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Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287341


BACKGROUND The genetic heterogeneity of Leishmania parasites is a major factor responsible for the wide variety of Leishmania-associated manifestations. Consequently, understanding the genetic make-up of Leishmania species using suitable molecular markers is an important component of realising local and regional scale disease risk. The cytochrome b (cytb) is frequently used to type New World Leishmania species. However, its potential to discriminate Leishmania species and variants requires further evaluation. OBJECTIVES To explore the capacity of cytb gene to identify New World Leishmania species and variants and to develop an approach able to type local Leishmania species and variants. METHODS We retrieved 360 partial and complete Leishmania cytb gene sequences publicly available in GenBank database to study all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the cytb gene that differentiate New World Leishmania species. This information was used to develop an approach based upon the polymorphisms found in a DNA segment of 948bp. We also compared the typing results found with this technique with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profiling obtained using HSP70 gene as target. One hundred Panamanian isolates were used to both typed Leishmania species and assess local genetic variability. FINDINGS We found complete agreement between our cytb approach and the PCR-RFLP profiling method based on HSP70 for Leishmania species identification. Ninety-two isolates were identified as L. panamensis, although other Viannia species were found circulating at a lower frequency. Three L. panamensis haplotypes were identified in Panamanian provinces. We also provide an initial report of L. guyanensis haplotypes circulating in Panama. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Cytb gene sequence encompasses key main SNPs that aid to identify Leishmania species. The cytb approach developed with this information was able to identify and assess genetic variability of local Leishmania species found in this study.

Humans , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Leishmania/genetics , Panama , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(4): e013021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1347269


Abstract To a better insight into the epidemiology and genetic diversity of protozoan hemoparasites infections in wild mammals, this study aimed to the post mortem detection of DNA from species of the order Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp., and Theileria sp.) and suborder Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.) using polymerase chain reaction based on the 18S rRNA gene followed by genetic sequencing of blood and spleen samples collected from carcasses of 164 free-ranging and captive wild mammals from Mato Grosso state. Among them, one Leopardus pardalis, three Panthera onca, two Puma concolor were positive for Cytauxzoon sp., and six Tapirus terrestris tested positive for Piroplasmida, while one L. pardalis was positive for Hepatozoon sp. Furthermore, an uncharacterized piroplasmid genetically related to Theileria sp. previously detected in cats from Brazil was described in lowland tapirs. Despite the controversy regarding the epidemiological threat of these protozoa, the detection of these tick-borne agents in wild free-living and captive mammals, even when asymptomatic, demonstrates the importance of monitoring, particularly in hotspots such as the state of Mato Grosso, to verify the circulation and genetic diversity, to anticipate the possible emergence of diseases, and even their consequences to other animals as well as humans.

Resumo Para uma melhor compreensão da epidemiologia e diversidade genética das infecções por hemoprotozoários em mamíferos selvagens, este estudo teve como objetivo a detecção post mortem de DNA de espécies da ordem Piroplasmida (Babesia sp., Cytauxzoon sp. e Theileria sp.) e subordem Adelorina (Hepatozoon sp.), utilizando-se a reação em cadeia pela polimerase, baseada no gene 18S rRNA, seguido de sequenciamento genético de amostras de sangue e baço, coletadas de 164 carcaças de mamíferos selvagens de vida livre e cativos do estado de Mato Grosso. Entre eles, um Leopardus pardalis, três Panthera onca, dois Puma concolor foram positivos para Cytauxzoon sp., e seis Tapirus terrestris testaram positivos para Piroplasmida, enquanto um L. pardalis foi positivo para Hepatozoon sp. Além disso, foi descrito em antas, um piroplasmídeo não caracterizado geneticamente, relacionado à Theileria sp., previamente detectado em gatos do Brasil. Apesar da controvérsia quanto à ameaça epidemiológica desses protozoários, a detecção desses agentes em mamíferos silvestres e cativos, mesmo quando assintomáticos, demonstra a importância do monitoramento, principalmente em hotspots, como no estado de Mato Grosso, para verificar a circulação e a diversidade genética, a fim de antecipar o possível surgimento de doenças e, até mesmo, suas consequências para outros animais, bem como os humanos.

