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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790

ABSTRACT

Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Humans , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879175

ABSTRACT

Resina Draconis, a rare and precious traditional medicine in China, is known as the "holy medicine for promoting blood circulation". According to the national drug standard, it's derived from the resin extracted from the wood of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Liliaceae plant. In addition, a variety of Dracaena species all over the world can form red resins, and there is currently no molecular identification method that can efficiently identify the origin of Dracaena medicinal materials. In this study, seven species of Dracaena distributed in China were selected as the research objects. Four commonly used DNA barcodes(ITS2, matK, rbcL and psbA-trnH), and four highly variable regions(trnP-psaJ, psbK-psbI, trnT-trnL, clpP) in chloroplast genome were used to evaluate the identification efficiency of Dracaena species. The results showed that clpP sequence fragment could accurately identify seven species of Dracaena plants. However, due to the long sequence of clpP fragment, there were potential problems in the practical application process. We found that the combined fragment "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" can also be used for accurate molecular identification of the Resina Draconis origin plants and relative species of Dracaena, which were both relatively short sequences in the combined fragment, showing high success rates of amplification and sequencing. Therefore, the "psbK-psbI+ trnP-psaJ" combined fragment can be used as the DNA barcode fragments for molecular identification of Resina Dracon's origin plants and relative species of Dracaena. Research on the identification of Dracaena species, the results of this study can be used to accurately identify the original material of Resina Draconis, and providing effective means for identification, rational development and application of Resina Draconis base source.


Subject(s)
China , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Dracaena/genetics , Plants , Resins, Plant , Sequence Analysis, DNA
3.
Biol. Res ; 53: 21, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liriodendron chinense ranges widely in subtropical China and northern Vietnam; however, it inhabits several small, isolated populations and is now an endangered species due to its limited seed production. The objective of this study was to develop a set of nuclear SSR (simple sequence repeats) and multiple chloroplast genome markers for genetic studies in L. chinense and their characterization in diverse germplasm. RESULTS: We performed low-coverage whole genome sequencing of the L. chinense from four genotypes, assembled the chloroplast genome and identified nuclear SSR loci by searching in contigs for SSR motifs. Comparative analysis of the four chloroplast genomes of L. chinense revealed 45 SNPs, 17 indels, 49 polymorphic SSR loci, and five small inversions. Most chloroplast intraspecific polymorphisms were located in the interspaces of single-copy regions. In total, 6147 SSR markers were isolated from low-coverage whole genome sequences. The most common SSR motifs were dinucleotide (70.09%), followed by trinucleotide motifs (23.10%). The motif AG/TC (33.51%) was the most abundant, followed by TC/AG (25.53%). A set of 13 SSR primer combinations were tested for amplification and their ability to detect polymorphisms in a set of 109 L. chinense individuals, representing distinct varieties or germplasm. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 28 with an average of 21 alleles. The expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.19 to 0.93 and the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranged from 0.11 to 0.79. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic resources characterized and tested in this study provide a valuable tool to detect polymorphisms in L. chinense for future genetic studies and breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Genome, Plant/genetics , Liriodendron/genetics , Genome, Chloroplast/genetics , DNA Primers/genetics , DNA, Plant/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Alleles , Whole Genome Sequencing , Genotype
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 205-217, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348154

ABSTRACT

La punta morada es una enfermedad que afecta la producción de algunas especies de solanáceas como la papa y el tomate, causando enrollamiento en las puntas de las hojas con una marcada coloración morada, decaimiento temprano de la planta y en la papa se observa tuberización aérea. Como patógenos asociados a la enfermedad se consideran al fitoplasma BLTVA y la bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum. Dada la similitud en la sin-tomatología foliar que generan ambos patógenos, es difícil precisar cuál de ellos está implicado en la enfermedad. En Guatemala, existen reportes de la sintomatología típica de punta morada en las principales zonas productoras de papa y tomate, desconociéndose el agente asociado. La investigación determinó cuál de los dos patógenos reportados está asociados a la enfermedad en 12 municipios productores de papa y/o tomate en el país. Se realizaron ampli-ficaciones de ADN con cebadores específicos para cada patógeno asociado a la enfermedad. Por la alta incidencia del fitoplasma BLTVA en las muestras de papa (73.9%), en comparación a C. Liberibacter solanacearum (26%), este es considerado como el patógeno asociado más importante en papa. En las muestras de tomate, la incidencia del fitoplasma BLTVA (29.8%) y C. Liberibacter solanacearum del (27.6%) fue similar. Además, sobresale el primer reporte de la detección del fitoplasma BLTVA afectando el cultivo de tomate en Guatemala. Se sugiere un monitoreo constante, mediante métodos moleculares, para un diagnóstico certero y establecer medidas de manejo de la enfermedad para evitar su diseminación hacia zonas aún no afectadas.


