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1.
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(3): 265-279, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014094

ABSTRACT

Esta revisión tiene como objetivo dar a conocer los aspectos genéticos, clínicos y diagnósticos del síndrome de Lynch, además de brindar la información más relevante acerca de la asesoría genética en estos pacientes y las recomendaciones actuales para su seguimiento.


This review aims to present the genetic, clinical and diagnostic aspects of Lynch syndrome, as well as providing the most relevant information about genetic counseling in these patients and the current recommendations for their surveillance.


Subject(s)
History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis , Algorithms , Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary/diagnosis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/history , Colorectal Neoplasms, Hereditary Nonpolyposis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor , Risk , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Risk Assessment , Genetic Heterogeneity , Penetrance , Diagnosis, Differential , Genes, Neoplasm , Microsatellite Instability , DNA Mismatch Repair/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Counseling , Models, Genetic
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(4): 419-430, abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902494

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an heterogeneous disease. Three carcinogenic pathways determine its molecular profile: microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability (CIN) and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). Based on the new molecular classification, four consensus CRC molecular subtypes (CMS) are established, which are related to clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of the tumor. Aim: To classify Chilean patients with sporadic CRC according to the new consensus molecular subtypes of carcinogenic pathways. Material and Methods: Prospective analytical study of 53 patients with a mean age of 70 years (55% males) with CRC, operated at a private clinic, without neoadjuvant treatment. From normal and tumor tissue DNA of each patient, CIN, MSI and CIMP were analyzed. Combining these variables, tumors were classified as CMS1/MSI-immune, CMS2/canonical, CMS3/metabolic and CMS4/mesenchymal. Results: CMS1 tumors (19%) were located in the right colon, were in early stages, had MMR complex deficiencies and 67% had an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene. CMS2 tumors (31%) were located in the left colon, had moderate differentiation, absence of vascular invasion, lymphatic and mucin. CMS3 tumors (29%) were also left-sided, with absence of vascular and lymphatic invasion, and 29% had an activating mutation of the KRAS oncogene. CMS4 tumors (21%) showed advanced stages and presence of metastases. Conclusions: This new molecular classification contributes to understanding the heterogeneity of tumors. It is possible to differentiate molecular subgroups of a single pathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, opening the door to personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Microsatellite Instability , Phenotype , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Chile , Prospective Studies , Consensus , Mutation
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 36(4): 593-602, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950925

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción. La cadherina E (CDH1) cumple un papel importante en la transición epitelio-mesénquima y está relacionada con la invasión y las metástasis en varios tipos de carcinomas. Sin embargo, el efecto de las mutaciones y 'epimutaciones' germinales en la propensión al cáncer de mama no es claro. Objetivo. Evaluar el polimorfismo rs5030625, los cambios en el patrón de metilación del promotor y la expresión en la transcripción del gen CDH1 en pacientes con cáncer de mama. Materiales y métodos. Se tomaron muestras de sangre periférica de 102 pacientes con cáncer de mama y 102 mujeres de control. La genotipificación del polimorfismo rs5030625 se hizo mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) y análisis de polimorfismos de longitud del fragmento de restricción; la PCR y el análisis de disociación de alta resolución sensible a metilación se emplearon para determinar el estado y el nivel de metilación del promotor del CDH1; por último, el nivel de expresión en la transcripción del CDH1 se evaluó mediante PCR cuantitativa con transcripción inversa. Resultados. Los resultados no evidenciaron asociación entre el polimorfismo rs5030625 y el cáncer de mama. Se encontraron perfiles aberrantes de metilación del promotor del CDH1 en las pacientes con cáncer de mama relacionados con las primeras etapas de desarrollo del cáncer. La disminución de la expresión del CDH1 se asoció con la presencia de metástasis y el estado de metilación del promotor. Conclusión. Las alteraciones en el CDH1 se asociaron con la invasión y las metástasis en el cáncer de mama. Se proporcionó evidencia adicional sobre la relevancia del CDH1 en el desarrollo y la progresión del cáncer de mama.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Cadherin-E (CDH1) is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis in many carcinomas. However, germinal epimutations and mutations effect in breast cancer susceptibility is not clear. Objective: To evaluate rs334558 polymorphism, promoter methylation status and CDH1 expression profile in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods: We collected peripheral blood samples from 102 breast cancer patients and 102 healthy subjects. The identification of rs334558 polymorphism was performed using PCR-RFLP, while methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) were used to explore CDH1 methylation status; finally, CDH1 transcriptional expression profile was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Results: We found no association between rs334558 polymorphism and breast cancer. Aberrant promoter methylation profile was found in breast cancer patients and it was related with early cancer stages. CDH1 down-regulation was significantly associated with metastasis and promoter methylation. Conclusion: CDH1 alterations were associated with invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. Our results offer further evidence of CDH1 relevance in breast cancer development and progression.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Transcription, Genetic , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cadherins/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis , RNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Antigens, CD , Cadherins/biosynthesis , Cadherins/physiology , Risk Factors , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Reproductive History , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/epidemiology , DNA Methylation , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasm Proteins/biosynthesis , Neoplasm Proteins/physiology
4.
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 23(2): 259-266, Feb-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-747163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to assess the clinical effect of topical treatment using Ulmo honey associated with oral ascorbic acid in patients with venous ulcers. METHOD: longitudinal and descriptive quantitative study. During one year, 18 patients were assessed who were clinically diagnosed with venous ulcer in different stages, male and female, adult, with a mean injury time of 13 months. Ulmo honey was topically applied daily. The dressing was applied in accordance with the technical standard for advanced dressings, combined with the daily oral consumptions of 500 mg of ascorbic acid. The monitoring instrument is the assessment table of venous ulcers. RESULTS: full healing was achieved in 100% of the venous ulcers. No signs of complications were observed, such as allergies or infection. CONCLUSION: the proposed treatment showed excellent clinical results for the healing of venous ulcers. The honey demonstrated debriding and non-adherent properties, was easy to apply and remove and was well accepted by the users. The described results generated a research line on chronic wound treatment. .


OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito clínico de tratamento tópico com mel de Ulmo associado à administração oral de ácido ascórbico em pacientes portadores de úlceras venosas. MÉTODO: estudo quantitativo descritivo longitudinal. Um total de 18 pacientes adultos, ambos os sexos, clinicamente diagnosticados com úlcera venosa em diferentes estágios e com duração de 13 meses em média, foram avaliados pelo período de um ano. A aplicação tópica diária de mel de Ulmo foi realizada de acordo com a norma técnica de tratamento avançado combinada com o consumo diário de 500 mg de ácido ascórbico. O instrumento usado para monitoramento foi a tabela de avaliação de úlceras venosas. RESULTADOS: cicatrização completa foi observada em 100% das úlceras venosas. Não foram observados sinais de complicação tais como alergias ou infecção. CONCLUSÃO: o tratamento proposto apresentou resultados clínicos excelentes na cicatrização das úlceras venosas. Além de favorecer o debridamento, o mel não é aderente, é fácil de aplicar e remover, e é de fácil aceitação por parte dos usuários. Os resultados descritos geraram uma linha investigativa no tratamento de feridas crônicas. .


OBJETIVO: evaluar el efecto clínico del tratamiento con miel de Ulmo tópico asociado a ácido ascórbico oral en pacientes portadores de úlceras venosas. MÉTODO: estudio cuantitativo descriptivo longitudinal. Durante el período de un año se evaluaron 18 pacientes diagnosticados clínicamente de úlcera venosa en sus diferentes estadios, de ambos sexos, adultos, con 13 meses promedio de antigüedad de la lesión. Se realizó la aplicación tópica diaria de miel de Ulmo con curación según la norma técnica de curaciones avanzadas, combinada con el consumo oral diario de 500 mg de ácido ascórbico. El instrumento de seguimiento es la tabla de valoración de úlceras venosas. RESULTADOS: se logró la cicatrización total en el 100% de las úlceras venosas. No se observaron signos de complicación, tales como alergias o infección. CONCLUSIÓN: el tratamiento propuesto mostró excelentes resultados clínicos en la cicatrización de úlceras venosas, presentando la miel propiedades debridantes, no adherentes, fácil de aplicar, remover y aceptación del usuario. Los resultados descritos generaron una línea investigativa en el tratamiento de heridas crónicas. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/etiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Pharmacogenetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , /genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genotype , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Methyltransferases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Registries , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 634-640, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-93956