Animals , Cats , Babesia/genetics , Piroplasmida/genetics , Panthera , Phylogeny , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(2): e029320, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288693


Abstract Toxoplasmosis occurs worldwide causing economic losses to the animal production and problems to the public health. The study aimed to detect Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis 141 meat products from commercial meat cuts of pork, beef, and kibbeh sold in commercial markets from Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Samples were bioassayed in mice to isolate the parasite, and the parasite DNA detected by PCR targeting the 529 base pairs repeat element region (PCR-529-bp). All samples resulted negative on bioassay, whereas PCR positive for 9 (6,38%), distributed as 5/48 beef, 3/49 pork, and 1/44 kibbeh. PCR-positive were investigated for the the parasite genotype using multiplex-, nested-, and RFLP-PCR for 11 markers (SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, B-TUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico). Complete genotype was determined on just one PCR-positive sample that matched MAS, TgCkBr89 and TgCkBr147 isolates already identified. In addition, nested- and RFLP-PCR targeting 18S rRNA was run for all PCR-positive samples and, the products, sequenced and aligned to the GenBank at NCBI website. Four samples showed 100% homology with T. gondii (GenBank #L37415.1), three with Sarcocystis hominis (GenBank #AF006471.1), two Sarcocystis cruzi (GenBank #AF176934.1), and one Sarcocystis hirsuta (GenBank #AF006469.1), indicating the circulation of T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp.

Resumo A toxoplasmose está mundialmente distribuída e causa perdas na produção animal e problemas de saúde pública. Objetivou-se detectar Toxoplasma gondii e Sarcocystis spp. em 141 produtos cárneos de origem suína (49), bovina (48) e de quibe cru (44), comercializados em mercados de Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Realizou-se bioensaio das amostras em camundongos para isolamento do parasita, e detecção do DNA pela reação em cadeia pela polimerase, tendo como alvo a região do elemento repetitivo de 529 pares de bases (PCR-529-bp). Todas as amostras foram negativas ao bioensaio e 9 (6,38%) positivas à PCR, sendo 5/48 bovinas, 3/49 suínas e 1/44 quibe. Determinou-se a genotipagem das amostras positivas pela multiplex-, nested- e RFLP-PCR com 11 marcadores (SAG1, 5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, B-TUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico). Obteve-se genótipo completo em uma amostra, semelhante a outros já identificados (MAS, TgCkBr89 e TgCkBr147). Nested- e RFLP-PCR do gene 18S rRNA das amostras positivas à PCR foram realizadas, e os produtos da nested-PCR, sequenciados e alinhados com dados do GenBank no NCBI. Quatro apresentaram 100% de homologia com T. gondii (L37415.1), duas Sarcocystis hominis (AF006471.1), duas Sarcocystis cruzi (AF176934.1), uma Sarcocystis hirsuta (AF006469.1), indicando a circulação de T. gondii e Sarcocystis spp.

Animals , Rats , Rodent Diseases , Toxoplasma/genetics , Toxoplasmosis, Animal , Sarcocystis/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Genotype , Meat
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(3): e009121, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1288705


Abstract The dog is the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania and font of infection for the vector, constituting an important host for the transmission of the parasite to humans. Non-invasive collection of swab samples for leishmaniasis diagnosis has been a promising alternative. This study analyzed the positivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis in conjunctiva samples. DNA extraction was performed using SDS 20% and PCR was performed using 13A/13B primers that amplify 120-bp of Leishmania kDNA. Of the 77 dogs analyzed, 50 (64.93%) had ocular changes: 25 (32.47%) dogs had periocular lesion, 41 (53.25%) dogs had purulent eye discharge, and 17 (22.08%) dogs had both signals. PCR was positive in 35 dogs (45.45%), and there was no significant difference between dogs with and without ocular signals (p=0.4074). PCR positivity was significant higher in dogs without periocular injury (p=0.0018). Conjunctive PCR, a less invasive, fast, and painless collection technique, is indicated to complement the diagnosis, especially in dogs without periocular injury, independent of the presence of purulent eye discharge.