The potato purple top is a disease that affects the production of some solanaceous species such as potatoes and tomatoes, causing curl at the tips of the leaves with a marked purple coloration, early decay of the plant, and aerial tuberization is observed in the potato. BLTVA phytoplasma and Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum are considered as pathogens associated with the disease. Given the similarity in foliar symptoms generated by both pathogens, it is difficult to determine which one is involved in the disease. There are reports of the typical potato purple top symptoms in the main potato and tomato producing areas in Guatemala, being unknown the associated agent. The research determined which of the two reported pathogens is associated with the disease in 12 potatoes and/or tomato producing areas in the country. We performed DNA amplification with specific primers for each disease-associated pathogen. Due to the high incidence of BLTVA phytoplasma in potato samples (73.9%), com-pared to C. liberibacter solanacearum (26%), this is considered the most important associated pathogen in potatoes. In tomato samples, the incidence of BLTVA phytoplasma (29.8%) and C. liberibacter solanacearum (27.6%) was similar. Besides, the first report of the detection of the BLTVA phytoplasma affecting tomato cultivation in Gua-temala stands out. Using molecular methods, constant monitoring is suggested for an accurate diagnosis and to establish management measures for the disease to prevent its spread to areas not yet affected.


Subject(s)
Solanum tuberosum/virology , Solanaceae/virology , Phytoplasma Disease/microbiology , Plant Viruses/isolation & purification , Agricultural Cultivation , DNA, Plant/analysis , Liberibacter/pathogenicity
5.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(2): 155-169, 2020. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348111

ABSTRACT

El aguacate es un cultivo de consumo a nivel mundial, y según teorías recientes, se sugiere a la región de la Sierra Nevada, en California, como centro de origen y, a Guatemala, como uno de los principales centros de domesticación. Mediante caracterizaciones morfológicas se ha reportado una alta diversidad genética en el país, pero debido al comportamiento de polinización cruzada e hibridaciones interraciales, no se ha podido detallar el estado genético actual de la especie. Sin embargo, los marcadores moleculares son útiles para este tipo de estudios al enfocarse en las diferencias a nivel del ADN. Este estudio analizó la diversidad genética del aguacate nativo guatemalteco de siete poblaciones geográficas con el marcador molecular AFLP. Los datos de estructura poblacional mostraron un alto grado de diversidad a nivel de individuos (Ht = 0.1933, Hw = 0.1872) y baja diferenciación entre poblaciones (Hb = 0.0061). Los resultados sugieren una alta tasa de migración que influye directamente en el grado de mezcla genética de los materiales analizados. El bajo índice de estructura poblacional apunta a un alto flujo genético entre las poblaciones, por lo que la especie no presenta mayor riesgo ante la deriva genética, minimizándose el riesgo de pérdida de alelos por fijación. Se sugiere el resguardado del recurso fitogénetico total y no únicamente de materiales promisorios, evitando así el riesgo de erosión genética de la especie y garantizando la permanencia de la diversidad genética, la cual será la base de futuros programas de mejoramiento.


Avocado is one of the most widely consumed crops worldwide and according to new theories, the Sierra Nevada region in California is suggested as the center of origin and Guatemala as one of the main domestication cen-ters. Through morphological characterizations, a high genetic diversity has been reported in the country, but due to the behavior of cross pollination and interracial hybridizations, it has not been possible to detail the current genetic status of the species. Molecular markers are useful for this type of study by focusing on differences at DNA level. This study analyzed the genetic diversity of the native Guatemalan avocado from seven geographic populations with AFLP molecular marker. Population structure data showed a high degree of diversity at the individual level (Ht = 0.1933, Hw = 0.1872) and low differentiation between populations (Hb = 0.0061). The results suggest a high rate of migration that directly influences the degree of genetic mixing of the analyzed materials. The low index of population structure points to a high genetic flow between populations, so that the species does not present a greater risk due to genetic drift, minimizing the risk of loss of alleles due to fixation. The protection of the total genetic resource is suggested, and not only of promising materials, thus avoiding the risk of genetic erosion of the species and guaranteeing the permanence of genetic diversity, which will be the basis of future breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Plant Leaves/genetics , Persea/genetics , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis/classification , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Plant/analysis , Genetic Drift , Genetic Loci , Domestication
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777511

