Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 152
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880843


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the feasibility of detecting maternal hereditary mitochondrial tRNA@*METHODS@#We performed sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA in blood samples from 2070 cases of maternal hereditary mitochondrial disease in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, and identified 3 patients with m.15927G>A mutation.Buccal swabs and blood samples were obtained from the 3 patients (mutation group) and 3 normal volunteers (control group).After extracting whole genomic DNA from all the samples, the DNA concentration and purity were analyzed.The PCR products were subjected to dot blot hybridization, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequencing analysis to verify the feasibility of detecting m.15927G>A mutation using buccal swabs.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in DNA concentration extracted from buccal swabs and blood samples in either the mutation group or the control group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Buccal swabs collection accurate is an accurate and sensitive method for the detection of m.15927G>A mutation.

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondria , Mutation , RNA, Transfer , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(6): e10317, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249305


Physical performance is a multifactorial and complex trait influenced by environmental and hereditary factors. Environmental factors alone have been insufficient to characterize all outstanding phenotypes. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled the investigation of whole nuclear and mitochondrial genome sequences, increasing our ability to understand interindividual variability in physical performance. Our objective was to evaluate the association of mitochondrial polymorphic loci with physical performance in Brazilian elite military personnel. Eighty-eight male military personnel who participated in the Command Actions Course of the Army were selected. Total DNA was obtained from blood samples and a complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. Twenty-nine subjects completed the training program (FINISHED, 'F'), and fifty-nine failed to complete (NOT_FINISHED, 'NF'). The mtDNA from NF was slightly more similar to genomes from African countries frequently related to endurance level. Twenty-two distinct mtDNA haplogroups were identified corroborating the intense genetic admixture of the Brazilian population, but their distribution was similar between the two groups (FST=0.0009). Of 745 polymorphisms detected in the mtDNA, the position G11914A within the NADPH gene component of the electron transport chain, was statistically different between F and NF groups (P=0.011; OR: 4.286; 95%CI: 1.198-16.719), with a higher frequency of the G allele in group F individuals). The high performance of military personnel may be mediated by performance-related genomic traits. Thus, mitochondrial genetic markers such as the ND4 gene may play an important role on physical performance variability.

Humans , Male , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Military Personnel , Haplotypes/genetics , Brazil , Physical Functional Performance , NADP
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(1): 65-74, 2021. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255022


A Síndrome de Leigh (SL) é uma doença neuro-metabólica congênita, que faz parte do grupo das encefalopatias fatais, com progressão e morte dentro de 2 anos, em média. A SL é causada por mutações no DNA que causam alterações na geração de ATP celular pelas mitocôndrias. As mitocôndrias contêm seu próprio DNA (mtDNA) e, ao contrário do DNA nuclear, o mtDNA é herdado somente da mãe. Mulheres portadores de mutações causadoras da SL podem vivenciar experiências muito tristes ao tentarem realizar o sonho da maternidade. As técnicas de substituição de mtDNA mutado com mtDNA saudável de doadora, oferecem a essas mulheres a possibilidade de terem uma criança geneticamente relacionada sem a SL. O desenvolvimento e a aplicação clínica de terapias de substituição de mtDNA já são uma realidade, tendo o primeiro bebê gerado a partir da técnica nascido em 2016. Mas será que essas técnicas são seguras? Neste trabalho, revisamos a SL e algumas técnicas de substituição de mtDNA já aplicadas em humanos, que envolvem a transferência de pronúcleos de zigotos ou de fuso acromático de oócitos. Concluímos que, apesar dos resultados promissores, ainda é cedo para assegurar a aplicabilidade clínica de técnicas de substituição de mtDNA em seres humanos. (AU)

Leigh syndrome (SL) is a congenital neurometabolic disease included in the group of fatal encephalopathies, with progression and death within 2 years on average. SL is caused by mutations in the DNA that cause changes in the generation of cellular ATP by mitochondria. Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA) and, unlike nuclear DNA, mtDNA is inherited only from the mother. Women with SL mutations may experience mournful situations when attempting to fulfill the dream of motherhood. Techniques for replacing mutant mtDNA with healthy donor mtDNA provide these women with the possibility of having a genetically related child without SL. The development and clinical application of mtDNA replacement therapies is a reality, and the first baby generated using the technique was born in 2016. However, are these techniques safe? In this article, we review SL and some mtDNA replacement techniques that have been used in humans, which involve zygote pronuclear transfer or oocyte spindle transfer. We conclude that, despite the promising results, it is too early to ensure that mtDNA replacement techniques are clinically applicable to humans. (AU)

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leigh Disease , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 314-319, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130868


Abstract Background: Although not fully understood, oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and variations in mtDNA copy number (mtDNAcn). Objective: The aim of this study was to explore mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage byproducts in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Methods: Forty six patients with systemic sclerosis and forty nine healthy subjects were studied. Quantitative real-time PCR used to measure the relative mtDNAcn and the oxidative damage (oxidized purines) of each sample. Results: The mean mtDNAcn was lower in patients with systemic sclerosis than in healthy controls whereas the degree of mtDNA damage was significantly higher in cases as compared to controls. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between mtDNAcn and oxidative DNA damage. Study limitations: The lack of simultaneous analysis and quantification of DNA oxidative damage markers in serum or urine of patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that alteration in mtDNAcn and increased oxidative DNA damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Scleroderma, Systemic/genetics , Scleroderma, Systemic/blood , DNA Damage , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/blood , Oxidative Stress/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Reactive Oxygen Species/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 367-375, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042538


Abstract Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.

