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1.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e017820, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144228

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania infantum infection in cats has been reported in several countries, including Brazil. However, the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from cats to another host has not been proven yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the possibility of L. infantum transmission from cats to dogs. In order to verify the possibility of VL transmission from the cat to the dog, xenodiagnosis was carried out in a VL-positive cat, using 55 female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five days later, 40 insects were dissected to verify Leishmania infection. The remaining 15 females were fed in a healthy dog. The potential infection of the dog was verified through clinical, serological, parasitological examinations, and PCR, at three, six, and twelve months post-infection. All 55 L. longipalpis females became visibly engorged. Leishmania promastigotes were detected in 27.5% of the dissected insects. Leishmania infection in the dog was confirmed upon first evaluation. DNA sequencing of the parasite isolated from the cat confirmed L. infantum infection and showed 99% similarity with the L. infantum DNA sequences from the dogs. Through this study, it was possible to confirm the L. infantum experimental transmission from a domestic cat to a domestic dog through its biological vector L. longipalpis.


Resumo A infecção por Leishmania infantum em gatos tem sido relatada em vários países, incluindo o Brasil. No entanto, a transmissão da leishmaniose visceral (LV) de gatos para outro hospedeiro ainda não foi comprovada. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de transmissão de L. infantum de gatos para cães. Para verificar a possibilidade de transmissão da LV do gato para o cão, foi realizado xenodiagnóstico em um gato com LV, utilizando-se 55 fêmeas de Lutzomyia longipalpis. Cinco dias depois, 40 insetos foram dissecados para verificar a infecção por Leishmania. As 15 fêmeas restantes foram alimentadas em um cão saudável. A possível infecção no cão foi verificada por meio de exames clínicos, sorológicos, parasitológicos e PCR, três, seis e doze meses após a infecção. Todas as 55 fêmeas de L. longipalpis ficaram visivelmente ingurgitadas. Promastigotas de Leishmania foram detectadas em 27,5% dos insetos dissecados. A infecção por Leishmania no cão foi confirmada na primeira avaliação. O sequenciamento do DNA do parasito isolado do gato confirmou a infecção por L. infantum e apresentou 99% de similaridade com sequências de DNA de L. infantum de cães. Através deste estudo, foi possível confirmar a transmissão experimental de L. infantum de um gato doméstico para um cão doméstico através do seu vetor biológico L. longipalpis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats , Dogs , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/transmission , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dog Diseases/transmission , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission , Psychodidae/parasitology , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary
2.
Exp. Parasitol ; 157: 156-162, 2015.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1022550

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis represents an important public health issue in different parts of the world, requiring that measures be put in place to control the spread of the disease worldwide. The canine leishmaniasis diagnosis is not easy based on clinical signs, since dogs may not develop the infection with recognizable signs. Thus, the laboratorial diagnosis is essential to ascertain the incidence and prevalence of canine leishmaniasis especially in areas with major control efforts. Although, the diagnosis can be performed by the use of different approaches, the molecular methods such as PCR have become an indispensable tool for leishmaniases diagnosis. A TaqMan assay for real-time PCR (Linj31-qPCR) was developed to determine the parasite occurrence in clinical cases of leishmaniasis. The assay targets an L. (L.) infantum hypothetical protein region. The specificity of the assay was verified by using Leishmania World Health Organization reference strains including parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania), subgenus L. (Viannia), other Leishmania species and Trypanosoma cruzi. The sensitivity was verified by using isolates of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (L.) infantum. The usefulness of the assay for diagnosis was ascertained by testing 277 samples from dogs in regions endemic for visceral and/or cutaneous leishmaniasis and from regions in which leishmaniasis was not endemic in São Paulo State, Brazil. Diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was determined on these animals by conventional PCR and three serological tests. The dog samples were divided into four groups. I, dogs with CVL (n = 101); II, dogs with other diseases and without CVL (n = 97); III, dogs with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (n = 7), and, IV, dogs without CVL (n = 72) from areas where leishmaniasis was not endemic as control group. Results indicated that Linj31-qPCR was able to identify parasites belonging to subgenus L. (Leishmania) with no cross-amplification with other parasite subgenera. The Linj31-qPCR detected Leishmania parasites DNA in 98% of samples from Group I. In conclusion this methodology can be used as routine diagnostic tools to detect parasites from subgenus Leishmania.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reference Standards , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmania infantum/chemistry , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Leishmania/classification , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmania/chemistry , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Animals
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212739