Resumo O cão é o principal reservatório doméstico de Leishmania e também fonte de infecção para o vetor, constituindo um importante hospedeiro para a transmissão do parasita ao homem. A coleta não invasiva de amostras em swab para diagnóstico das leishmanioses tem sido uma alternativa promissora. Este estudo analisou a positividade da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para o diagnóstico de leishmaniose canina em amostras de conjuntiva. A extração do DNA foi realizada com SDS 20%. A PCR foi realizada com primers 13A/13B que amplificam 120-pb do kDNA de Leishmania. Dos 77 cães analisados, 50 (64,93%) tiveram alterações oculares; 25 (32,47%) cães tiveram uma lesão periocular; 41 (53,25%) tiveram secreção ocular purulenta e 17 (22,08%) cães tiveram ambos os sinais. A PCR foi positiva em 35 cães (45,45%) e não houve diferença significativa em cães com e sem sinais oculares (p = 0,4074). A positividade da PCR foi significativamente maior em cães sem lesão periocular (p = 0,0018). PCR em conjuntiva, uma técnica de coleta menos invasiva, rápida e indolor, é indicada para complementar o diagnóstico, principalmente em cães sem lesão periocular, independentemente da presença de secreção ocular purulenta.

Animals , Dogs , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , DNA , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Conjunctiva
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00472020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143886


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of filter paper (FP) for lesion scraping collection in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) diagnosis. METHODS: Lesion scrapings from 48 patients were collected and analyzed for PCR. RESULTS: PCR with FP detected up to three Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes. Considering the direct search by microscopy or PCR of samples collected in STE buffer as standards, the sensitivity of PCR with FP was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: FP can be useful for CL diagnosis in remote regions, allowing high sensitivity in the detection of the parasite by PCR.

Humans , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Microscopy
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e003720, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138108


Abstract The aim of this study was to report on detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in oysters (Crassostrea sp.) in the state of Maranhão. To conduct this study, 200 farmed oysters were acquired in the municipality of Raposa and 100 in Paço do Lumiar; and a further 100 oysters were taken from the natural stock in the municipality of Primeira Cruz. This total of 400 specimens sampled was divided into 80 pools composed of five animals each. The gills and visceral mass of each oyster were removed for DNA extraction (per pool of oysters), using a commercial kit. The nested PCR technique (with the primer SAG-1) was then used to investigate any presence of protozoa. This molecular technique demonstrated the presence of DNA of T. gondii in 2.5% of the pools of oysters (n = 2/80): these oysters were exclusively from farms. The results from this study allow the conclusion that oysters of the genus Crassostrea that are farmed in the state of Maranhão are capable of filtering oocysts of T. gondii and maintaining them in their tissues. They are therefore potential sources of contamination for humans and other animals.

Resumo: Objetivou-se com este estudo relatar a detecção do DNA de Toxoplasma gondii em ostras (Crassostrea sp.) no estado do Maranhão. Para a realização do estudo foram adquiridas 200 ostras de cultivo do município de Raposa, e 100 de Paço do Lumiar, além de 100 ostras extraídas de estoque natural do município de Primeira Cruz. Do total de 400 exemplares amostrados, formaram-se 80 pools em que cada pool foi constituído por cinco animais. De cada ostra foi procedida à retirada das brânquias e massa visceral, seguido da extração de DNA de cada pool de ostras, com a utilização de kit comercial. Posteriormente, realizou-se a pesquisa do protozoário por meio da técnica de nested PCR (primer SAG-1). Com a técnica molecular utilizada, foi diagnosticado o DNA do protozoário pesquisado em 2,5% (n=2/80) pools de ostras oriundas exclusivamente de cultivo. Com os resultados obtidos neste estudo, conclui-se que ostras do gênero Crassostrea sp., cultivadas no estado do Maranhão, são capazes de filtrar e manter nos seus tecidos oocistos de T. gondii, sendo, portanto, fontes potenciais de contaminação para seres humanos e outros animais.

Animals , Toxoplasma/physiology , Crassostrea/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Aquaculture , Oocysts/isolation & purification
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e017919, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138073


Abstract Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite that causes diarrhea in a broad range of animals, including deer. Little is known about the prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. in Père David's deer. In this study, 137 fecal samples from Père David's deer were collected between July 2017 and August 2018 in the Dafeng Reserve and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. by nested-PCR based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene, followed by sequence analyses to determine the species. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was used to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. Among 137 samples, 2 (1.46%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. according to SSU rRNA gene sequencing results. Both samples belonged to the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, with two nucleotide deletions and one nucleotide substitution. The prevalence data and molecular characterization of this study provide basic knowledge for controlling and preventing Cryptosporidium infections in Père David's deer in this area.