Resumo Renicolídeos são parasitos que habitam túbulos renais e ureteres de aves que se alimentam de moluscos e peixes. Puffinus puffinus, ave marinha migratória, foi registrada como hospedeiro definitivo de Renicola spp. Estudos relacionados com as espécies de renicolídeos e as lesões renais resultantes são importantes para o entendimento das causas de óbito de aves marinhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os trematódeos renicolídeos e avaliar os achados histológicos em dois P. puffinus encalhados no litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os parasitos foram avaliados por ensaios histológicos, ultraestruturais e moleculares, enquanto as alterações teciduais foram analisadas por métodos histológicos. As características morfológicas e morfométricas dos parasitos, juntamente com a reação em cadeia da polimerase e sequenciamento (regiões ribossomal e mitocondrial), identificaram a espécie como Renicola sloanei. Os resultados também sugerem que este helminto pode ser a forma adulta de Cercaria pythionike. A dilatação dos ductos coletores foi o principal achado histológico renal. Em conclusão, R. sloanei foi identificado, e pela primeira vez P. puffinus foi descrito como hospedeiro deste digenético induzindo alterações renais discretas.

Animals , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Kidney/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trematoda/classification , Trematoda/genetics , Trematoda/ultrastructure , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Helminth/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190184, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040604


American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) has two main scenarios of transmission as follows: scattered cases in rural areas and urban outbreaks. Urban AVL is in active dispersion from the northeastern border of Argentina-Paraguay-Brazil to the South. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis was initially reported in urban environments in the northwestern border of the country. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, environmental variables associated with its distribution, and its genetic diversity were assessed in Salvador Mazza, Argentina, on the border with Bolivia. The genetic analysis showed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and low nucleotide polymorphism index. We discuss the hypothesis of an expanding urban population with introgressive hybridisation of older haplogroups found in their path in natural forest or rural environments, acquiring a new adaptability to urban environments, and the possibility of changes in vector capacity.

Animals , Male , Psychodidae/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Animal Distribution , Insect Vectors/genetics , Argentina , Psychodidae/classification , Bolivia , Haplotypes , Brazil , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Phylogeography , Insect Vectors/classification
Biol. Res ; 52: 6, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011409


BACKGROUND: Pollen development is an energy-consuming process that particularly occurs during meiosis. Low levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) may cause cell death, resulting in CMS (cytoplasmic male sterility). DNA sequence differences in ATP synthase genes have been revealed between the N- and S-cytoplasms in the cotton CMS system. However, very few data are available at the RNA level. In this study, we compared five ATP synthase genes in the H276A, H276B and fertile F1 (H276A/H268) lines using RNA editing, RNA blotting and quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore their contribution to CMS. A molecular marker for identifying male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) was also developed. RESULTS: RNA blotting revealed the absence of any novel orf for the ATP synthase gene sequence in the three lines. Forty-one RNA editing sites were identified in the coding sequences. RNA editing showed that proteins had 32.43% higher hydrophobicity and that 39.02% of RNA editing sites had proline converted to leucine. Two new stop codons were detected in atp6 and atp9 by RNA editing. Real-time qRT-PCR data showed that the atp1, atp6, atp8, and atp9 genes had substantially lower expression levels in H276A compared with those in H276B. By contrast, the expression levels of all five genes were increased in F1 (H276A/H268). Moreover, a molecular marker based on a 6-bp deletion upstream of atp8 in H276A was developed to identify male sterile cytoplasm (MSC) in cotton. CONCLUSIONS: Our data substantially contributes to the understanding of the function of ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS. Therefore, we suggest that ATP synthase genes might be an indirect cause of cotton CMS. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship among ATP synthase genes in cotton CMS.

