0,00) não se desviou da evolução neutra. É possível concluir que o gene mtDNA é um marcador favorável para identificação de espécies de morcegos do que genes nucleares por causa de suas características distintivas e pode servir como um marco para a identificação de espécies interconectadas em nível molecular e para a determinação genética de populações.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/genetics , Pakistan , Haplotypes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic
2.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(1): 65-74, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255022

ABSTRACT

A Síndrome de Leigh (SL) é uma doença neuro-metabólica congênita, que faz parte do grupo das encefalopatias fatais, com progressão e morte dentro de 2 anos, em média. A SL é causada por mutações no DNA que causam alterações na geração de ATP celular pelas mitocôndrias. As mitocôndrias contêm seu próprio DNA (mtDNA) e, ao contrário do DNA nuclear, o mtDNA é herdado somente da mãe. Mulheres portadores de mutações causadoras da SL podem vivenciar experiências muito tristes ao tentarem realizar o sonho da maternidade. As técnicas de substituição de mtDNA mutado com mtDNA saudável de doadora, oferecem a essas mulheres a possibilidade de terem uma criança geneticamente relacionada sem a SL. O desenvolvimento e a aplicação clínica de terapias de substituição de mtDNA já são uma realidade, tendo o primeiro bebê gerado a partir da técnica nascido em 2016. Mas será que essas técnicas são seguras? Neste trabalho, revisamos a SL e algumas técnicas de substituição de mtDNA já aplicadas em humanos, que envolvem a transferência de pronúcleos de zigotos ou de fuso acromático de oócitos. Concluímos que, apesar dos resultados promissores, ainda é cedo para assegurar a aplicabilidade clínica de técnicas de substituição de mtDNA em seres humanos. (AU)


Leigh syndrome (SL) is a congenital neurometabolic disease included in the group of fatal encephalopathies, with progression and death within 2 years on average. SL is caused by mutations in the DNA that cause changes in the generation of cellular ATP by mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA) and, unlike nuclear DNA, mtDNA is inherited only from the mother. Women with SL mutations may experience mournful situations when attempting to fulfill the dream of motherhood. Techniques for replacing mutant mtDNA with healthy donor mtDNA provide these women with the possibility of having a genetically related child without SL. The development and clinical application of mtDNA replacement therapies is a reality, and the first baby generated using the technique was born in 2016. However, are these techniques safe? In this article, we review SL and some mtDNA replacement techniques that have been used in humans, which involve zygote pronuclear transfer or oocyte spindle transfer. We conclude that, despite the promising results, it is too early to ensure that mtDNA replacement techniques are clinically applicable to humans. (AU)


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leigh Disease , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10317, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249305

ABSTRACT

Physical performance is a multifactorial and complex trait influenced by environmental and hereditary factors. Environmental factors alone have been insufficient to characterize all outstanding phenotypes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the investigation of whole nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences, increasing our ability to understand interindividual variability in physical performance. Our objective was to evaluate the association of mitochondrial polymorphic loci with physical performance in Brazilian elite military personnel. Eighty-eight male military personnel who participated in the Command Actions Course of the Army were selected. Total DNA was obtained from blood samples and a complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Twenty-nine subjects completed the training program (FINISHED, 'F'), and fifty-nine failed to complete (NOT_FINISHED, 'NF'). The mtDNA from NF was slightly more similar to genomes from African countries frequently related to endurance level. Twenty-two distinct mtDNA haplogroups were identified corroborating the intense genetic admixture of the Brazilian population, but their distribution was similar between the two groups (FST=0.0009). Of 745 polymorphisms detected in the mtDNA, the position G11914A within the NADPH gene component of the electron transport chain, was statistically different between F and NF groups (P=0.011; OR: 4.286; 95%CI: 1.198-16.719), with a higher frequency of the G allele in group F individuals). The high performance of military personnel may be mediated by performance-related genomic traits. Thus, mitochondrial genetic markers such as the ND4 gene may play an important role on physical performance variability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Military Personnel , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Physical Functional Performance , NADP
4.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e210012, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279478