Resumo Cryptosporidium é um parasita zoonótico que causa diarreia em uma ampla gama de animais, incluindo veados. Pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência e o genótipo de Cryptosporidium spp. no cervo de Père David. Neste estudo, 137 amostras fecais do cervo de Père David foram coletadas entre julho de 2017 e agosto de 2018, na Reserva Dafeng, e analisadas para Cryptosporidium spp. por nested-PCR baseado no gene do RNA ribossômico da subunidade pequena (SSU rRNA), seguido de análises de sequências para determinar as espécies. O gene da glicoproteína de 60 kDa (gp60) foi utilizado para caracterizar Cryptosporidium spp. Dentre as 137 amostras, 2 (1,46%) foram positivas para Cryptosporidium spp. de acordo com os resultados do sequenciamento gênico de SSU rRNA. Ambas as amostras pertenciam ao genótipo do cervo Cryptosporidium, com duas deleções nucleotídicas e uma substituição nucleotídica. Os dados de prevalência e a caracterização molecular deste estudo fornecem conhecimentos básicos para controlar e prevenir infecções por Cryptosporidium nos cervos de Père David nessa.

Animals , RNA, Ribosomal , Deer/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Cryptosporidiosis/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Genotype
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(2): e002420, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138064


Abstract Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. is described from the blood of the Egyptian saw-scaled viper, Echis pyramidum, captured from Saudi Arabia. Five out of ten viper specimens examined (50%) were found infected with Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. with parasitaemia level ranged from 20-30%. The infection was restricted only to the erythrocytes. Two morphologically different forms of intraerythrocytic stages were observed; small and mature gamonts. The small ganomt with average size of 10.7 × 3.5 μm. Mature gamont was sausage-shaped with recurved poles measuring 16.3 × 4.2 μm in average size. Infected erythrocytes were hypertrophied; their nuclei were deformed and sometimes displaced from their central position in the normal uninfected cell. Merogonic stages were observed in the lung endothelial cell and the liver parenchyma cells. Mature meront was 17.8 × 13.6 µm and contained banana-shaped merozoites with average size of ~15 × 2 µm. Phylogenetic analysis based on the SSU rDNA sequence clustered Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n with previously sequenced Hepatozoon spp., most of them infected reptilian hosts without geographic consideration. The morphological and molecular comparison with closely related species proved the taxonomic uniqueness and novelty of the present form.

Resumo Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. é descrito a partir do sangue da víbora em escamas e quilhas serrilhadas, Echis pyramidum, capturada na Arábia Saudita. Cinco de dez espécimes de víbora examinadas (50%) foram encontradas infectadas com Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n. com nível de parasitemia de 20% a 30%. A infecção foi restrita apenas aos eritrócitos. Foram observadas duas formas morfologicamente diferentes de estágios intra-eritrocíticos: gamontes de tamanho pequeno e madura. As formas menores de gamontes apresentaram média de 10,7 × 3,5 μm. Os gamontes maduros apresentaram forma de salsicha, com pequenos polos recurvados, medindo 16,3 × 4,2 μm, em média. Os eritrócitos infectados estavam aumentados de tamanho; seus núcleos encontravam-se deformados e, algumas vezes, deslocados de sua posição central, quando comparados às células normais não-infectadas. Foram observados estágios merogônicos em células endoteliais pulmonares e nas células do parênquima hepático. Os merontes maduros apresentavam 17,8 × 13,6 µm e continham merozoítos em forma de banana com tamanho médio de ~ 15 × 2 µm. A análise filogenética baseada nas sequências SSU rDNA agrupou Hepatozoon pyramidumi sp. n com Hepatozoon spp. detectados em répteis de várias regiões geográficas. Por meio de análises morfológicas e moleculares com espécies intimamente relacionadas, demonstrou-se a singularidade dessa nova espécie de Hepatozoon.