Cell Membrane/genetics , RNA Editing , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Gossypium/enzymology , Plant Infertility/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Cytoplasm/metabolism , RNA, Mitochondrial/genetics
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(4): 519-523, out.-dez. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977083


RESUMO Objetivo: A síndrome de Leigh é uma doença neurodegenerativa com incidência de 1:40.000 nados-vivos. Apresenta ampla heterogeneidade clínica, bioquímica e genética, mas com alterações neuropatorradiológicas homogêneas. Não existe tratamento específico, e o prognóstico é reservado. O objetivo deste estudo foi familiarizar os profissionais de saúde com a doença. Descrição do caso: Menina de 16 meses, com hipotonia axial e atraso do desenvolvimento psicomotor. Dos exames realizados: cariótipo, potenciais auditivos evocados e avaliação oftalmológica normais; presença de hiperlactacidemia e hipocitrulinemia. Após a realização de ressonância magnética cerebral sob anestesia, observou-se agravamento da hipotonia com necessidade de internação por episódios de cianose/apneia. O eletroencefalograma não mostrou atividade epileptiforme. A neuroimagem revelou hipersinal lenticular bilateral com lesão do putâmen e do globo pálido esquerdo. Encontrou-se a mutação 8993T>G (MT-ATP6) no DNA mitocondrial. Comentários: De 10 a 30% dos doentes com síndrome de Leigh apresentam mutações do DNA mitocondrial. A descompensação com agravamento neurológico após intervenção anestésica está descrita e, nesse caso, apoiou o diagnóstico. Importante alertar para casos semelhantes, com diminuição de exames invasivos para diagnóstico.

ABSTRACT Objective: Leigh syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence of 1:40,000 live births. It presents wide clinical, biochemical, and genetic heterogeneity, but with homogenous neuropatoradiological alterations. There is no specific treatment, and the prognosis is reserved. This case report aimed familiarize health professionals with the disease. Case Description: A 16-month-hold girl who was followed in outpatient clinic due to axial hypotonia and delayed psychomotor development. Karyotype, auditory evoked potentials and ophthalmologic evaluation were normal. Evidence of hyperlactacidemia and hypocitrullinemia was detected in the patient. After performing brain magnetic resonance under anesthesia, hypotonia got worse, and the patient was hospitalized after an episode of cyanosis and apnea. The electroencephalogram showed no epileptiform activity. Neuroimaging revealed bilateral lenticular hyperintensity, especially in the putamen and in the left globus pallidus regions. Molecular analysis revealed an 8993T>G (MT-ATP6) mutation in the mitochondrial DNA. Comments: Between 10 and 30% of individuals with Leigh syndrome have mitochondrial DNA mutations. The decompensation after anesthetic intercurrences is typically associated with neurological deterioration and, in this case, increased the diagnosis suspicion. It is important to alert for similar cases and to reduce invasive diagnostic tests if the diagnosis is suspected.

Humans , Female , Infant , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Leigh Disease/genetics , Mutation
Biol. Res ; 50: 3, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838974


Direct tests of the random or non-random distribution of nucleotides on genomes have been devised to test the hypothesis of neutral, nearly-neutral or selective evolution. These tests are based on the direct base distribution and are independent of the functional (coding or non-coding) or structural (repeated or unique sequences) properties of the DNA. The first approach described the longitudinal distribution of bases in tandem repeats under the Bose-Einstein statistics. A huge deviation from randomness was found. A second approach was the study of the base distribution within dinucleotides whose bases were separated by 0, 1, 2... K nucleotides. Again an enormous difference from the random distribution was found with significances out of tables and programs. These test values were periodical and included the 16 dinucleotides. For example a high ¨positive¨ (more observed than expected dinucleotides) value, found in dinucleotides whose bases were separated by (3K + 2) sites, was preceded by two smaller ¨negative¨ (less observed than expected dinucleotides) values, whose bases were separated by (3K) or (3K + 1) sites. We examined mtDNAs, prokaryote genomes and some eukaryote chromosomes and found that the significant non-random interactions and periodicities were present up to 1000 or more sites of base separation and in human chromosome 21 until separations of more than 10 millions sites. Each nucleotide has its own significant value of its distance to neutrality; this yields 16 hierarchical significances. A three dimensional table with the number of sites of separation between the bases and the 16 significances (the third dimension is the dinucleotide, individual or taxon involved) gives directly an evolutionary state of the analyzed genome that can be used to obtain phylogenies. An example is provided.

Humans , Animals , Phylogeny , Base Sequence/genetics , Genome , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Nucleotides/genetics , Periodicity , Prokaryotic Cells/chemistry , Reference Values , Algorithms , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Chi-Square Distribution , Collagen/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Tandem Repeat Sequences , Chromosome Structures , Genetic Drift , Drosophila melanogaster/genetics , Epistasis, Genetic/genetics , Nucleotides/chemistry
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 82(4): 391-396, July-Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794981


ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in several families. However, little is known about the prevalence of these mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence of these mitochondrial DNA mutations in such population. METHODS: A total of 178 sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood sample. We employed the SNaPshot(r) sequencing method to detect five mitochondrial DNA mutations, including A1555G and A827G in 12S rRNA gene and A7445G, 7472insC, and T7511C in tRNASerUCN gene. Meanwhile, we used polymerase chain reaction and sequenced the products to screen GJB2 gene mutations in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations. RESULTS: We failed to detect the presence of A1555G mutation in 12S rRNA gene, and of A7445G, 7472insC, T7511C mutations in tRNASerUCN gene in our population. However, we found that 6 patients (3.37%) were carriers of a homozygous A827G mutation and one of them also carried homozygous GJB2 235delC mutation. CONCLUSION: Our findings in the present study indicate that even in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, mitochondrial DNA mutations might also contribute to the clinical phenotype.