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis sp. is a common zoonotic intestinal protozoa which has been classified into 17 subtypes (STs). A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in villagers living on the Thai-Myanmar border, where the risk of parasitic infection is high. A total of 207 stool samples were collected and DNA was extracted. PCR and sequencing using primers targeting small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene were performed. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 37.2% (77/207). ST3 (19.8%; 41/207) was the predominant subtype, followed by ST1 (11.6%; 24/207), ST2 (5.3%; 11/207), and ST4 (0.5%; 1/207). A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the maximum likelihood (ML) method based on the Hasegawa-Kishino-Yano + G + I model. The percentage of bootstrapped trees in which the associated taxa clustered together was relatively high. Some sequences of Blastocystis positive samples (TK18, 39, 46, 71, and 90) were closely related to animals (pig and cattle) indicating zoonotic risks. Therefore, proper health education in parasitic prevention for the villagers should be promoted to improve their personal hygiene. Further longitudinal studies are required to monitor the prevalence of parasitic infections after providing health education and to investigate Blastocystis ST in animals living in these villages.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Animals , Blastocystis/classification , Blastocystis Infections/parasitology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myanmar , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Rural Population , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serogroup , Thailand , Young Adult
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130550

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy atx400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/classification , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Seasons , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130548

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to genetically characterize isolates of Giardia duodenalis and to determine if zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis could be found in stray cats from urban and suburban environments in Guangzhou, China. Among 102 fresh fecal samples of stray cats, 30 samples were collected in Baiyun district (urban) and 72 in Conghua district (suburban). G. duodenalis specimens were examined using light microscopy, then the positive specimens were subjected to PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing at 4 loci such as glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta-giardin (bg), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes. The phylogenetic trees were constructed using obtained sequences by MEGA5.2 software. Results show that 9.8% (10/102) feline fecal samples were found to be positive by microscopy, 10% (3/30) in Baiyun district and 9.7% (7/72) in Conghua district. Among the 10 positive samples, 9 were single infection (8 isolates, assemblage A; 1 isolate, assemblage F) and 1 sample was mixed infection with assemblages A and C. Based on tpi, gdh, and bg genes, all sequences of assemblage A showed complete homology with AI except for 1 isolate (CHC83). These findings not only confirmed the occurrence of G. duodenalis in stray cats, but also showed that zoonotic assemblage A was found for the first time in stray cats living in urban and suburban environments in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats , China , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Giardia lamblia/classification , Giardiasis/parasitology , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130543

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium spp., ubiquitous enteric parasitic protozoa of vertebrates, recently emerged as an important cause of economic loss and zoonosis. The present study aimed to determine the distribution and species of Cryptosporidium in post-weaned and adult pigs in Shaanxi province, northwestern China. A total of 1,337 fresh fecal samples of post-weaned and adult pigs were collected by sterile disposable gloves from 8 areas of Shaanxi province. The samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and microscopy atx400 magnification for Cryptosporidium infection, and the species in positive samples was further identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. A total of 44 fecal samples were successfully amplified by the nested PCR of the partial SSU rRNA, with overall prevalence of 3.3%. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in each pig farms ranged from 0 to 14.4%. Species identification by sequencing of SSU rRNA gene revealed that 42 (3.1%) samples were Cryptosporidium suis and 2 (0.15%) were Cryptosporidium scrofarum. C. suis had the highest prevalence (7.5%) in growers and the lowest in breeding pigs (0.97%). C. suis was the predominant species in pre-weaned and adult pigs, while C. scrofarum infected pigs older than 3 months only. A season-related difference of C. suis was observed in this study, with the highest prevalence in autumn (5.5%) and the lowest (1.7%) in winter. The present study provided basic information for control of Cryptosporidium infection in pigs and assessment of zoonotic transmission of pigs in Shaanxi province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/classification , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Seasons , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130541