Animals , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Apicomplexa/physiology , Apicomplexa/genetics , Viperidae/parasitology , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Apicomplexa/classification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Viperidae/blood , Parasitemia/parasitology , Parasitemia/veterinary , Erythrocytes , Erythrocytes/pathology , Liver/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Lung/parasitology , Lung/pathology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e009819, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058019


Abstract The aim of this study was to confirm the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu. The disease was diagnosed through the isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania infantum. In the first sample collection stage (2012), three lymph node aspirates and 46 buffy coat samples were obtained mostly from the dogs that were seroreagents for leishmaniasis. In the second sample collection stage (2013), the buffy coat samples were collected from 376 dogs located close to Paraguay, Paraná river, center and peripheral parts of the city. The DNA from the six isolates, four from the first sampling stage (4/49) and two from the second sampling stage (2/376), was subjected to polymerase chain reaction using the K26F/R primers. The isolate was confirmed as L. infantum by sequencing. As none of the dogs had ever left the city, the isolates were confirmed as autochthonous. Further, the study confirmed the emergence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Paraná through the identification of L. infantum among dogs in Foz do Iguaçu city. Hence, collaborative control measures should be designed and implemented by the public agencies and research institutions of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay to control the spread of visceral leishmaniasis.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi confirmar a emergência da leishmaniose visceral canina em Foz do Iguaçu próximo à fronteira com a Argentina e ao Paraguai, por meio do isolamento e identificação molecular de Leishmania infantum. Em um primeiro estágio de coleta de animais (2012), três amostras de aspirados de linfonodos e 46 camadas leucocitárias foram obtidas de cães soropositivos para leishmaniose. Em um segundo estágio de coleta (2013), foram coletadas amostras de camada leucocitária de 376 cães de 20 localidades próximas à fronteira com o Paraguai, rio Paraná, centro e periferia da cidade. Seis isolados foram obtidos, quatro da primeira etapa (4/49) e dois da segunda etapa (2/376); estes isolados foram submetidos à amplificação com iniciadores K26F/R, e a análise de sua sequência confirmou a espécie como L. infantum. A autoctonia dos casos foi confirmada, pois 100% dos cães nunca haviam saído da cidade. O estudo confirma a emergência de leishmaniose visceral canina no Paraná com identificação de L. infantum em cães da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Assim, medidas de controle devem ser elaboradas e implementadas por órgãos públicos e instituições de pesquisa do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai em parceria com o objetivo de controlar a disseminação de zoonoses e os casos humanos de LV.

Animals , Dogs , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e016319, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058011


Abstract Leishmania infantum is a trypanosomatid that causes parasitic dermatopathy in dogs. Trypanosoma caninum is another trypanosomatid, which infects the skin of dogs, although cutaneous abnormalities are absent. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of T. caninum infection and its associated cutaneous and histological changes and compare it with the occurrence of L. infantum infection in dogs. The study included 150 dogs, of which T. caninum infection was identified in 3 (2%) and L. infantum infection in 15 (10%) of them, with no association (p>0.05) of these infections with the breed, gender, age, or cutaneous abnormalities. The cutaneous abnormalities were based on 1 (4.8%) and 12 (57.1%) dogs infected by T. caninum and L. infantum, respectively. The dermatohistopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with T. caninum included mild perivascular lymphohistioplasmacytic infiltrates in the clinically asymptomatic ones, while in those with dermatological abnormalities, acanthosis, epidermal orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, melanomacrophages, and co-infection with Microsporum sp. and Trichophyton sp. were observed. InL. infantum infected, the histopathological findings included chronic granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates and structures compatible with amastigotes. Despite the low frequency of T. caninum infection, our findings suggest that this trypanosomatid, unlike L. infantum, does not cause any macroscopic skin abnormalities.

Resumo Leishmania infantum é um tripanosomatídeo que causa dermatopatia parasitária em cães. Trypanosoma caninum é outro tripanosomatídeo, que infecta a pele de cães, embora anormalidades cutâneas sejam ausentes. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a ocorrência da infecção por T. caninum e suas alterações cutâneas e histológicas associadas e compará-las com a ocorrência da infecção por L. infantum em cães. O estudo incluiu 150 cães, dos quais a infecção por T. caninum foi identificada em 3 (2%) e a infecção por L. infantum em 15 (10%) deles, sem associação (p>0,05) dessas infecções com a raça, sexo, idade ou anormalidades cutâneas. As alterações cutâneas foram observadas em 1 (4,8%) e 12 (57,1%) cães infectados por T. caninum e L. infantum, respectivamente. As anormalidades dermato-histopatológicas nos cães infectados por T. caninum incluíram infiltrados linfo-histioplasmocitários perivasculares leves nos clinicamente assintomáticos, enquanto naqueles com anormalidades dermatológicas, foram observados acantose, hiperqueratose ortoqueratótica epidermal e melanomacrófagos e co-infecção por Microsporum sp. e Trichophyton sp. Nos cães infectados por L. infantum, os achados histopatológicos incluíram infiltrados inflamatórios granulomatosos crônicos e estruturas compatíveis com amastigotas. A despeito da baixa frequência da infecção por T. caninum, nossos achados sugerem que esse tripanosomatídeo, diferentemente de L. infantum, não causa anormalidades macroscópicas na pele.