Resumo Introdução: Diversas mutações do DNA mitocondrial tem sido descritas, em diferentes famílias, associadas à deficiência auditiva não sindrômica. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobrea prevalência dessas mutações em pacientes esporádicos com deficiência auditiva sensorioneural não sindrômica. Objetivo: A finalidade do nosso estudo foi investigar a incidência dessas mutações no DNA mitocondrial nessa população. Método: No total, 178 pacientes esporádicos com deficiência auditiva sensorioneural não sindrômica foram recrutados para participação no estudo. O DNA genômico foi extraído de amostra, de sangue periférico. Utilizamos o método de sequenciamento SNaPshot(r) para detecção de cinco mutações do DNA mitocondrial: A1555G e A827G no gene 12S rRNA e A7445G, 7472insCe T7511C no gene tRNASerUCN. Paralelamente, utilizamos a reação de polimerase em cadeia e sequenciamos os produtos para triagem das mutações no gene GJB2 nos pacientes portadores de mutações no DNA mitocondrial. Resultados: Em nossa população, não conseguimos detectar a presença da mutação A1555G no gene 12S rRNA e nem as mutações A7445G, 7472insC e T7511C no gene tRNASerUCN. Entretanto, constatamos que seis pacientes (3,37%) eram portadores da mutação homozigota A827G; e um deles também portava a mutação homozigota GJB2 235delC. Conclusão: Nossos achados no presente estudo indicam que, mesmo em pacientes esporádicos com deficiência auditiva sensorioneural não sindrômica, as mutações do DNA mitocondrial também podem contribuir para o fenótipo clínico.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Molecular Sequence Data , Base Sequence , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(5): 322-329, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782046


Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper.

Animals , Cytochromes b/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Triatoma/genetics , Brazil , Chagas Disease/transmission , Insect Vectors/classification , Triatoma/classification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 34-41, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748360


Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012). Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%), in the male gender (78.9%) and in those living in rural areas (85.6%). The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Deer/classification , Deer/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Balkan Peninsula , Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources , Gene Frequency , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genomic Structural Variation , Greece , Phylogeography , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Translocation, Genetic
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 63-69, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748362


Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

Animals , Female , Animal Migration , Chiroptera/genetics , Mycoses/transmission , Residence Characteristics , Conservation of Natural Resources , Chiroptera/microbiology , Demography , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Gene Flow , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Hibernation , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Mycoses/microbiology , Pennsylvania , Phylogeography
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 70-78, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748365


A scoping review was conducted to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012, and temporary patterns were estimated from surveillance data. The results suggest that in its third decade, the Amazon HIV/AIDS epidemic is far from being stabilized and displays rising AIDS incidence and mortality rates and late diagnoses. The data suggest that AIDS cases are hitting mostly young adults and have recently shifted toward men, both homosexual and heterosexual. AIDS cases among the indigenous people have remained stable and low. However, the epidemic has disseminated to the interior of the state, which adds difficulties to its control, given the geographical isolation, logistical barriers, and culturally and ethnically diverse population. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been decentralized, but peripheral ARV services are still insufficient and too distant from people who need them. Recently, the expansion of point-of-care (POC) rapid HIV testing has been contributing to overcoming logistical barriers. Other new POC devices, such as the PIMA CD4 analyzer, will bring the laboratory to the patient. AIDS uniquely coexists with other tropical infections, sharing their epidemiological profiles. The increased demand for HIV/AIDS care services can only be satisfied through increased decentralization to peripheral health units, which can also naturally integrate care with other tropical infections and can promote a shift from vertical to integrated programming. Future challenges involve building surveillance data on HIV case notification and covering the spectrum of engagement in care, including adherence to treatment and follow-up loss.

Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Dogs/genetics , Gene Flow/genetics , Wolves/genetics , Base Sequence , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Georgia (Republic) , Hybridization, Genetic , Haplotypes/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Pedigree , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(supl.1): 4-11, 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748366


In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Speciation , Genetic Variation , Ruminants/classification , Ruminants/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genetics, Population , Genome, Mitochondrial , Karyotype , Mitochondria/genetics , Phylogeny , Translocation, Genetic
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 137-150, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744495