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to genetically characterize isolates of Giardia duodenalis and to determine if zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis could be found in stray cats from urban and suburban environments in Guangzhou, China. Among 102 fresh fecal samples of stray cats, 30 samples were collected in Baiyun district (urban) and 72 in Conghua district (suburban). G. duodenalis specimens were examined using light microscopy, then the positive specimens were subjected to PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing at 4 loci such as glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta-giardin (bg), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes. The phylogenetic trees were constructed using obtained sequences by MEGA5.2 software. Results show that 9.8% (10/102) feline fecal samples were found to be positive by microscopy, 10% (3/30) in Baiyun district and 9.7% (7/72) in Conghua district. Among the 10 positive samples, 9 were single infection (8 isolates, assemblage A; 1 isolate, assemblage F) and 1 sample was mixed infection with assemblages A and C. Based on tpi, gdh, and bg genes, all sequences of assemblage A showed complete homology with AI except for 1 isolate (CHC83). These findings not only confirmed the occurrence of G. duodenalis in stray cats, but also showed that zoonotic assemblage A was found for the first time in stray cats living in urban and suburban environments in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats , China , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Giardia lamblia/classification , Giardiasis/parasitology , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-70335

ABSTRACT

The disinfectant effects (DEs) of 10 types of chemicals, defined by their ability to destroy or inhibit oocysts and consequently prevent sporulation of Eimeria tenella field isolate, were evaluated in vitro. Correct species assignments and sample purities were confirmed by the singular internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR analysis. A total of 18 treatments were performed, and the disinfection suppression levels were 75.9% for 39% benzene + 22% xylene (1:10 dilution), 85.5% for 30% cresol soup (1:1 dilution), and 91.7% for 99.9% acetic acid (1:2 dilution) group. The results indicate that acetic acid, cresol soup, and benzene+xylene are good candidates for suppression of E. tenella oocyst sporulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Eimeria tenella/drug effects , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spores, Protozoan/drug effects
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190463

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the assemblages (or subassemblages) of Giardia duodenalis by using normal or nested PCR based on 4 genetic loci: glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta-giardin (bg), and small subunit ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA) genes. For this work, a total of 216 dogs' fecal samples were collected in Guangdong, China. The phylogenetic trees were constructed with MEGA5.2 by using the neighbor-joining method. Results showed that 9.7% (21/216) samples were found to be positive; moreover, 10 samples were single infection (7 isolates assemblage A, 2 isolates assemblage C, and 1 isolate assemblage D) and 11 samples were mixed infections where assemblage A was predominant, which was potentially zoonotic. These findings showed that most of the dogs in Guangdong were infected or mixed-infected with assemblage A, and multi-locus sequence typing could be the best selection for the genotype analysis of dog-derived Giardia isolates.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Cluster Analysis , Coinfection/parasitology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Genotype , Giardia lamblia/classification , Giardiasis/parasitology , Glutamate Dehydrogenase/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Triose-Phosphate Isomerase/genetics
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189492

ABSTRACT

Autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) is an essential component of autophagy formation and encystment of cyst-forming parasites, and some protozoa, such as, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, and Dictyostelium, have been reported to possess a type of Atg8. In this study, an isoform of Atg8 was identified and characterized in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg8b). AcAtg8b protein was found to encode 132 amino acids and to be longer than AcAtg8 protein, which encoded 117 amino acids. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression levels of AcAtg8b and AcAtg8 during encystation. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that AcAtg8b is involved in the formation of the autophagosomal membrane. Chemically synthesized siRNA against AcAtg8b reduced the encystation efficiency of Acanthamoeba, confirming that AcAtg8b, like AcAtg8, is an essential component of cyst formation in Acanthamoeba. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba has doubled the number of Atg8 gene copies to ensure the successful encystation for survival when 1 copy is lost. These 2 types of Atg8 identified in Acanthamoeba provide important information regarding autophagy formation, encystation mechanism, and survival of primitive, cyst-forming protozoan parasites.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/cytology , Amebiasis/parasitology , Amino Acid Sequence , Autophagy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Gene Dosage , Gene Silencing , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phagosomes/metabolism , Protein Isoforms , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/chemical synthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Sequence Alignment
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103953

ABSTRACT

After bathing at a hot spring resort, a 75-year-old man presented to the emergency department because of seizure-like attack with loss of conscious. This is the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in Taiwan. PAM was diagnosed based on detection of actively motile trophozoites in cerebrospinal fluid using a wet-mount smear and the Liu's stain. The amoebae were further confirmed by PCR and gene sequencing. In spite of administering amphotericin B treatment, the patient died 25 days later.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amebiasis/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/diagnosis , Cerebrospinal Fluid/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Microscopy , Naegleria fowleri/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Taiwan
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103951