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The BRAF(V600E) mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of free circulating mutant BRAF(V600E) in predicting the advanced disease of PTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy seven matched tumor and plasma samples obtained from patients with both benign and PTC were analyzed for BRAF(V600E) mutation using a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was absent in tumor DNA samples obtained from patients with benign follicular adenomas or adenomatous goiter. In contrast, 49 of 72 (68.1%) PTC tumors were positive for the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Among them, 3 (6.1%) patients with PTC were positive for BRAF(V600E) mutation in plasma and tumor. However, all 3 patients (100%) had lateral lymph node and lung metastasis. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the BRAF(V600E) mutation can be detected using a PNA clamp real-time PCR in the blood of PTC patients with lung metastasis. Future studies are warranted to determine clinical significance of serum BRAF(V600E) mutation in large prospective studies.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma, Papillary/genetics , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Neoplasm Staging , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Prospective Studies , Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thyroid Neoplasms/genetics
7.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 109-116, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Genetic variations among prostate cancer (PCa) patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) and pelvic lymph node dissection were evaluated to predict lymph node invasion (LNI). Exome arrays were used to develop a clinicogenetic model that combined clinical data related to PCa and individual genetic variations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We genotyped 242,186 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using a custom HumanExome BeadChip v1.0 (Illumina Inc.) from the blood DNA of 341 patients with PCa. The genetic data were analyzed to calculate an odds ratio as an estimate of the relative risk of LNI. We compared the accuracies of the multivariate logistic model incorporating clinical factors between the included and excluded selected SNPs. The Cox proportional hazard models with or without genetic factors for predicting biochemical recurrence (BCR) were analyzed. RESULTS: The genetic analysis indicated that five SNPs (rs75444444, rs8055236, rs2301277, rs9300039, and rs6908581) were significant for predicting LNI in patients with PCa. When a multivariate model incorporating clinical factors was devised to predict LNI, the predictive accuracy of the multivariate model was 80.7%. By adding genetic factors in the aforementioned multivariate model, the predictive accuracy increased to 93.2% (p=0.006). These genetic variations were significant factors for predicting BCR after adjustment for other variables and after adding the predictive gain to BCR. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of the exome array, the selected SNPs were predictors for LNI. The addition of individualized genetic information effectively enhanced the predictive accuracy of LNI and BCR among patients with PCa who underwent RP.


Subject(s)
Aged , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Biopsy , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Exome , Gene Frequency , Genome , Genotype , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Genetic , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics
8.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 142(11): 1407-1414, nov. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734876

ABSTRACT

Background: The molecular testing of KRAS mutation status in metastatic colorectal cancer patients is mandatory to identify patients eligible for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy. Aim: To report the frequency of KRAS gene mutations in Chilean patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: A cohort of 262 Chilean patients with CRC aged 26 to 90 years (53% males), was studied. KRAS mutation status was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and correlated with clinicopathological data. Results: Ninety-eight patients (37%) were positive for KRAS mutations. G12D was the most common mutation with a frequency of 36.7%, followed by G12V (25.5%), G13D (17.3%), G12A (7.1%), G12C (6.1%), G12S (5.1%) and G12R (2%). The frequency of the mutation in left, right colon and rectal tumors was 37.8, 32.6 and 44.9%, respectively. Among tumors with mutations, 86.7% were well or moderately differentiated tumors and the rest were poorly differentiated. No significant associations between KRAS gene mutations and other clinicopathological features of the tumor were observed. Conclusions: The frequencies of KRAS mutations reported in this study are similar to frequencies reported for European and North-American populations, lower than in a Spanish study and higher than in a Peruvian study.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , ras Proteins/genetics , Age Factors , Chile/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/ethnology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics , Neoplasm Invasiveness/genetics , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sex Factors
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(1): 53-61, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-675132