The original distribution area of the Patagonian 'pejerrey' Odontesthes hatcheri has been subjected to the introduction of a related species; the Bonaerensean 'pejerrey' Odontesthes bonariensis. This species currently coexists with O. hatcheri in lakes and reservoirs, and can interbreed and produce fertile hybrid offspring. The purposes of this study were; a) the extensive sampling of Patagonian and Andean-Cuyan populations of pejerrey, b) the species identification according to taxonomic key, c) validation of taxonomic results on the basis of mitochondrial DNA composition, and d) applying morphometric analysis to explore the effects of hybridization and environmental conditions on body shape. Cytochrome b sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic divergence between species and low intraspecific variation in O. hatcheri. Geometric Morphometric Analyses detected shape differences in agreement with diagnostic characteristics of each species. Putative hybrids exhibiting intermediate diagnostic characteristics were identified by Geometric Morphometric Analysis. Significant regressions between body shape and total phosphorus and altitude were found, suggesting a dependence on trophic web structure. This multi-level approach suggests the introgression of O. bonariensis into several O. hatcheri populations throughout Patagonia. Managers should take this into account when considering further exotic introductions into regions where non-native fishes have not yet become established.

La distribución original del 'pejerrey' patagónico Odontesthes hatcheri ha sido sometida en las últimas décadas a la introducción de una especie relacionada; el 'pejerrey' Bonaerense Odontesthes bonariensis. Ambas especies coexisten actualmente en algunos lagos y embalses debido a prácticas de siembra y pueden cruzarse y producir progenie híbrida y fértil. Los propósitos de este estudio fueron a) un amplio muestreo de las poblaciones patagónicas y andino-cuyanas del pejerrey, b) la identificación de las especies de acuerdo con la clave taxonómica, c) la validación de los resultados taxonómicos sobre la base de la composición del ADN mitocondrial y d) aplicar el análisis morfométrico para explorar los efectos de la hibridización y las condiciones ambientales sobre la forma corporal. El análisis de la secuencia del Citocromo b mostró un alto grado de divergencia genética entre ambas especies y una muy baja variación intraespecífica en O. hatcheri. El análisis de la Morfometría Geométrica detectó diferencias de forma coincidentes con las características diagnósticas de cada especie. Presuntos híbridos exhibiendo características diagnósticas intermedias fueron identificados por el análisis de la Morfometría Geométrica. Regresiones significativas entre la forma corporal y la concentración total de fósforo y la altitud fueron halladas, sugiriendo una dependencia con la estructura de la trama trófica. Este enfoque múltiple sugiere la introgresión de genes de O. bonariensis dentro de varias poblaciones de O. hatcheri a lo largo de la Patagonia. Las autoridades de aplicación deberían tomar en cuenta estos riesgos al momento de considerar nuevas introducciones de especies exóticas en regiones donde estas especies no se encuentren previamente establecidas.

Animals , Classification/methods , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Introduced Species/statistics & numerical data , Fishes/classification , Demography/classification
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158398


Mitochondrial dysfunctions are known to be responsible for a number of heterogenous clinical presentations with multi-systemic involvement. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation leading to a decrease in cellular energy (ATP) production is the most important cause underlying these disorders. Despite significant progress made in the field of mitochondrial medicine during the last two decades, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders are not fully understood. Since the identification of first mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in 1988, there has been an exponential rise in the identification of mtDNA and nuclear DNA mutations that are responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Genetic complexity together with ever widening clinical spectrum associated with mitochondrial dysfunction poses a major challenge in diagnosis and treatment. Effective therapy has remained elusive till date and is mostly efficient in relieving symptoms. In this review, we discuss the important clinical and genetic features of mitochondrials disorders with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment.

DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Humans , Mitochondrial Diseases/complications , Mitochondrial Diseases/diagnosis , Mitochondrial Diseases/genetics , Mitochondrial Diseases/therapy , Mutation
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 173 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847442


Espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs) são normalmente e continuamente geradas em mitocôndrias, majoritariamente na cadeia de transporte de elétrons (CTE). Harman (1956, 1972 e 1992) teorizou que os radicais livres gerados nas mitocôndrias seriam a principal causa do envelhecimento. De fato, durante o envelhecimento é observado um desequilíbrio entre formação e remoção de EROs, que resulta em estresse redox. Essa condição favorece a formação de lesões oxidadas no DNA, acarretando em mutagênese ou morte celular. Diversos mecanismos moleculares cooperam para o reparo de DNA. Duas vias de reparo de DNA lidam com a maioria das lesões: o reparo por excisão de base (BER) e o reparo por excisão de nucleotídeos (NER). A via BER corrige pequenas modificações de bases que surgem de reações de desaminação, alquilação e oxidação. A via NER é mais versátil, reconhecendo lesões que distorcem a dupla hélice de DNA, como danos induzidos por luz UV e adutos volumos. Pacientes xeroderma pigmentoso (XP-A a XP-G) herdam mutações em um de sete genes que codificam proteínas envolvidas na via NER, ou em um gene que codifica uma polimerase translesão (XP-V). A doença é caracterizada por fotosensibilidade e incidência elevada de neoplasias cutâneas. A proteína XPC atua na etapa de reconhecimento da lesão de DNA na subvia de reparo global do genoma (GG-NER), e sua mutação dá origem aos sintomas clássicos de XP. Novas funções de XPC foram recentemente descritas: i) atuando como cofator na via BER auxiliando as DNA glicosilases OGG1, TDG e SMUG; ii) atuando como cofator transcricional de elementos responsivos a Oct4/Sox2, RXR e PPARα; e iii) na adaptação metabólica na transformação de queratinócitos. Então, propusemo-nos a investigar as relações entre XPC e a manutenção da integridade do DNA mitocondrial, a sensibilidade celular a estresse redox mitocondrial e possíveis alterações bioenergéticas e redox. Para tal, padronizamos um ensaio in vitro de cinética de incisão em DNA plasmidial a fim de investigarmos o possível papel de XPC no reparo de lesões oxidadas em mtDNA. Porém, nossos dados revelaram que XPC não se encontra em mitocôndrias. Apesar disso, células XP-C são mais sensíveis ao tratamento com azul de metileno (AM), antimicina A (AA) e rotenona (ROT), que geram estresse redox mitocondrial. A sensibilidade à AA foi completamente revertida em células corrigidas. Células XP-C apresentaram alterações quanto ao uso dos complexos mitocondriais, com diminuição da taxa de consumo de oxigênio (OCR) via complexo I e um aumento da OCR via complexo II, dependente da presença de XPC. Ademais, a linhagem XP-C apresentou um desequilíbrio redox mitocondrial com maior produção de EROs e menor atividade de GPx. O DNA mitocondrial de células XP-C apresentou níveis elevados de lesão e deleção, que no entanto não retornaram aos níveis encontrados em células selvagens na linhagem XP-C corrigida. Observamos uma acentuada diminuição da expressão de PPARGC1A, um importante regulador de biogênese mitocondrial. Contudo, não foi possível determinar o mecanismo de supressão da expressão de PPARGC1A. Por fim, identificamos que o tipo de mutação em XPC pode estar associado a expressão de PPARGC1A. Esse estudo abre novas possibilidade na investigação do papel de proteína XPC, à parte da instabilidade genômica, na adaptação metabólica e desequilíbrio redox em direção da progressão tumoral

Mitochondria continuously produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly at the electron transport chain. Harman (1956, 1972 e 1992) proposed that normal aging is driven by increased mitochondrially generated free radicals. Indeed, during the course of aging there is an increased imbalance between formation and removal of ROS, leading to redox stress. This condition favours the formation of oxidized DNA lesions, given rise to mutations and cell death. Several molecular mechanisms cooperates to repair the DNA. Two DNA repair pathways deal with the majority of lesions: base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER). The BER pathway corrects small base modifications that arise from deamination, alkylation and oxidation reactions. The NER pathway is more versitile, recognizing helix-distorting lesions, such as UV-induced damage and bulky adducts. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP-A to XP-G) patients inherit mutations in one of seven protein-coding genes involved in NER pathway, or in a gene coding a translesion DNA polymerase (XP-V). Photosensitivity and a thousand-fold increased in the risk of developing cutaneous neoplasms are the main clinical features of XP. XPC protein functions in the recognition step of global genome NER (GG-NER) sub-pathway, and mutations in this gene lead to classical XP symptoms. Recently, it has been described that XPC acts: i) as a cofactor in BER pathway through functional interaction with DNA glycosylases OGG1, TDG and SMUG1; ii) as coactivator in transcription at Oct4/Sox2, RXR and PPARα responsive elements; iii) in metabolic shift during keratinocytes transformation. Thus, we sought to investigate a possible role for XPC in the maintenance of mtDNA integrity, cellular sensitivity to mitochondrial redox stress and eventual bioenergetic and redox changes. For this purpose, we established an in vitro plasmid incision assay to investigate the possible role of XPC in the repair of oxidized lesions in mitochondrial DNA. However, our data revealed that XPC did not localized in mitochondria. Nonetheless, XP-C cells are more sensitive to methylene blue, antimycin A (AA) and rotenone treatment, which induce mitochondrial redox stress. The XP-C sensitivity to AA was completely reverted in XPC-corrected cells. XP-C cells presented altered usage of mitochondrial complexes, with decreased oxygen consumption rate (OCR) via complex I and increased OCR through complex II, an XPC-dependent phenomenon. Furthermore, the XP-C cell line showed mitochondrial redox imbalance with increased ROS production and decrease GPx activity. MtDNA from XP-C cells accumulate lesions and deletions, which, however, were found at similar levels in the corrected cell line. We identified a sharp decrease in the expression of PPARGC1A, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Nevertheless, it was not possible to determine the mechanism of suppression of PPARGC1A expression. Finally, our results suggest a possible link between the type of XPC mutation and PPARGC1A expression. This study unfolds new possible roles for XPC, aside from its established roles in genomic instability, in metabolic adaptation and redox imbalance towards tumour progression