ABSTRACT

The guitarfishes Pseudobatos horkelii and Pseudobatos percellens meet the criteria for threatened status as Critically Endangered (CR) and Endangered (EN), respectively. Both species occur in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Considering the lack of data on the genetic structure of these species, the present study evaluated the genetic variability and population structure of the P. horkelii and P. percellens in the southern region of Brazil and the northern coast of Argentina, based on sequences of mitochondrial DNA, Control Region (D-loop). Samples of P. horkelii (n = 135) were analyzed in six localities situated in Northern Argentina, along the Brazilian states' coast. The mean of nucleotide diversity was 0.0053, the ΦST was 0.4277 and demographic analysis of P. horkelii suggests the existence of stability of the populations, with D = 0.9929, FS = 2.0155, SSD = 0.0817, R = 0.2153. In P. percellens (n = 101) were analyzed from six Brazilian localities along the coast of Santa Catarina, Paraná, and São Paulo. The mean nucleotide diversity was 0.0014 and ΦST value of 0.2921, the demographic analysis indicates a high migration rate of P. percellens among the localities evaluated, with D = 0.5222, FS = 0.3528, SSD = 0.01785, R = 0.3890.(AU)


As raias violas Pseudobatos horkelii e Pseudobatos percellens, são listados como "Criticamente em Perigo" (CR) e "Em Perigo" (EN), respectivamente. Ambas as espécies ocorrem no Sul do Oceano Atlântico. Considerando a falta de dados sobre a estrutura genética dessas espécies, o presente estudo avaliou a variabilidade genética e a estrutura populacional de P. horkelii e P. percellens na região sudeste do Brasil e litoral norte da Argentina, com base em sequências de DNA mitocondrial, região de controle (D-loop). Amostras de 135 indivíduos de P. horkelii analisados em seis localidades, situadas no norte da Argentina e ao longo da costa dos estados brasileiros. A média da diversidade nucleotídica foi de 0.0053, o índice ΦST foi de 0.4277 e a análise demográfica de P. horkelii, indicou a existência de estabilidade das populações, com D = 0.9929, Fus = 2.0155, SSD = 0.0817, R = 0.2153. Em 101 exemplares de P. percellens, foram analisados em seis localidades brasileiras ao longo do litoral de Santa Catarina, Paraná e São Paulo. A diversidade nucleotídica média foi de 0.0014 e o valor ΦST de 0.2921, a análise demográfica indicou uma alta taxa de migração de P. percellens entre as localidades analisadas, com D = 0.5222, FS = 0.3528, SSD = 0.01785, R = 0.3890.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Genetic Variation , Skates, Fish , Genetic Structures , DNA, Mitochondrial
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(4): e210054, 2021. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1351163

ABSTRACT

Gymnogeophagus labiatus and G. lacustris have been long recognized as sister species exhibiting different ecological requirements. Gymnogeophagus labiatus occurs in rock bottom rivers in the hydrographic basins of Patos Lagoon (HBP) and Tramandaí River (HBT), while G. lacustris is exclusive from sand bottom coastal lagoons of the HBT. In this study, we used molecular markers, morphological measurements and data from nuptial male coloration to investigate the evolutionary relationship between these species in each hydrographic basin. We found, for all data sets, a closer relationship between G. labiatus and G. lacustris from the HBT than between G. labiatus populations from HBT and HBP. In particular, lip area had a large intraspecific plasticity, being uninformative to diagnose G. lacustris from G. labiatus. Molecular clock-based estimates suggest a recent divergence between species in the HBT (17,000 years ago), but not between G. labiatus from HBP and HBT (3.6 millions of years ago). Finally, we also found a divergent G. labiatus genetic lineage from the Camaquã River, in the HBP. These results show that the current taxonomy of G. labiatus and G. lacustris does not properly represent evolutionary lineages in these species.(AU)