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum based on ITS2 sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 22 collected samples,and the ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced,and the information of ITS2 sequence was obtained. Another 14 items of the same family or the same genus were downloaded from Gen Bank.We aligned all 36 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,and constructed Neighbor Joining( NJ) phylogenetic tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The difference of the secondary structure between the ITS2 sequences was compared. The results showed that the genetic distance of Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium was overlapped,but the maximum intraspecific distance was far less than the minimum interspecific distance between and among Ch. indicum and other species,with an obvious barcoding gap. The NJ tree showed that Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared a clade,and most of Ch. morifolium with some Ch. indicum were shared a subclade,while Inula lineariifolia,Sinosenecio oldhamianus and Senecio scandens belonged to one clade separately. ITS2 secondary structures for I. lineariifolia,S. oldhamianus and S. scandens were significantly different enough to identify completely but Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared two secondary structures of A and B. It was proved that Ch. indicum was one of the evolutionary sources of Ch.morifolium. Therefore ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and its adulterants accurately and quickly. The study provides an important basis for Ch. indicum for the identification of germplasm resources and the safety of clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phylogeny , Quality Control
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777510

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum and Ch. morifolium based on psbA-trn H,mat K and trn L sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 21 samples collected,and the psbA-trn H,mat K,trn L sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The information of these sequences were obtained. We aligned all 63 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,analysed the SNPs distribution of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences and constructed the Neighbor-joining( NJ) Tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The results showed that the genetic distances of Ch. indicum,Ch. indicum( Juhuanao)and Ch. morifolium were overlapped. The SNPs analysis of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences showed that there were 19 nucleotide polymorphism loci( SNPs) and nine parsim-informative sites in the combination sequences. In addition,Ch. indicum showed more obvious sequence polymorphism than those of Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) and Ch. morifolium. The psbA-trn H sequences showed obvious length variation.The NJ Tree showed that Ch. morifolium numbered C2-C5 were clustered into a single subbranch with a bootstrap value of 62%,and Ch.morifolium could be distinguished from Ch. indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao). Moreover,Ch. indicum numbered Z9 and Z10 collected from Gansu province were singly clustered into one branch with a bootstrap value of 77%. It was also found that the changes of psbA-trn H and trn L sequences information of Ch. indicum samples from the northwest were obviously related to the geography and environment. Moreover,Ch.indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) had obvious differentiation,were also regarded as the evolutionary sources of Ch. morifolium. Therefore,psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium accurately and rapidly,which provides an important basis for germplasm resources identification and species identification.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Phylogeny , Trees
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777440

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode molecular biological technique is used to identify the species of 23 unknown Li minority medicinal plants.DNA was extracted from 23 unknown medicines using the Plant Genomic DNA Extraction kit. The ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. The Codon Code Aligner V 7. 0. 1 was used to proofread and assemble the contigs and generated consensus sequences. All the sequences were submitted to Traditional Chinese Medicine DNA Barcode Database and NCBI Gen Bank to get information of the species identifications. If the maximum similarity of the identification result is ≥ 97%,exact species can be known. If it is between 97% and 90%,samples' genus can be confirmed; If it is <90%,then we can only confirm its family. Finally there are 17 samples can be identified to species level,5 can be identified to genus level and 1 can be identified to family level. This shows that DNA barcoding used in medicinal plants molecular identification,can identify unknown species rapidly and accurately.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771525

ABSTRACT

DNA metabarcoding,one rapid and robust method using specific standard DNA fragments,has been widely used for rapid species identification of a bulk sample through high-throughput sequencing technologies.While it has been widely used in the studies of metagenomics,animal and plant biodiversity,it has gradually come to be used as a profitable method in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.In this paper,we mainly summarize the current studies of the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.Moreover,high-throughput sequencing technologies adopted in those studies,such as Sanger,the next-generation,and third-generation sequencing technologies,are discussed.It is conducted to provide a theoretical guidance for the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines and in more other biodiversity studies.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Plants, Medicinal , Classification
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773674