Animals , Dogs , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/pathology , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190284, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056772


Despite some phlebotomines being well recognised as vectors of leishmaniasis agents, vector importance of those belonging to the genus Trichophoromyia has not been extensively studied. The present study provides evidence regarding the putative vector role played by some species of Trichophoromyia on leishmanine enzootics, based on literature reports and findings obtained from field experiments conducted in the ecotopes of Pará State, Brazil. The species Th. ubiquitalis, Th. velascoi, Th. auraensis, Th. ininii and Th. brachipyga possess minimal criteria to be included in the list of suspected leishmanine vectors. However, knowledge on man-biting behavior, substantiation of vector competence and determination of epidemiological implications are limited for all of the above mentioned species. Published studies together with present data draw attention to prioritize these phlebotomine species in entomological surveillance programs and studies on experimental susceptibility to Leishmania spp. infection.

Animals , Psychodidae/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/classification , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.2): 58-65, ago. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038828


Abstract Introduction: Mucosal leishmaniasis has a progressive course and can cause deformity and even mutilation in the affected areas. It is endemic in the American continent and it is mainly caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Objective: To describe a series of mucosal leishmaniasis cases and the infectious Leishmania species. Materials and methods: We included 50 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis and parasitological confirmation, and we described their clinical and laboratory results. We performed species typing by PCR-RFLP using the miniexon sequence and hsp70 genes; confirmation was done by sequencing. Results: The median time of disease evolution was 2.9 years (range: 1 month to 16 years). The relevant clinical findings included mucosal infiltration (94%), cutaneous leishmaniasis scar (74%), total loss of the nasal septum (24%), nasal deformity (22%), and mucosal ulceration (38%). The symptoms reported included nasal obstruction (90%), epistaxis (72%), rhinorrhea (72%), dysphonia (28%), dysphagia (18%), and nasal pruritus (34%). The histopathological study revealed a pattern compatible with leishmaniasis in 86% of the biopsies, and amastigotes were identified in 14% of them. The Montenegro skin test was positive in 86% of patients, immunofluorescence in 84%, and culture in 8%. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis was identified in 88% of the samples, L. (V) panamensis in 8%, and L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (L.) amazonensis in 2% respectively. Conclusion: In this study, we found a severe nasal disease with destruction and deformity of the nasal septum in 25% of the cases, probably associated with late diagnosis. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis was the predominant species. We described a case of mucosal leishmaniasis in Colombia caused by L. (L.) amazonensis for the first time.

Resumen Introducción. La leishmaniasis mucosa tiene un curso progresivo y puede causar deformidad e incluso mutilación de las zonas afectadas. Es endémica en el continente americano y es causada principalmente por Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis. Objetivo. Describir una serie de casos de leishmaniasis mucosa y las especies de Leishmania infecciosas. Materiales y métodos. Se estudiaron 50 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico de leishmaniasis mucosa y confirmación parasitológica. Se describieron sus características clínicas y los resultados de laboratorio. La tipificación de especies se hizo mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de los polimorfismos de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Polymerase Chain Reaction, PCR-RFLP) en la secuencia del miniexon y el gen hsp70 y se confirmó por secuenciación. Resultados. La evolución de la enfermedad fue de un mes a dieciséis años (mediana de 2,8 años). Los hallazgos clínicos fueron los siguientes: infiltración mucosa (94 %), cicatriz de leishmaniasis cutánea (74 %), pérdida total del tabique nasal (24 %), deformidad nasal (22 %) y ulceración (38 %). Los síntomas reportados fueron: obstrucción nasal (90 %), epistaxis (72 %), rinorrea (72 %), disfonía (28 %), disfagia (18 %) y prurito nasal (34 %). La histopatología mostró un patrón compatible con leishmaniasis en 86 % de las biopsias y se identificaron amastigotes en 14 % de ellas. La prueba de Montenegro fue positiva en 86 % de los pacientes, la inmunofluorescencia en 84 %, y el cultivo en 8 %. Leishmania (V.) brasiliensis se identificó en 88 % de las muestras, L. (V) panamensis en 8 %, y L. (V.) guyanensis y L. (L.) amazonensis en 2 %, respectivamente. Conclusión. Se encontró enfermedad nasal grave con destrucción y deformidad del tabique nasal en una cuarta parte de los casos, probablemente debido a un diagnóstico tardío. Leishmania (V.) brasiliensis fue la especie predominante. Se describe por primera vez un caso de leishmaniasis mucosa causado por L. (L.) amazonensis en Colombia.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Leishmania braziliensis/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/parasitology , Leishmania guyanensis/isolation & purification , Skin/parasitology , Species Specificity , Leishmania braziliensis/classification , Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/complications , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/pathology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/epidemiology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Genes, Protozoan , Leishmania guyanensis/classification , Leishmania guyanensis/genetics , Colombia/epidemiology , HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 489-492, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042524