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the retina originated by altered or null retinoblastoma protein (pRb) expression. Genetic alterations in both RB1 alleles in the retinal cells are required for the development of retinoblastoma. In the sporadic form, non-hereditary RB1 gene mutations take place in a single retinoblast cell, and are therefore only present in tumor DNA (somatic mutations). Sporadic retinoblastoma is primarily unilateral, lacks family history and has no risk of transmission to descendants. Genetic tests for detection of RB1 mutation has improved the identification of carriers and facilitated accurate genetic counseling. Objective. To identify mutations in the RB1 gene in Colombian patients with sporadic retinoblastoma by PCR-SSCP followed by sequence. Materials and methods. Four patients with sporadic retinoblastoma were analyzed by PCR-SSCP, followed by DNA sequencing to identify variations in the RB1 gene. Results. We identified five variations in RB1 gene: three new mutations (one germline and two somatic mutations), one new polymorphism and one already reported somatic mutation. Four mutations were found in three patients with unilateral retinoblastoma and one mutation was found in a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma. One of these was a germline mutation in a sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma that was not present in the parents or three siblings analyzed. Conclusions. Our results emphasize the importance of identifying mutations for genetic counseling and clinical management of sporadic retinoblastoma patients. Description of a new RB1 gene variant is interesting since there have been a small number of polymorphisms reported for this gene.


Introducción. El retinoblastoma es un cáncer pediátrico de la retina originado por la expresión alterada o ausente de la proteína del retinoblastoma (pRb). Se requiere la alteración genética de ambos alelos RB1 en las células de la retina para el desarrollo del retinoblastoma. En la forma esporádica, las mutaciones no hereditarias del gen RB1 ocurren en un solo retinoblasto y están presentes sólo en el ADN del tumor (mutaciones somáticas). El retinoblastoma esporádico es generalmente unilateral, no tiene historia familiar y no tiene riesgo de transmisión a la descendencia. Las pruebas genéticas para la detección de mutaciones en RB1 han mejorado la identificación de portadores y han facilitado la precisión de la asesoría genética. Objetivo. Detectar mutaciones en el gen RB1 en pacientes colombianos con retinoblastoma esporádico mediante PCR-SSCP seguido de secuenciación. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron cuatro pacientes con retinoblastoma esporádico para la detección de variaciones en el gen RB1 mediante PCR-SSCP, seguida de secuenciación. Resultados. Se identificaron cinco variaciones del gen RB1 : tres mutaciones nuevas (una de línea germinal y dos somáticas), un polimorfismo nuevo y una mutación somática ya reportada. Las cuatro mutaciones se encontraron en tres pacientes con retinoblastoma unilateral y uno con bilateral. La mutación germinal se detectó en un paciente con compromiso unilateral y no se encontró en los padres ni en los tres hermanos analizados. Conclusión. Estos resultados enfatizan la importancia, para asesoría genética y manejo clínico, de identificar mutaciones del gen RB1 en pacientes con retinoblastoma esporádico. La descripción de una nueva variante en RB1 es interesante, dado el muy bajo número de polimorfismos reportados para este gen.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Eye Neoplasms/genetics , Genes, Retinoblastoma , Mutation , Retinoblastoma/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/analysis , DNA, Neoplasm/blood , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Eye Neoplasms/blood , Frameshift Mutation , Germ-Line Mutation , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/blood , Neoplasms, Multiple Primary/genetics , Pedigree , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational , Retinoblastoma/blood , Sequence Analysis, DNA
10.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2011. 113 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-713755

ABSTRACT

O câncer de esôfago é uma malignidade altamente freqüente e letal. Uma característica específica das áreas de alta incidência de câncer de esôfago é a grande proporção de duplas mutações no gene TP53, sendo, ao menos uma delas, uma transição G para A em sítios CpG. Essas transições resultam de malpareamentos G.T causados pela desaminação espontânea da 5-metilcitosina em ilhotas CpG. A enzima de reparo de DNA Timina-DNA Glicosilase (TDG) é responsável pelo primeiro passo na remoção da timina de malpareamentos G.T em CpG. A alta proporção de mutações em sítios CpG em câncer de esôfago das áreas de alta incidência sugere que a via de reparo de DNA iniciada pela TDG pode estar prejudicada. A presença de duplas mutações, sendo ao menos uma delas em CpG, levantou a hipótese de que a primeira mutação no TP53 reduz a atividade da via de reparo iniciada pela TDG, que acarretaria a segunda mutação em sítios CpG. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar o efeito da p53 sobre a expressão e atividade da TDG. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a expressão de TDG é regulada transcricionalmente pela p53 numa gama de linhagens celulares e é induzida pelo dano ao DNA, de forma p53-dependente. Além disto, os resultados apontam um possível papel da proteína p53 ativa na migração nuclear e atividade da TDG. Estes resultados ainda nos levam à conclusão de que o silenciamento de TDG aumenta a sensibilidade à morte celular induzida por MMS quando a p53 é encontrada na forma selvagem, mas não quando esta proteína é mutada, e de que o status mutacional de TP53 parece afetar a expressão de TDG em CEE primários. Juntos esses resultados sugerem que a p53 regula o reparo de DNA mediado pela TDG e que a inativação de p53 em células tumorais pode contribuir para a aquisição de um mutator phenotype


Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a highly frequent and fatal malignancy in the world. A peculiar characteristic of the high incidence areas of esophageal cancer is the large proportion of double mutations in TP53 gene, being, at least one of them, a G to A transition at CpG sites. These transitions result from G.T mismatches caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine at CpG sites. The DNA repair enzyme Thymine-DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is responsible for the first step in the removal of the thymidine from the G.T mismatches at CpG sites. The high proportion of mutations at CpG sites in esophageal tumors in the high incidence areas suggests that the DNA repair pathway initiated by TDG might be impaired. The large number of double mutations, with one being at a CpG site, raised the possibility that the first mutation in TP53 reduces the activity of the TDG base excision repair pathway, increasing the chance of a second mutation event at a CpG site. In this way, the aim of this work was to analyze the effect of p53 on the expression and activity of TDG. The results achieved show that TDG expression is regulated by p53 in a variety of cells lines at the trancriptional level and induced by DNA–damage in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, these results point out a possible role of active p53 in the nuclear migration and activity of TDG. The results further support the notion that TDG silencing increases the sensitivity to cell death induced by Methylmethane sulphonate when p53 is found in a wild-type, but not in a mutant form, and that TP53 mutation seems to affect TDG expression in primary ESCC. Together, these results suggest that p53 regulates TDG-mediated repair and that p53 inactivation in cancer cells may contribute to a mutator phenotype through loss of TDG function


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Repair/genetics , Thymine DNA Glycosylase , DNA Repair Enzymes , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Gene Silencing , Genomic Instability , Mutation/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , Phenotype
11.
Indian J Cancer ; 2009 Jul-Sept; 46(3): 219-225
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144242

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading malignancies worldwide. CRC has been reported to show geographical variation in its incidence, even within areas of ethnic homogeneity. The aim of this study is to identify K-ras gene mutations in CRC patients among the Kashmiri population, and to assess whether they are linked with the clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods: Paired tumor and normal tissue samples were collected from a consecutive series of 53 patients undergoing resective surgery for CRC. In addition blood was also collected from all the cases for ruling out germline mutation. Results: Colorectal patients, 22.64% (12 of 53), presented with mutations in K-ras constituting 13 missense mutations out of which 11 were G→A transition, one G→C transversion, and one G→T transversion. 61.5% percent of the mutations occurred in codon 12 and 38.5% in codon 13. One tumor contained missense mutations in both codons. K-ras mutations were significantly associated with advanced Dukes' stage (P < 0.05) and positive lymph node status (P < 0.05). Moreover Codon 12 K-ras mutations were associated with mucinous histotype (P < 0.05). Comparison of the mutation profile with other high-risk areas reflected both mucinous histotype differences and similarities indicating coexposure to a unique set of risk factors. Conclusion: Mutation of the K-ras gene is one of the commonest genetic changes in the development of human CRC, but it occurs in a rather low frequency in Kashmiri population.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adenocarcinoma/secondary , Adult , Aged , Colorectal Neoplasms/genetics , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Genes, ras/genetics , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 51(supl.2): s197-s207, 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-509398

ABSTRACT

El análisis genómico del cáncer de mama ha permitido el desarrollo de nuevas herramientas de predicción de riesgo y respuesta al tratamiento en esta enfermedad. Los perfiles de expresión génica han generado una mejor clasificación de los tumores e identificado subgrupos tumorales con características clínicas particulares. También se han reconocido patrones de pérdida y ganancia de DNA y expresión de micro-RNA relacionados con la carcinogénesis mamaria, tras identificar nuevos blancos potenciales. Los estudios de asociación del genoma completo han identificado variantes genéticas vinculadas con un mayor riesgo a presentar esta enfermedad, lo que hará posible tomar decisiones de salud pública mejor fundamentadas. Asimismo, los avances en la tecnología de secuenciación de DNA permitirán obtener información acerca de todas las alteraciones genéticas en los tumores. En esta revisión se describe el estado que guarda la investigación genómica en el cáncer de mama, así como la transición de estos hallazgos a la práctica clínica y la creación de las bases para el desarrollo de la medicina personalizada.