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR, and sequencing targeting 18S rRNA gene. The strain identified had a very long incubation period of 19-24 months. Blood donors who have malaria with a very long incubation period could be a potential danger for propagating malaria. Therefore, we should identify imported P. ovale infections not only by morphological findings but also by molecular methods for preventing propagation and appropriate treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Female , Ghana , Humans , Korea , Malaria/diagnosis , Microscopy , Plasmodium ovale/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Travel , Young Adult
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155358

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old spayed female mixed-bred dog presented with nasal bleeding of 2 days duration and a skin nodule in the left flank. No abnormalities were found in coagulation profiles and blood pressure. Cytological evaluation of the nodule revealed numerous characteristic round organisms having a nucleus and a bar within macrophages and in the background, consistent with leishmaniasis. In vitro culture was unsuccessful but PCR of the nodular aspirate identified the organisms as Leishmania infantum, and the final diagnosis was canine leishmaniasis. No history of travel to endemic countries was noted. Because the dog had received a blood transfusion 2 years before the illness, serological screening tests were performed in all donor dogs of the commercial blood bank using the commercial Leishmania ELISA test kit, and there were no positive results. Additional 113 dogs with hyperglobulinemia from Seoul were also screened with the same kits but no positive results were obtained. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first autochthonous case of canine leishmaniasis in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dogs , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Female , Giant Cells/pathology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Serologic Tests/veterinary
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155356

ABSTRACT

In contrast to the gradual reduction in the number of locally transmitted malaria cases in China, the number of imported malaria cases has been increasing since 2008. Here, we report a case of a 39-year-old Chinese man who acquired Plasmodium ovale wallikeri infection while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 6 months in 2012. Microscopic examinations of Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood smears indicated Plasmodium vivax infection. However, the results of rapid diagnostic tests, which were conducted 3 times, were not in agreement with P. vivax. To further check the diagnosis, standard PCR analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene was conducted, based on which a phylogeny tree was constructed. The results of gene sequencing indicated that this malaria is a variant of P. ovale (P. ovale wallikeri). The infection in this patient was not a new infection, but a relapse of the infection from the one that he had contracted in West Africa.


Subject(s)
Adult , Azure Stains , Base Sequence , China , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Ghana , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Plasmodium ovale/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recurrence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Travel
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69769

ABSTRACT

Resistance of Plasmodium spp. to anti-malarial drugs is the primary obstacle in the fight against malaria, and molecular markers for the drug resistance have been applied as an adjunct in the surveillance of the resistance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, pvdhfr, and pvdhps genes in temperate-zone P. vivax parasites from central China. A total of 26 isolates were selected, including 8 which were previously shown to have a lower susceptibility to chloroquine in vitro. For pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, and pvdhps genes, no resistance-conferring mutations were discovered. However, a highly prevalent (69.2%), single-point mutation (S117N) was found in pvdhfr gene. In addition, tandem repeat polymorphisms existed in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes, which warranted further studies in relation to the parasite resistance to antifolate drugs. The study further suggests that P. vivax populations in central China may still be relatively susceptible to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , China , Chloroquine/pharmacology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Drug Resistance/genetics , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Genotype , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Point Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Prevalence , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13097

ABSTRACT

Fecal samples of 2,056 dairy cattle from 14 farms were collected in three geographical regions of China and stained using a modified acid-fast staining technique to identify Cryptosporidium oocysts. A total of 387 (18.82%) positive samples were identified and further analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify DNA fragments from the small subunit ribosomal RNA. The PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers EU369377-84 and GU070730-33. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and a distances matrix generated from these sequences confirmed the existence of Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum 'mouse' genotype, C. bovis, C. andersoni, C. hominis, and C. serpentis in cattle. These results represent the first report on the prevalence and genetic identification of Cryptosporidium species, and may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cattle in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , China/epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Feces/parasitology , Female , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Prevalence , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/chemistry , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-160876