Abstract Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans. However, only a few Cryptosporidium species have been described in birds (C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli and C. avium). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), followed by molecular characterization of the parasite. A total of 196 animals of both sexes were trap-captured; the animals were culled and the intestinal contents were collected for DNA extraction. After extraction, a nested-PCR (nPCR), which amplifies a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp., was performed. The amplicons obtained were purified and sequenced. PCR analysis revealed that 30 animals (15.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. There was no significant sex-dependent enrichment of Cryptosporidium occurrence (p > 0.05). Only 15 out of the 30 positive samples were successfully sequenced and their species determined, of which, 13 (86.7%) and 2 (13.3%) were C. meleagridis and C. galli, respectively. Herein, we present for the first time a molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from feces of eared doves (Z. auriculata) and propose that these birds are a potential source of C. meleagridis infection in humans.

Resumo Cryptosporidium é um protozoário com uma grande variedade de hospedeiros, incluindo os seres humanos. No entanto, poucas espécies têm sido descritas em aves (Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli e C. avium). O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium spp. em fezes de pombas-de-bando (Zenaida auriculata), e realizar a caracterização molecular dos isolados. Um total de 196 animais de ambos os sexos foram capturados, eutanasiados e o conteúdo intestinal recolhido para extração de DNA. Após a extração, realizou-se uma nested-PCR (nPCR), que amplifica um fragmento do gene 18S rRNA do Cryptosporidium spp.. Os fragmentos obtidos foram purificados e encaminhados para sequenciamento. Os resultados da n-PCR revelaram 30 animais (15.3%) positivos para Cryptosporidium spp.. Quanto ao sexo dos animais não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas (p > 0.05). Somente 15 de 30 amostras positivas foram sequenciadas com sucesso e as espécies determinadas, das quais, 13 (86.7%) e 2 (13.3%) foram C. meleagridis e C. galli, respectivamente. Esse é o primeiro estudo com caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium de fezes de pombas-de-bando (Z. auriculata), e propõe serem esses animais potenciais fonte de infecção de C. meleagridis para humanos.

Animals , Female , Columbidae/parasitology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Cryptosporidium/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Feces/parasitology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(2): 405-414, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038800


Resumen Introducción. La leishmaniosis cutánea por Leishmania braziliensis ha sido tradicionalmente endémica en Argentina y se han sido descritos casos de compromiso visceral después de una leishmaniosis cutánea inicial. La leishmaniosis visceral emergió en Argentina en el año 2006 en la ciudad de Posadas, provincia de Misiones, afectando tanto a humanos como a perros. Objetivo. Identificar el agente etiológico a nivel de especie de los pacientes diagnosticados con leishmaniosis visceral en Misiones y describir sus características clínico-epidemiológicas. Materiales y métodos. Se estudió una serie de 24 pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de leishmaniosis visceral en la provincia de Misiones en el período 2009 al 2016. Para la identificación de Leishmania spp., los pacientes fueron sometidos a estudios diagnósticos indirectos (serológicos) y directos (microscopía, detección de ADN y secuenciación). También, se estudiaron variables como edad, sexo, lugar de residencia, y signos y síntomas clínicos indicativos de leishmaniosis visceral. Resultados. De los 24 pacientes estudiados, 18 (75 %) eran hombres y 6 (25 %) eran menores de cuatro años. La manifestación clínica más frecuente fue el síndrome febril prolongado en 21 (87,5 %) de los pacientes, seguido de esplenomegalia en 17 (70,8 %). Se identificó la especie Leishmania infantum en todos los pacientes estudiados. Conclusión. Este hallazgo constituye la primera identificación de la especie L. infantum en pacientes autóctonos de la provincia de Misiones. El estudio evidenció la importancia de la PCR para el manejo epidemiológico de la leishmaniosis visceral en Argentina.