Genomic analysis of breast cancer has allowed the development of new tools for the prediction of recurrence and the response to treatment of this disease. Gene expression profiles allow better tumor classification, identifying tumor subgroups with particular clinical outcomes. New potential molecular targets involved in breast carcinogenesis have also been identified through the analysis of DNA copy number aberrations and microRNA expression patterns. Whole genome association studies have identified genetic variants associated with a higher risk to develop this tumor, providing more information for public health decisions. Progress in DNA sequencing methods will also allow for the analysis of all the genetic alterations present in a tumor. In this review, we describe the current state of genomic research in breast cancer as well as how these findings are being translated into clinical practice, contributing to development of personalized medicine.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Genomics , Breast Neoplasms/classification , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Risk Assessment
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) are important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer, and recent reports have revealed racial and geographical differences in mutation expression. METHODS: This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of EGFR and KRAS mutations and their correlation with clinical variables in Korean patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Formalin-fixed adenocarcinoma specimens from 104 randomly selected patients diagnosed at Kosin University Gospel Hospital from October 1996 to January 2005 were used for the study. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of EGFR mutations and a low prevalence of KRAS mutations. EGFR mutations were present in 24% (25 of 104) of the samples: one mutation in exon 18, 13 in exon 19, one in exon 20, and 10 in exon 21. The presence of an EGFR mutation was not associated with gender, smoking history, histological grade, age, bronchioalveolar components, or cancer stage in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of KRAS were present in 9.6% (9 of 94) of the samples: eight in codon 12 and one in codon 13. EGFR mutations were never found in tumors with KRAS mutations, suggesting a mutually exclusive relationship.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/genetics , Adult , Aged , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Korea/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/biosynthesis , ErbB Receptors/biosynthesis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , ras Proteins/biosynthesis
14.
Cir. & cir ; 76(1): 87-93, ene.-feb. 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-568173

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is classified based on clinical stage, cellular morphology and immunohistochemical analysis. More precise prognostic factors are necessary to aid with therapeutic decisions. Breast cancer subtypes that differ in their genetic expression and prognosis have been determined using cDNA microarrays. These findings confirm the differences between the phenotypes and provide new knowledge about the biology of breast cancer. Based on the presence or absence of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), breast cancer is divided in two groups: ER+ and ER-. Genetic expression profile has identified two subtypes of the ER+ tumors: luminal A and luminal B. ER- tumors also include two subtypes, the HER2+ and the basal type. These subtypes differ in their biology and both demonstrate short disease-free periods after treatment and poorer outcome. This classification has shown the relationship between cDNA microarrays and clinical outcome of these tumors. This classification is proposed as a method of identifying those patients who will demonstrate better results with the different adjuvant modalities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Breast Neoplasms/classification , DNA, Complementary/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Cell Division/genetics , Forecasting , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Models, Biological , Mexico/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/chemistry , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , /analysis , Receptors, Estrogen/analysis , Receptors, Estrogen/genetics , Treatment Outcome , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/genetics
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37341

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women; however, due to the complexity of chromosomal changes, limited data are available regarding chromosomal constitution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) was used on 16 Iranian patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast carcinomas. RESULTS: 12 samples had abnormal CGH results (75%), including 21 types of chromosomal imbalance. The most prevalent were chromosomal gain of +1q, +17q, +8q and chromosomal loss of -13q. All three cases with DNA loss at chromosome 13q (-13q) had lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: CGH is able to detect chromosomal abnormalities which are difficult to identify by conventional cytogenetic techniques. More studies on a larger sample size may help to confirm or rule out any possible correlation between 13q monosomy and lymph node metastasis, which could result in establishing new strategies for prevention and early detection of invasive breast tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/epidemiology , Chromosome Aberrations , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8/genetics , Comparative Genomic Hybridization/methods , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Iran/epidemiology , Lymphatic Metastasis , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis
16.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2008. 137 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558191