Gymnogeophagus labiatus e G. lacustris vêm sendo consideradas espécies irmãs que possuem diferentes exigências ecológicas. Gymnogeophagus labiatus ocorre em rios de fundo de pedra nas bacias hidrográficas da Laguna dos Patos (HBP) e do rio Tramandaí (HBT), enquanto G. lacustris é exclusivo da HBT, ocorrendo em lagoas costeiras de fundo de arenoso. Nesse estudo, foram usados marcadores moleculares, medidas morfológicas e dados sobre a coloração nupcial em machos para investigar a relação evolutiva entre estas espécies em cada bacia hidrográfica. Para todos os conjuntos de dados foi observada uma relação mais próxima entre G. labiatus e G. lacustris da HBT do que entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT. Em particular, a área do lábio teve uma grande plasticidade intraespecífica, não sendo informativa para diagnosticar G. lacustris de G. labiatus. Estimativas baseadas no relógio molecular sugeriram uma divergência recente entre as espécies da HBT (17.000 anos atrás), mas não entre as populações de G. labiatus da HBP e HBT (3,6 milhões de anos atrás). Finalmente, também foi encontrada uma linhagem genética de G. labiatus divergente no rio Camaquã, na HBP. Esses resultados mostram que a taxonomia atual de G. labiatus e G. lacustris não representa adequadamente as linhagens evolutivas nessas espécies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Weights and Measures , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis , Adaptation, Physiological , Hydrography , Cichlids
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880843

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of detecting maternal hereditary mitochondrial tRNA@*METHODS@#We performed sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from 2070 cases of maternal hereditary mitochondrial disease in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, and identified 3 patients with m.15927G>A mutation.Buccal swabs and blood samples were obtained from the 3 patients (mutation group) and 3 normal volunteers (control group).After extracting whole genomic DNA from all the samples, the DNA concentration and purity were analyzed.The PCR products were subjected to dot blot hybridization, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing analysis to verify the feasibility of detecting m.15927G>A mutation using buccal swabs.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in DNA concentration extracted from buccal swabs and blood samples in either the mutation group or the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buccal swabs collection accurate is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of m.15927G>A mutation.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis, DNA
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 314-319, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although not fully understood, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and variations in mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Methods: Forty six patients with systemic sclerosis and forty nine healthy subjects were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR used to measure the relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (oxidized purines) of each sample. Results: The mean mtDNAcn was lower in patients with systemic sclerosis than in healthy controls whereas the degree of mtDNA damage was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage. Study limitations: The lack of simultaneous analysis and quantification of DNA oxidative damage markers in serum or urine of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that alteration in mtDNAcn and increased oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Scleroderma, Systemic/genetics , Scleroderma, Systemic/blood , DNA Damage , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/blood , Oxidative Stress/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
8.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(1): e190073, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098411

ABSTRACT

The ancient catfish family Diplomystidae, with seven species endemic to rivers of southern South America, represents one of the oldest branches of the diverse order Siluriformes. With most species endangered, new reports of these species become extremely valuable for conservation. Currently, it is assumed that Diplomystes species inhabit only Andean (large) basins, and that they are extinct from coastal (small) basins from which their presence have not been recorded since 1919. Here, we document new records of the family Diplomystidae in the Laraquete and Carampangue basins, two coastal basins from the Nahuelbuta Coast Range, Chile, with no previous reports. This finding represents the rediscovery of the genus in coastal basins in more than a Century. Based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, the collected specimens were found to be closely related to Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis from the Andean Biobío Basin, but sufficiently differentiated to suggest that coastal basin populations are a different management unit. These populations are important because, contrary to previous thoughts, they prove these catfish can survive in small river networks, providing unique opportunities for research and conservation. The conservation category of Critically Endangered (CE) is recommended for the populations from the Laraquete and Carampangue basins.(AU)