ABSTRACT

The type and frequency of simple sequence repeats( SSRs) in the genomes was investigated using the DNA sequence data of Pueraria lobata and P. thomsonii. Based on these SSRs,20 pairs of SSR primers were designed and 5 high polymorphism primer pairs were selected to analyze genetic diversity of 9 cultivars of P. thomsonii in Jiangxi province. The results showed that the 5 pairs of primers could generate 16 polymorphic alleles bands. The average polymorphism information content( PIC) of each SSR primer pair was 0. 600 7.According to the genetic similarity coefficients,the 9 cultivars of P. thomsonii can be classified into 6 germplasms. This study established DNA identity cards with 5 pairs of SSR primers for different germplasm resources of P. thomsonii in Jiangxi province,which provided reference information for the selection of fine germplasms of P. thomsonii and the theoretical basis for the study of Dao-di herbs.


Subject(s)
China , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Genomics , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Genetic , Pueraria , Genetics
11.
Biol. Res ; 51: 42, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for Gaultheria pumila (Ericaceae) to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure within its native range in Chile. This is a very important Ericaceae endemic to Chile with a large commercial potential. Its resistance to different abiotic conditions makes it a valuable target for genetic improvement. RESULTS: Ten polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were isolated from Gaultheria pumila using new-generation 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing technology. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 4. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.0 and 0.00 to 0.64, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: From 10 SSR markers developed for G. pumila, 9 markers are promising candidates for analyzing genetic variation within or between natural populations of G. pumila and other species from the same genus.


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Gaultheria/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Alleles
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812034

ABSTRACT

"Wu zhu yu", which is obtained from the dried unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Jussieu) T. G. Hartley, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of headaches, abdominal colic, and hypertension for thousands of years. The present study was designed to assess the molecular genetic diversity among 25 collected accessions of T. ruticarpum (Wu zhu yu in Chinese) from different areas of China, based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Thirteen ISSR primers generated 151 amplification bands, of which 130 were polymorphic. Out of 165 bands that were amplified using 10 iPBS primers, 152 were polymorphic. The iPBS markers displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL = 92.5%) than the ISSR markers (PPL = 84.9%). The results showed that T. ruticarpum possessed high loci polymorphism and genetic differentiation occurred in this plant. The combined data of iPBS and ISSR markers scored on 25 accessions produced five clusters that approximately matched the geographic distribution of the species. The results indicated that both iPBS and ISSR markers were reliable and effective tools for analyzing the genetic diversity in T. ruticarpum.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Binding Sites , DNA Fingerprinting , DNA Primers , Metabolism , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Evodia , Classification , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Terminal Repeat Sequences , Genetics
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775405

ABSTRACT

Fructus Arctii is a traditional Chinese medicine. The main counterfeit species are the seeds of Arctium tomentosum, Onopordum acanthium, Silybum marianum, Saussurea costus, Amorpha fruticosa. Traditional identification methods or molecular barcoding techniques can identify Fructus Arctii and its counterfeit species. However, the identification of the mixture of it and its spurious species is rarely reported. In this paper, we sequenced the ITS2 sequences of Fructus Arctii and 5 kinds of spurious species mix powder by high-throughput sequencing to identify the mixed powder species and providing new ideas for the identification of Fructus Arctii mix powder. The total DNA in mixed powder was extracted, and the ITS2 sequences in total DNA was amplified. Paired-end sequencing was performed on the DNA fragment of the community using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The sequence was analyzed by the software FLASH, QIIME and GraPhlAn etc. The results showed that the high quality ITS2 sequences of 39910 mix samples were obtained from the mixed samples, of which the total ITS2 sequence of the samples genus was 34 935. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the samples contained Fructus Arctii, A. tomentosum, O. acanthium, S. marianum, S. costus and A. fruticosa. Using ITS2 sequences as DNA barcodes, high-throughput sequencing technology can be used to detect the Fructus Arctii and its spurious specie in mixed powder, which can provide reference for the quality control, safe use of medicinal materials of Fructus Arctii and the identification of mixed powder of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Arctium , Chemistry , Classification , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Drug Contamination , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Fabaceae , Fruit , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Milk Thistle , Onopordum , Phylogeny , Saussurea
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775379