ABSTRACT

O câncer de esôfago encontra-se entre os dez tipos de câncer mais incidentes no mundo, sendo o sexto tipo mais mortal. Fatores genéticos, como mutações no gene TP53, e epigenéticos como, por exemplo, a hipermetilação das ilhotas CpG na região promotora de determinados genes, são eventos importantes no desenvolvimento do câncer e podem causar a inativação de genes supressores de tumor. Neste trabalho, avaliamos o perfil de mutação no gene TP53 em 101 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago (CEE) residentes na região sudeste do Brasil. Destes pacientes, 33,7% apresentaram mutações nos éxons 5, 6, 7 e 8 com prevalência nos códons 248, 179 e 220. A metilação das citosinas das ilhotas CpG resulta da atividade de uma família de enzimas, as DNA metiltransferases (DNMTs). A hipermetilação destas ilhotas leva à formação de um complexo de proteínas incluindo proteínas que têm afinidade por CpG metilado (MBDs e MeCP) impedindo que ocorra a transcrição. Neste trabalho nós investigamos, por RT-PCR semi-quantitativo, a expressão das DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, MBD1, MBD3, MDB4 e MeCP2 em mucosa esofágica normal. Em seguida, analisamos a expressão das DNMTs, MBDs esofagina, p14ARF, p16INK4a e E-caderina em 17 amostras pareadas, tecidos normal e tumoral, de pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide de esôfago (CEE). Todas as enzimas foram constitutivamente expressas na mucosa esofágica normal. Nos tumores, foi observado um aumento significativo na expressão da DNMT3B (p=0,0038) e da MBD4 (p=0,0197) em relação à mucosa normal adjacente. A expressão dos genes esofagina, p14ARF e p16INK4a, no tecido tumoral, foi ausente ou reduzida em 64,7%, 52,9% e 58,8% das amostras, respectivamente. Apenas 11,7% das amostras de CEE mostraram níveis reduzidos de E-caderina. Quando a correlação entre a expressão da DNMTs com esofagina, p14ARF, p16INK4a e E-caderina, foi analisada pelo teste de Spearman foi observada uma correlação inversamente proporcional entre a expressão de DNMT3B e esofagina...


Esophageal cancer is one of the ten most common malignancies and it is the sixth cause of cancer-related death in the world. Genetic alterations, such as TP53 mutations and epigenetic modifications, such as the hypermethylation of CpG islands, are important events in cancer development and are a common way of inactivating tumor suppressor genes. in this study, we analyzed the spectrum of TP53 mutations in 101 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) living in Southeastern Brazil. Among those patients, 33.7% showed mutations in exons 5, 6, 7 e 8 and these alterations are prevalent in codons 248, 179 and 220. Cytosine methylation is established and maintained by a family of DNA methiltransferase enzymes (DNMTs). Hypermethylation of CpG dinucleotides initiates the formation of a protein complex, including proteins who bind these methylated residues (MBDs and MeCP2), leading to transcriptional repression. We investigated, by RT-PCR, the expression of human DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, MBD4 and MeCP2 in normal esophageal mucosa. Then, we analyzed the mRNA expression of these DNMTs, MBDs, esophagin, p14ARF, p16INK4a and E-cacherin in 17 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) samples as well as their adjacent normal epithelial tissues. The expression of esophagin, p14ARF and p16INK4a was absent of reduced in 64.7%, 52.9% and 58.8% of the ESCC samples, respectively. Only 11.7% of the ESCC samples showed reduced levels of E-cadherin mRNA. When the correlation between mRNA expression of the DNMTs and these genes was analyzed by the Spearman rank test we observed that it was inversely correlated for DNMT3B and esophagin (p=0.0112), p14ARF (p=0.0384) and p16INK4a (p=0.0378). The results suggest that DMNT3B overexpression may be involved in the suppression or in the lower expression of p14ARF and p16INK4a seen in esophageal ESCC. Consequently, we selected DNMY3B, MBD4, p14ARF e p16 INK4a to be analyzed by real time PCR...