Electron Transport/genetics , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Cell Line , DNA Damage/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Fibroblasts , Heat-Shock Proteins/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction , Xeroderma Pigmentosum
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2015. 107 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-847457


O DNA está constantemente exposto a danos causados tanto por agentes endógenos quanto exógenos. Estes podem causar diferentes tipos de lesões incluindo modificações de bases e do açúcar, além de quebras de fitas simples ou duplas. As quebras de duplas fitas, quando comparadas às demais, constituem as mais citotóxicas e podem resultar em deleções no DNA e instabilidade genética. Deleções no DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA) causam diversas doenças e estão envolvidas no processo de envelhecimento. No núcleo, as quebras de duplas fitas no DNA podem ser reparadas por recombinação homóloga (HR), ligação de pontas não homólogas (NHEJ) e anelamento de fita simples (SSA). No entanto, em mitocôndrias de células de mamíferos, o reparo de quebras de duplas fitas ainda não foi completamente caracterizado. Experimentos in vitro usando extratos mitocondriais de células de roedores mostraram que estes são capazes de reparar essas quebras, no entanto pouco é sabido sobre quais proteínas são responsáveis por cada etapa de reparo, bem como sua implicação na manutenção da integridade do genoma mitocondrial. Sendo assim, nesse trabalho investigamos a localização e função mitocondrial das proteínas ATM, Rad51, Rad52, Ku70/86 e DNA-PKCs, que são sabidamente envolvidas em reparo de quebras de duplas fitas no núcleo. Para identificar essas proteínas em mitocôndrias de células de mamíferos, mitocôndrias foram isoladas a partir de células da linhagem HEK293T, usando centrifugação diferencial seguida por gradiente de Percoll. Para as proteínas de recombinação homóloga, ATM e Rad51, imunodetectamos isoformas semelhantes em todos os compartimentos celulares. Já para a proteína Rad52 o mesmo anticorpo imunodetectou duas bandas distintas na mitocôndria ao passo que no núcleo foram quatro. Além disso, verificamos que baixos níveis de proteína Rad52, induzidos pela expressão de shRNA (short hairping RNA) específico, resultam em diminuição do número de cópias de mtDNA bem como acúmulo de deleções no genoma mitocondrial. Para as proteínas de NHEJ, DNA-PKCs e a subunidade Ku70, identificamos isoformas semelhantes em todos os compartimentos celulares. Já para a subunidade 86 do heterodímero Ku70/86 o anticorpo detectou, somente em mitocôndrias, uma banda menor de 50 kDa, a qual difere na região N-terminal da subunidade detectada no núcleo (86 KDa). Experimentos de co-imunprecitação de proteínas mostraram que essa isoforma menor compõe o heterodímero mitocondrial juntamente com a subunidade 70 (mtKu70/50) e que esse interage com DNA ligase III mitocondrial. Nossos resultados também mostraram que a estabilidade proteica de mtKu70/50 é regulada por ATM. Tratamento das células com peróxido de hidrogênio, que induz quebras de duplas fitas, aumentou a associação do heterodímero mtKu70/50 com o mtDNA, de forma independente de aumento da concentração proteica intra-mitocondrial. Já a diminuição dos níveis proteicos de Ku, induzida através de shRNA, resultou em diminuição do número de cópias de mtDNA e acumulo de danos nesse genoma. Extratos mitocondriais de células knockdown para Ku apresentaram menor atividade de reparo NHEJ em um ensaio in vitro, sugerindo que o acúmulo de danos nestas células é provavelmente devido a deficiências na via de NHEJ. Em conjunto, nossos dados sugerem que tanto HR quanto NHEJ operam em mitocôndrias. Além disso, a via de NHEJ mitocondrial utiliza o heterodímero mitocondrial Ku70/50 o qual está envolvido na manutenção do mtDNA. Ademais, nossos resultados mostram uma grande conservação molecular e funcional entre as vias de reparo de NHEJ e HR no núcleo e na mitocôndria, o que reforça sua importância para a manutenção da estabilidade genômica mitocondrial e, provavelmente a função mitocondrial