ABSTRACT

This research preliminarily discusses the relations of Dendrobium system growth through chloroplast gene rbcL, matK and the nuclear genome ITS2. The DNA barcoding universal sequence for authentication of the Dendrobium medical plants was slected and the possibility concerning utilizing the DNA barcoding to distinguish the D. huoshanenseand its adulterants was analyzed. Using the universal primer pair of ITS2, rbcL and matK, series of extended sequencing in the Dendrobium were conducted. Meanwhile, considering the different index about amplification and sequencing success rate of each sequence, the intraspecific and interspecific aberrance, the employment of BioEdit and MEGA 5.0 software were applied to establish the systematic tree of the NJ molecular and evaluate the diversified authentication capability of various sequences. The consequence demonstrates that the sequence of ITS2 is not only the largest one both in the intraspecific and interspecific aberrance of the Dendrobium but also has obvious barcoding gap. Considering the few overlap between the intraspecific and interspecific aberrance and the highest percentage regarding the formation of unilateral branch in diverse Dendrobium which have different ITS2 sequences, it can differentiate the species of Dendrobium. Furthermore, due to the inferior success rate of the rbcL and thematK and the lower reliability of NJ systematic tree, the percentage of the unilateral species which are generated by the systematic tree of rbcL and matK sequences is deficient. Therefore, the sequence of ITS2 can serves as DNA barcoding to distinguish the D. huoshanense, the D. moniliform and the D. officinale.


Subject(s)
DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Dendrobium , Classification , Drug Contamination , Plant Preparations , Reference Standards , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Reproducibility of Results
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771684

ABSTRACT

As traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Physalis plants have a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer effects, and have been used for the treatment of malaria, rheumatism, hepatitis, asthma, and cancer. In addition to the medicinal value, many Physalis species are also the high-grade nutrition health care fruits, can be made canned and candied etc. In the study, the application progress of DNA molecular marker technologies in medicinal Physalis plants in recent years was reviewed, in order to provide an important molecular technical basis for the identification, classification and rational development and protection of medicinal Physalis resources.


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Physalis , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773644

ABSTRACT

"Wu zhu yu", which is obtained from the dried unripe fruits of Tetradium ruticarpum (A. Jussieu) T. G. Hartley, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of headaches, abdominal colic, and hypertension for thousands of years. The present study was designed to assess the molecular genetic diversity among 25 collected accessions of T. ruticarpum (Wu zhu yu in Chinese) from different areas of China, based on inter-primer binding site (iPBS) markers and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Thirteen ISSR primers generated 151 amplification bands, of which 130 were polymorphic. Out of 165 bands that were amplified using 10 iPBS primers, 152 were polymorphic. The iPBS markers displayed a higher proportion of polymorphic loci (PPL = 92.5%) than the ISSR markers (PPL = 84.9%). The results showed that T. ruticarpum possessed high loci polymorphism and genetic differentiation occurred in this plant. The combined data of iPBS and ISSR markers scored on 25 accessions produced five clusters that approximately matched the geographic distribution of the species. The results indicated that both iPBS and ISSR markers were reliable and effective tools for analyzing the genetic diversity in T. ruticarpum.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Binding Sites , DNA Fingerprinting , DNA Primers , Metabolism , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Evodia , Classification , Genetics , Genetic Markers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Terminal Repeat Sequences , Genetics
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772959