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate fifteen cases of acute lethal infection of calves (< or = 4 months of age) by the protozoan parasite Theileria (T.) annulata in the south of Portugal. Calves developed multifocal to coalescent nodular skin lesions, similar to multicentric malignant lymphoma. Infestation with ticks (genus Hyalomma) was intense. Theileria was seen in blood and lymph node smears, and T. annulata infection was confirmed by isolation of schizont-transformed cells and sequencing of hypervariable region 4 of the 18S rRNA gene. At necropsy, hemorrhagic nodules or nodules with a hemorrhagic halo were seen, particularly in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal and cardiac muscles, pharynx, trachea and intestinal serosa. Histologically, nodules were formed by large, round, lymphoblastoid neoplastic-like cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) identified these cells as mostly CD3 positive T lymphocytes and MAC387 positive macrophages. A marker for B lymphocytes (CD79alphacy) labeled very few cells. T. annulata infected cells in these nodules were also identified by IHC through the use of two monoclonal antibodies (1C7 and 1C12) which are diagnostic for the parasite. It was concluded that the pathological changes observed in the different organs and tissues were caused by proliferation of schizont-infected macrophages, which subsequently stimulate a severe uncontrolled proliferation of uninfected T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Cell Growth Processes/physiology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Female , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Lymphocytes/parasitology , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Portugal/epidemiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/chemistry , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Skin Diseases/epidemiology , Theileria annulata/isolation & purification , Theileriasis/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155207

ABSTRACT

Pentatrichomonas hominis is considered a commensal protozoan in the large intestine of a number of mammalian hosts, such as cats, dogs, and non-human primates. The resulting infections, which can induce diarrhea, have been attributed to opportunistic overgrowth of P. hominis. This study was performed to confirm the P. hominis infection and its molecular characterization from the feces of puppies with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from 14 German shepherd puppies with diarrhea over 1 week (7 females and 7 males, 2-9 months of age) residing on a dog farm in August 2007. Species-specific PCR assay identified P. hominis 18S rRNA genes in 3 of the 14 puppies (1 female and 2 males; 1 aged 2 months and 2 aged 9 months). This phylogenetic analysis established that P. hominis belonged to the 1st clade, which is comprised of Bos taurus and Felines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Base Sequence , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Diarrhea/parasitology , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Dogs , Feces/parasitology , Female , Genes, rRNA , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Protozoan Infections, Animal/parasitology , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology , Trichomonadida/classification
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155204

ABSTRACT

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are 2 protozoan parasites responsible for waterborne diseases outbreaks worldwide. In order to assess the prevalence of these protozoans in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal and the risk of human infection, we have established a long term program aiming at pinpointing the sources of surface water, drinking water, and environmental contamination, working with the water-supply industry. Total 43 sources of drinking water samples were selected, and a total of 167 samples were analyzed using the Method 1623. Sensitivity assays regarding the genetic characterization by PCR and sequencing of the genes, 18S SSU rRNA, for Cryptosporidium spp. and beta,-giardin for G. duodenalis were set in the laboratory. According to the defined criteria, molecular analysis was performed over 4 samples. Environmental stages of the protozoa were detected in 25.7% (43 out of 167) of the water samples, 8.4% (14 out of 167) with cysts of Giardia, 10.2% (17 out of 167) with oocysts of Cryptosporidium and 7.2% (12 out of 167) for both species. The mean concentrations were 0.1-12.7 oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. per 10 L and 0.1-108.3 cysts of Giardia duodenalis per 10 L. Our results suggest that the efficiency in drinking water plants must be ameliorated in their efficiency in reducing the levels of contamination. We suggest the implementation of systematic monitoring programs for both protozoa. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report evaluating the concentration of environmental stages of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water samples in the northern part of Portugal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Genes, rRNA , Giardia lamblia/isolation & purification , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Portugal , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Risk Assessment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Water/parasitology
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 102(4): 473-479, June 2007. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-454799

ABSTRACT

Two allelic genomic fragments containing ribosomal protein S4 encoding genes (rpS4) from Trypanosoma cruzi (CL-Brener strain) were isolated and characterized. One allele comprises two complete tandem repeats of a sequence encoding an rpS4 gene. In the other, only one rpS4 gene is found. Sequence comparison to the accessed data in the genome project database reveals that our two-copy allele corresponds to a variant haplotype. However, the deduced aminoacid sequence of all the gene copies is identical. The rpS4 transcripts processing sites were determined by comparison of genomic sequences with published cDNA data. The obtained sequence data demonstrates that rpS4 genes are expressed in epimastigotes, amastigotes, and trypomastigotes. A recombinant version of rpS4 was found to be an antigenic: it was recognized by 62.5 percent of the individuals with positive serology for T. cruzi and by 93.3 percent of patients with proven chronic chagasic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Ribosomal Proteins/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Alleles , Blotting, Northern , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
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