La familia de bagres Diplomystidae, con siete especies endémicas de ríos del sur de Sudamérica, es uno de los linajes mas antiguos del diverso orden Siluriformes. Al estar la mayoría de las especies amenazadas, nuevos registros de éstas son extremadamente valiosos para su conservación. Actualmente, se ha asumido que los Diplomystidos se distribuyen solo en cuencas Andinas (más grandes), y que sus especies estarían extintas en cuencas de menor tamaño como las costeras, sin registros desde 1919. En este trabajo documentamos la familia Diplomistidae en las cuencas de Carampangue y Laraquete, dos cuencas costeras de la Cordillera de Nahuelbuta, Chile, lo que representa el primer registro de esta familia en estas cuencas costeras. Además, este hallazgo representa el re-descubrimiento de la familia en cuencas costeras después de un siglo. Sobre la base de análisis de ADN mitocondrial, los especímenes colectados se relacionaron más cercanamente con poblaciones de la especie Diplomystes nahuelbutaensis presente en la cuenca del Biobío. Sin embargo, existen diferencias genéticas suficientes entre las poblaciones costeras y las del Biobío para justificar su separación como unidad de manejo distinta. Estas poblaciones costeras son importantes porque demuestran que los Diplomístidos pueden sobrevivir en cuencas de pequeño tamaño, ofreciendo oportunidades únicas para su investigación y conservación. Se recomienda la categoría de conservación En Peligro Critico de Extinción (CR) para las poblaciones de las cuencas Laraquete y Carampangue.(AU)


Subject(s)
Catfishes/classification , Catfishes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular etiology for a Chinese family with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome.@*METHODS@#Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the patient and her parents.Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing was carried out to detect potential variants. Suspected variant was validated by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#A novel homozygous frameshift variant c.505_508delTATC was identified in the patient, for which both his mother and father were carriers.@*CONCLUSION@#The frameshift variant c.505_508delTATC probably underlies the mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in this patient. The result also enriched the variant spectrum of DGUOK gene.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetics , Female , Frameshift Mutation , Humans , Mutation , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) , Genetics , Syndrome
10.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 42: 23-29, Nov. 2019. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087353

ABSTRACT

Background: Snakes are found on every continent in the world except Antarctica, and on smaller land masses. Being ecologically important, they also cause a large number of bites, leading to millions of deaths. Mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences are being used to identify, characterize, and infer genetic biodiversity among different snake species. Furthermore, phylogenetics helps in inferring the relationships and evolutionary histories among these species. Black cobra is one of the four most venomous snakes in Pakistan. Four mitochondrial (ND4, Cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA) and four nuclear (C-mos, RAG-1, BDNF, and NT3) genes were used to trace diversity and infer the phylogenetic relationship of black cobra in Pakistan. Results: Almost similar phylogenies were obtained through maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, showing two species of cobra in Pakistan, namely, black cobra (Naja naja) and brown cobra (Naja oxiana). All Naja species were divided into three clades: black cobra (N. naja) and brown cobra (N. oxiana) cladding with different species of Naja; N. naja (Pakistan) cladding with N. naja from Nepal; and N. oxiana showed close relationship with Naja kaouthia from Thailand and Naja siamensis from Thailand. Conclusion: It was confirmed genetically that there are two cobra species in Pakistan, i.e., black and brown cobras. This study will help in not only genetic conservation but also developing anti-venom against snake species.


Subject(s)
Naja naja/genetics , Pakistan , Phylogeny , Species Specificity , DNA, Mitochondrial , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Elapidae/genetics , Biodiversity
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 367-375, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.