DNA is constantly exposed to damaging agents from both endogenous and exogenous sources. These can cause different types of DNA lesions that include base and sugar modifications and single and double strand breaks. DNA doublestrand breaks (DSBs) are among the most cytotoxic DNA lesions, which can result in deletions and genetic instability. Deletions in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause numerous human diseases and drive normal aging. DSBs in the nuclear DNA are repaired by non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination (HR) or Single Strand Annealing (SSA). Yet, repair of DSBs in mammalian mitochondria has not been fully characterized. Mitochondrial extracts from rodent cells are proficient in ligating DNA ends in vitro, but little is known about which proteins are responsible for each enzymatic step and its implication in mitochondrial genome maintenance. Thus, we investigated mitochondrial localization and function of DSBR (double strand break repair) proteins ATM, Rad51, Rad52, the Ku70/86 heterodimer and DNA-PKCs.To identify DSBR proteins in mammalian mitochondria, highly purified mitochondria from HEK293T cells were isolated using differential centrifugation followed by Percoll gradient. For HR proteins, we detected similar isoforms for ATM and Rad51 proteins in all cellular compartments. Two mitochondriaspecific isoforms of Rad52 were detected, while the same antibody detected four isoforms in the nucleus. In addition, lower Rad52 protein levels, induced by specific shRNA expression, result in decreased mtDNA copy number and accumulation of deleted mitochondrial genomes. For NHEJ proteins, similar isoforms of DNA-PKcs and the Ku70 subunit were detected in all cellular compartments. On the other hand, antibodies against the Ku86 subunit detected a smaller band in mitochondrial extracts (50 KDa), lacking the N-terminal region of the canonical isoform detected in the nucleus (86 KDa). The mitochondrial Ku70/50 heterodimer interacts with mitochondrial DNA ligase III, suggesting a role in DSBR. Moreover, stability of the mtKu heterodimer is regulated by ATM. Hydrogen peroxide treatment, which induces DSBs, increases mtKu70/50 association with the mtDNA and cells with reduced Ku levels, also induced by shRNA transfection, have lower mtDNA copy number and accumulate mtDNA damage. Moreover, mitochondrial extracts from Ku knockdown cells show lower NHEJ repair activity in an in vitro assay, suggesting that damage accumulation in these cells is likely due to deficiencies in NHEJ. Together, our data suggest that both HR and NHEJ operate in mitochondria. Also, mtNHEJ requires the Ku heterodimer and is involved in mtDNA maintenance. Moreover, our results indicate that there is a significant molecular and functional conservation between NHEJ and HR repair pathways in the nucleus and in mitochondria, which reinforces their importance for maintenance of mitochondrial genomic stability and, likely mitochondrial function

DNA End-Joining Repair/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA/analysis , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins , Ku Autoantigen , Rad51 Recombinase , Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 42(supl.1): 89-93, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787801


The scientific collaboration in networks may be developed among countries, academic institutions and among peer researchers. Once established, they contribute for knowledge dissemination and a strong structure for research in health. Several advantages are attributed to working in networks: the inclusion of a higher number of subjects in the studies; generation of stronger evidence with a higher representativeness of the population (secondary generalization and external validity); higher likelihood of articles derived from these studies to be accepted in high impact journals with a wide coverage; a higher likelihood of obtaining budgets for sponsorship; easier data collection on rare conditions; inclusions of subjects from different ethnic groups and cultures, among others. In Brazil, the Brazilian Network for Studies on Reproductive and Perinatal Health was created in 2008 with the initial purpose of developing a national network of scientific cooperation for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity. Since the establishment of this Network, five studies were developed, some of them already finished and others almost being completed, and two new ones being implemented. Results of the activities in this Network have been very productive and with a positive impact on not only the Postgraduate Program of Obstetrics and Gynecology from the University of Campinas, its coordinating center, but also on other participating centers. A considerable number of scientific articles was published, master´s dissertations and PhD theses were presented, and post-doctorate programs were performed, including students from several areas of health, from distinct regions and from several institutions of the whole country. This represents a high social impact taking into account the relevance of the studied topics for the country.

As colaborações científicas em rede podem ocorrer entre países, instituições acadêmicas e entre pares de pesquisadores e, uma vez estabelecidas, contribuem para a disseminação do conhecimento e estruturação da pesquisa em saúde. Diversas vantagens são atribuídas ao trabalho em rede como: a inclusão de maior número de participantes nos estudos; gerar evidências mais fortes e com maior representatividade da população (generalização secundária e validade externa); maior facilidade das publicações oriundas dos estudos serem aceitas em periódicos de impacto e abrangência; maior probabilidade de obtenção de verbas para financiamento; maior facilidade na coleta de dados sobre condições raras; inclusão de participantes de diferentes grupos étnicos e culturas, entre outras. No Brasil a Rede Brasileira de Estudos em Saúde Reprodutiva e Perinatal foi criada em 2008 com o objetivo inicial de desenvolver rede nacional de cooperação científica para vigilância da morbidade materna grave. Desde sua formação, cinco estudos foram desenvolvidos, alguns já encerrados e outros em fase de finalização, com outros dois em fase final de implantação. Os resultados das atividades desta Rede têm sido bastante produtivos e impactaram positivamente não apenas no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tocoginecologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, seu centro coordenador, mas também o de outros centros participantes, uma vez que expressivo número de artigos científicos foi publicado, mestrados e doutorados foram defendidos e pós-doutorados finalizados, de alunos de diversas áreas da saúde, de diferentes regiões e de várias instituições de todo o país, com alto impacto social dada a relevância dos temas estudados para o país.

Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Aging/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Mutation