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , /analysis , /genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Gene Silencing , /genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Esophageal Neoplasms/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 949-954, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126744

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A larynx squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common forms of cancer and may exhibit various complex karyotypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to analyze DNA gains and losses in 15 squamous cell carcinomas that consisted of 4 glottic, 10 supraglottic, and 1 transglottic localization samples. RESULTS: The majority of the chromosomal alterations detected were gains: 3 samples of LSCCs revealed high level amplification, while 6 samples displayed gains in various chromosomal regions (17p, 3p, 4p, 5p, 6q, 8p, 9p, 14q, 18p and Xq). One sample was found to have losses (chromosomes 15q and 22q) and 5 had normal CGH profiles. CONCLUSION: Many of these gained regions (4p, 5p, 8p, 10q, 18q and Xq) were novel sites, which may harbor oncogene(s) that potentially play an important role in squamous cell tumorigenesis and progression at supraglottic localizations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Chromosome Aberrations , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Karyotyping , Laryngeal Neoplasms/genetics , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 917-922, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34313

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastric carcinoma tissues release high level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when compared to non-neoplastic mucosa, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis, is often overexpressed in gastric carcinomas and during gastric carcinogenesis. However, little is known about the expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), the key enzyme responsible for the biological inactivation of PG, in gastric carcinomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression of 15-PGDH in 28 cases of advanced gastric carcinomas by Western blot analysis and also the relation between its expression and the gene promoter methylation. RESULTS: 15-PGDH expression was significantly decreased in gastric carcinomas compared to corresponding non-neoplastic tissues and inversely correlated with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in gastric carcinomas. However, there was no correlation between 15-PGDH expression and pathological findings such as nodal metastasis and vascular invasion. Promoter hypermethylation of 15-PGDH gene was not detected in carcinomas, with only a negligible expression of the enzyme. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that 15-PGDH has tumor suppressor activity in gastric carcinomas.


Subject(s)
Aged , Base Sequence , DNA Methylation , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Stomach Neoplasms/enzymology
19.
Biol. Res ; 41(3): 303-315, 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511920

ABSTRACT

Diffuse type gastric carcinoma is the most aggressive type of gastric cancer. This type of tumor is not preceded by precancerous changes and is associated with early-onset and hereditary syndromes. To test the hypothesis that DNA methylation profile would be useful for molecular classification of the diffuse type gastric carcinoma, DNA methylation patterns of the CpG Island of 17 genes were studied in 104 cases and 47 normal adjacent gastric mucosa by Methylation-specific PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Hierarchicalclustering analysis. The most frequent methylated genes were FHIT, E-cadherin, BRCA1 and APC (>50%),followed by p14, p16, p15, p73, MGMT and SEMA3B (20-49%). Hierarchical clustering analysis reveals four groups with different clinical features. The first was characterized by hypermethylation of BRCA1 and younger age (<45 years old), and the second by hypermethylation of p14 and p16 genes, male predominance and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The third group was characterized by hypermethylation of FHIT and antrum located tumors and the fourth was not associated with any clinical variables. In normal adjacent mucosa only the p73 gene was significantly less methylated in comparison to tumor mucosa. DNA methylation identified subgroups of diffuse type gastric cancer. Hypermethylation of BRCA1 associated with young age suggests a role in early-onset gastric carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA Methylation/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Genes, BRCA1 , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Cluster Analysis , CpG Islands/genetics , Early Diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 272-278, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30674

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the expression of microsatellite instability (MSI) in sporadic ovarian tumors using 5 standard and 9 new MSI markers to determine the clinical significance of MSI in sporadic epithelial ovarian tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSI was examined in 21 borderline and 25 malignant ovarian tumors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the 5 markers recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for colon cancer and 9 additional markers. MSI was determined using fractional analysis by mixing the PCR products and size markers. RESULTS: Using the 5 conventional MSI markers, MSI was found in 4 of 46 (8.6%) ovarian tumors, including 2 of 21 (9.5%) borderline ovarian tumors and 2 of 25 (8%) malignant ovarian tumors. Using the 9 additional MSI markers, MSI was observed in 7 of 46 (15.2%) ovarian tumors, including 3 of 21 (14.3%) borderline ovarian tumors and 4 of 25 (16%) malignant ovarian tumors. There was no statistically significant difference between MSI and clinicopathological factors, including histology and stage, although there was a trend toward an increased incidence of MSI in the serous type. CONCLUSION: MSI was infrequent in ovarian tumors, including both borderline and malignant tumors. MSI was found to be uncommon in sporadic ovarian tumors, even by using additional MSI markers. The clinical significance of MSI is not strong in patients with sporadic ovarian tumors.


Subject(s)
DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Female , Humans , Microsatellite Instability , Ovarian Neoplasms/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
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