Resumo Renicolídeos são parasitos que habitam túbulos renais e ureteres de aves que se alimentam de moluscos e peixes. Puffinus puffinus, ave marinha migratória, foi registrada como hospedeiro definitivo de Renicola spp. Estudos relacionados com as espécies de renicolídeos e as lesões renais resultantes são importantes para o entendimento das causas de óbito de aves marinhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os trematódeos renicolídeos e avaliar os achados histológicos em dois P. puffinus encalhados no litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os parasitos foram avaliados por ensaios histológicos, ultraestruturais e moleculares, enquanto as alterações teciduais foram analisadas por métodos histológicos. As características morfológicas e morfométricas dos parasitos, juntamente com a reação em cadeia da polimerase e sequenciamento (regiões ribossomal e mitocondrial), identificaram a espécie como Renicola sloanei. Os resultados também sugerem que este helminto pode ser a forma adulta de Cercaria pythionike. A dilatação dos ductos coletores foi o principal achado histológico renal. Em conclusão, R. sloanei foi identificado, e pela primeira vez P. puffinus foi descrito como hospedeiro deste digenético induzindo alterações renais discretas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Kidney/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trematoda/classification , Trematoda/genetics , Trematoda/ultrastructure , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Helminth/genetics
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040604

ABSTRACT

American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Psychodidae/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/genetics , Argentina , Psychodidae/classification , Bolivia , Haplotypes , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Phylogeography , Insect Vectors/classification
14.
Rev. cienc. forenses Honduras (En línea) ; 5(2): 14-24, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146847

ABSTRACT

Justificación:El estudio de los polimorfismos de las regiones hipervariables I y II (HVI y HVII) del ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt) se ha convertido en una herramienta invaluable para la ciencia forense, ya que enalgunas ocasionesun determinadoindividuopuedepresentar más de un tipo de ADNmitocondrial,este fenómeno es conocido como Heteroplasmia. Lacoexistencia de dos o más poblaciones de ADNmt puedeocurrir enuna sola mitocondria, célula oindividuo, lo que puede aumentar la complejidad en la interpretación de los resultados de las experticias forenses. Objetivos:Analizar la frecuencia de la heteroplasmia en las regiones HVI y HVII del genoma mitocondrialen una muestra de la población de Maracaibo. Metodología:Seseleccionaron al azar 50 muestras de ADN de la población de Maracaibo, las regiones hipervariables se amplificaron mediantereacción en cadena de la polimerasa, posteriormente se secuenciaron mediante método de Sanger y los fragmentos se separaron por electroforesis capilar, se reportaron las diferencias con respecto a la secuencia de referencia de Cambridge. Resultados: El 26% de las muestras presentaron heteroplasmia en la región HVI, el 52%en la región HVII.Conclusiones:El hecho deaparecer laheteroplas-miaen una determinadasecuencianoinválida el uso del análisis del ADN mitocondrial con fines forenses, dependiendo de la complejidad del caso a peritar,la heteroplasmia puede ser de gran ayuda...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , DNA, Mitochondrial , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Forensic Genetics/methods
15.
Biol. Res ; 52: 6, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pollen development is an energy-consuming process that particularly occurs during meiosis. Low levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may cause cell death, resulting in CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility). DNA sequence differences in ATP synthase genes have been revealed between the N- and S-cytoplasms in the cotton CMS system. However, very few data are available at the RNA level. In this study, we compared five ATP synthase genes in the H276A, H276B and fertile F1 (H276A/H268) lines using RNA editing, RNA blotting and quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore their contribution to CMS. A molecular marker for identifying male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) was also developed. RESULTS: RNA blotting revealed the absence of any novel orf for the ATP synthase gene sequence in the three lines. Forty-one RNA editing sites were identified in the coding sequences. RNA editing showed that proteins had 32.43% higher hydrophobicity and that 39.02% of RNA editing sites had proline converted to leucine. Two new stop codons were detected in atp6 and atp9 by RNA editing. Real-time qRT-PCR data showed that the atp1, atp6, atp8, and atp9 genes had substantially lower expression levels in H276A compared with those in H276B. By contrast, the expression levels of all five genes were increased in F1 (H276A/H268). Moreover, a molecular marker based on a 6-bp deletion upstream of atp8 in H276A was developed to identify male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) in cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data substantially contributes to the understanding of the function of ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS. Therefore, we suggest that ATP synthase genes might be an indirect cause of cotton CMS. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship among ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/genetics , RNA Editing , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Plant Infertility/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , RNA, Mitochondrial/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763792