ABSTRACT

Despite the large number of genomic and transcriptomic resources in maize, there is still much to learn about the function of genes in developmental and biochemical processes. Some maize mutants that were generated by gamma-irradiation showed clear segregation for the kernel phenotypes in B73 × Mo17 F2 ears. To better understand the functional genomics of kernel development, we developed a mapping and gene identification pipeline, bulked segregant exome sequencing (BSEx-seq), to map mutants with kernel phenotypes including opaque endosperm and reduced kernel size. BSEx-seq generates and compares the sequence of the exon fraction from mutant and normal plant F2 DNA pools. The comparison can derive mapping peaks, identify deletions within the mapping peak, and suggest candidate genes within the deleted regions. We then used the public kernel-specific expression data to narrow down the list of candidate genes/mutations and identified deletions ranging from several kb to more than 1 Mb. A full deletion allele of the Opaque-2 gene was identified in mutant 531, which occurs within a ∼200-kb deletion. Opaque mutant 1486 has a 6248-bp deletion in the mapping interval containing two candidate genes encoding RNA-directed DNA methylation 4 (RdDM4) and AMP-binding protein, respectively. This study demonstrates the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of BSEx-seq for causal mutation mapping and candidate gene selection, providing a new option in mapping-by-sequencing for maize functional genomics studies.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Mapping , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Endosperm , Exome , Genetics , Exons , Genetics , Gene Deletion , Genomics , Phenotype , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Methods , Transcription Factors , Genetics , Zea mays , Genetics
18.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 6-11, nov. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021043

ABSTRACT

Background: Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, which has long been used for the prevention and treatment of hepatic diseases. This study aimed to genetically characterize the varieties of P. chinense from different geographic localities of China by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique and verified with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results: The P. chinense samples were collected from nine different geographic localities. Previously improved RAPD and ISSR markers were utilized for genetic analysis using DNA amplification. The genetic relationship dendrogram was obtained by conducting cluster analysis to the similarity coefficient of improved RAPD and ISSR markers. Improved RAPD yielded 185 scorable amplified products, of which 68.6% of the bands were polymorphic, with an average amplification of 9.25 bands per primer. The ISSR markers revealed 156 alleles with 7.8 bands per primers, where 59.7% bands were polymorphic. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient ranges of RAPD and ISSR markers were 0.71­0.91 and 0.66­0.89, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/genetics , Magnoliopsida/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , China , DNA, Plant/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Microsatellite Repeats , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
19.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 1-7, May. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009846

ABSTRACT

Background: Genetic diversity studies are important for the selection of parents with a greater combination capacity that, when crossed, increase the chances of obtaining superior genotypes. Thus, 26 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 140 individual samples from 12 diploid sugar beet pollinators (pollen parents) and two cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) lines (seed parents). Eight pollinators originated from three research centers in the United States Department of Agriculture, while four pollinators and cms lines were from the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Results: In total, 129 alleles were obtained, with a mean of 3.2 alleles per SSR marker. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.87 (mean = 0.30). Expected heterozygosity and Shannon's information index were the lowest for marker BQ590934 and the highest for markers SB15s and FDSB502s; the same markers were the most informative, with PIC values of 0.70 and 0.69, respectively. Three private alleles were found in pollinator EL0204; two in pollinator C51; and one in pollinators NS1, FC221, and C93035. Molecular variance showed that 77.34% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intrapopulation variability. Cluster and correspondence analysis grouped sugar beet pollinators according to the breeding centers, with few exceptions, which indicate that certain amount of germplasm was shared, although centers had their own breeding programs. Conclusions: The results indicate that this approach can improve the selection of pollinators as suitable parental components and could further be applied in sugar beet breeding programs.


Subject(s)
Pollen/genetics , Genetic Variation , Beta vulgaris/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Seeds/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Breeding , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Plant/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Pollination , Genotype
20.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 33-39, Mar. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009005

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessments of genetic diversity are essential for germplasm characterization and exploitation. Molecular markers are valuable tools for exploring genetic variation and identifying germplasm. They play key roles in a Xanthoceras sorbifolia breeding program. Results: We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of this species using 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and data on kernel oil content. The 11 populations included in the study were distributed across a large geographic range in China. The kernel oil content differed significantly among populations. The SSR marker analysis detected high genetic diversity among the populations. All SSRs were polymorphic, and we identified 80 alleles across the populations. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to six, averaging 3.48 per primer pair. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.35 to 0.70, averaging 0.51. Expected heterozygosity, observed heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index calculations detected large genetic variations among populations of different provenance. The high average number of alleles per locus and the allelic diversity observed in the set of genotypes analyzed indicated that the genetic base of this species was relatively wide. The statistically significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances suggested adaptations to local conditions. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers can be used to efficiently distinguish X. sorbifolia populations and assess their genetic diversity. The information we have provided will contribute to the conservation and management of this important plant genetic resource.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Sapindaceae/genetics , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Genetic , Seeds/genetics , Plant Oils , Genetic Markers , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Plant
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