ABSTRACT

Athletic performance is a complex multifactorial trait involving genetic and environmental factors. The heritability of an athlete status was reported to be about 70% in a twin study, and at least 155 genetic markers are known to be related with athlete status. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes essential proteins for oxidative phosphorylation, which is related to aerobic capacity. Thus, mtDNA is a candidate marker for determining physical performance. Recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms of mtDNA are associated with athlete status and/or physical performance in various populations. Therefore, we analyzed mtDNA haplogroups to assess their association with the physical performance of Korean population. The 20 mtDNA haplogroups were determined using the SNaPshot assay. Our result showed a significant association of the haplogroup F with athlete status (odds ratio, 3.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.094 to 8.464; p = 0.012). Athletes with haplogroup F (60.64 ± 3.04) also demonstrated a higher Sargent jump than athletes with other haplogroups (54.28 ± 1.23) (p = 0.041). Thus, our data imply that haplogroup F may play a crucial role in the physical performance of Korean athletes. Functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.


Subject(s)
Athletes , Athletic Performance , DNA, Mitochondrial , Genetic Markers , Humans , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Sample Size
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761778

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial DNA sequence variability of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei in GenBank was observed by reinvestigation of mitochondrial cox1 and cytb sequences. The DNA sequences were analyzed in this study, comprising complete DNA sequences of cox1 (n=239) and cytb (n=213) genes. The 10 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Spirometra species were compared with those of Korea, China and Japan. The sequences were analyzed for nucleotide composition, conserved sites, variable sites, singleton sites and parsimony-informative sites. Phylogenetic analyses was done using neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood on cox1 and cytb sequences of Spirometra species. These polymorphic sites identified 148 (cox1) and 83 (cytb) haplotypes within 239 and 213 isolates from 3 Asian countries. Phylogenetic tree topologies were presented high-level confidence values for the 2 major branches of 2 Spirometra species containing S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens, and S. decipiens sub-clades including all sequences registered as S. erinaceieuropaei in cox1 and cytb genes. These results indicated that mitochondrial haplotypes of S. erinaceieuropaei and S. decipiens were found in the 3 Asian countries.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Base Sequence , China , Databases, Nucleic Acid , DNA, Mitochondrial , Haplotypes , Humans , Japan , Korea , Mitochondria , Spirometra , Trees
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761744

ABSTRACT

We tried a series of morphological and molecular approaches to identify a new species of Stellantchasmus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) originating from the wrestling half-beaked fish, Dermogenys pusillus of Thailand. Adult worm samples of the new species were recovered from hamsters experimentally infected with the metacercariae from D. pusillus in Thailand. Two isolates (Thai and Korean) of Stellantchasmus falcatus were used as comparative control groups. Worm samples of 3 Stellantchasmus groups were morphologically observed and molecularly analyzed with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. The morphological characteristics of S. dermogenysi n. sp. are similar to S. falcatus originating from brackish water fish, but minor difference was noted including the absence of the prepharynx, position of the ovary near the ceca end, smaller body size, and shorter esophageal length. A phylogenetic tree derived from neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood methods suggests that S. dermogenysi n. sp. is separated from S. falcatus supported by high bootstrap values. The relative divergences persist between these host-specific trematodes, which we suggest should be recognized as 2 distinct species. Comparisons of S. dermogenysi n. sp. with S. falcatus isolated from mullets in Thailand and Korea indicate a genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA of 19.4% and 21.7%, respectively. By the present study, a new species, Stellantchasmus dermogenysi n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae), is proposed in Thailand based on molecular evidences, in addition to minor morphological differences between S. falcatus and the new species.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Body Size , Cricetinae , DNA, Mitochondrial , Electron Transport Complex IV , Female , Humans , Korea , Metacercariae , Ovary , Phylogeny , Saline Waters , Smegmamorpha , Thailand , Trees , Wrestling
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761717

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease induced by anisakid nematodes, and endoscopic inspection is used for a diagnosis or remedy for it. Anisakis simplex, Anisakis physeteris, and Pseudoterranova decipiens had been reported to be the major species causing human infections, particularly, in Japan. However, in Korea, recent studies strongly suggested that Anisakis pegreffii is the major species of human infections. To support this suggestion, we collected anisakid larvae (n=20) from 20 human patients who were undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy at a health check-up center in Korea, and molecular identification was performed on the larvae using PCR-RFLP analysis and gene sequencing of rDNA ITS regions and mtDNA cox2. In addition, anisakid larvae (n=53) collected from the sea eel (Astroconger myriaster) were also examined for comparison with those extracted from humans. The results showed that all human samples (100%) were identified as A. pegreffii, whereas 90.7% of the samples from the sea eel were A. pegreffii with the remaining 9.3% being Hysterothylacium aduncum. Our study confirmed that A. pegreffii is the predominant species causing human anisakiasis in Korea, and this seems to be due to the predominance of this larval type in the fish (sea eels) popularly consumed by the Korean people. The possibility of human infection with H. aduncum in Korea is also suggested.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA, Ribosomal , Eels , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Japan , Korea , Larva , Zoonoses
20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(1): e180109, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002703

ABSTRACT

Lutjanidae comprises 21 genera and 135 species widespread throughout Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Nonetheless, the phylogenetic relationships of Lutjaninae remain uncertain. Furthermore, phylogenetic hypotheses for Lutjanus alexandrei, an endemic species from northeastern Brazilian coast, in Lutjanidae are absent so far. Therefore, we carried out multiloci analyses, combining both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences in Lutjaninae species from Western Atlantic focusing on the controversial relationships among Lutjanus, Rhomboplites, and Ocyurus. Besides, we determined the phylogenetic position and dated the origin of L. alexandrei. The phylogenetics trees based on the 4.4 kb for 11 species corroborated the synonym among Lutjanus and the putative monotypic genera. For the dating of L. alexandrei, another nucleotide dataset (3.0 kb; 40 species) validated the genetic identity of this species that diverged from the sister taxon L. apodus between 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, probably as a result of the barrier caused by the muddy outflow from Orinoco and Amazon rivers along the coastal zone. This report is the most robust multiloci analysis to confirm the synonymy of the three genera of Lutjaninae from Western Atlantic and the first reliable inference about the phylogenetic relationships and origin of L. alexandrei.(AU)


A Família Lutjanidae compreende 21 gêneros e 135 espécies, distribuídas ao longo dos oceanos Atlântico, Índico e Pacífico. As relações filogenéticas dos Lutjaninae são incertas. Além disso, a espécie Lutjanus alexandrei, endêmica da costa nordeste do Brasil, não foi inclusa em nenhuma hipótese filogenética até o presente. Assim, realizamos uma análise integrando DNA mitocondrial e nuclear para espécies de Lutjaninae do Atlântico Ocidental, direcionada para a controversa relação entre Lutjanus, Rhomboplites e Ocyurus. Além disso, alocamos filogeneticamente L. alexandrei e datamos sua origem. As árvores filogenéticas baseadas em 4.4 kb de 11 espécies corroboraram a sinonímia entre os monotípicos e Lutjanus. Para a datação de L. alexandrei, outro banco de nuclueotídeos foi analisado (3.0 kb; 40 espécies), validando geneticamente a espécie e a colocando como irmã de L. apodus, da qual se separou entre 2.5 - 6.5 Mya, o que provavelmente foi provocado pela faixa enlameada na região costeira, influenciada pelas descargas dos rios Amazonas e Orinoco, que funciona como barreira. Este trabalho representa a mais robusta análise multiloci direcionada para a sinonimização dos três gêneros de Lutjaninae e a primeira hipótese filogenética a propor um posicionamento e origem para L. alexandrei.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Phylogeny , Perciformes/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis
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