Abstract Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis has been historically endemic in Argentina and several cases of visceral leishmaniasis following initial cutaneous leishmaniasis have been reported. Visceral leishmaniasis started to appear in Argentina in 2006 in the city of Posadas, Misiones province, affecting both humans and dogs. Objective: To identify the etiologic agent to species level in patients with visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis in Misiones province and describe its clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Materials and methods: A cohort of 24 patients from Misiones province was studied from 2009 to 2016, all with a confirmed diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. To identify the Leishmania species involved, patient samples were analyzed by microscopy, serologic studies, DNA detection, and sequencing. Variables such as age, sex, place of residence, clinical signs and symptoms consistent with visceral leishmaniasis were also recorded. Results: 75% (18/24) of the patients studied were males and 25% (6/24) were younger than 4 years. The most frequent symptom was a prolonged fever in 87.5% of the patients (21/24), followed by splenomegaly in 70.8% (17/24). Leishmania infantum was the only parasite species identified in all patients. Conclusion: This finding constitutes the first molecular identification of the Leishmania infantum species in autochthonous patients of Misiones province, Argentina. This study highlights the importance of PCR for species identification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniosis in Argentina.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Leishmania infantum/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Argentina/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 310-313, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042508


Abstract Rangelia vitalii infects erythrocytes, leukocytes and endothelial cells of dogs. The present study aimed to report the molecular detection confirmed by sequencing of R. vitalii in the state of Paraná, as well as describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations of the infected dogs. Three sick dogs from the metropolitan area of Curitiba, PR, Brazil, underwent a physical exam, and laboratory tests included hematology, biochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and gene sequencing. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, and hemorrhage. Intra-erythrocytic and extracellular piroplasms were found on peripheral blood smears from all three dogs. Blood samples from these animals were positive for Babesia sp. by PCR targeting 18S rRNA. PCR products from all three dogs were sequenced, and BLAST analysis showed that the PCR-generated sequences were highly homologous with those of R. vitalii previously reported. Hematologic findings included severe anemia, shift of neutrophils to the regenerative left, and thrombocytopenia. Serum urea levels were increased in all three dogs, and direct bilirubin levels were elevated in one dog.

Resumo Rangelia vitalii infecta eritrócitos, leucócitos e células endoteliais de cães. O presente estudo objetivou relatar a detecção molecular confirmada por sequenciamento de R. vitalii no estado do Paraná e descrever as alterações clínicas, hematológicas e bioquímicas dos cães infectados. Três cães doentes da região metropolitana de Curitiba, PR, Brasil, foram submetidos a exame físico e exames laboratoriais que incluíram hematologia, bioquímica, reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) e sequenciamento genético. Os sinais clínicos incluíram apatia, anorexia e hemorragia. Piroplasmas intra-eritrocíticos e extracelulares foram encontrados em esfregaços de sangue periférico dos três cães. As amostras de sangue destes animais foram positivas para Babesia sp. pela PCR baseada no gene 18S rRNA. Os produtos de PCR dos três cães foram sequenciados e a análise de BLAST mostrou que as seqüências geradas por PCR eram altamente homólogas com as de R. vitalii previamente relatadas. Os achados hematológicos incluíram anemia grave, desvio de neutrófilos à esquerda regenerativo e trombocitopenia. Os níveis de uréia no soro aumentaram nos três cães, e os níveis de bilirrubina direta foram elevados em um cão.

Animals , Male , Dogs , Babesiosis/diagnosis , Piroplasmida/genetics , Dog Diseases/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Piroplasmida/classification
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 194-202, Apr.-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013740


Abstract The aim of this study was to compare molecular tests used to diagnose Leishmania spp. in dogs with different stages of infection. Blood and conjunctival swab (CS) samples from dogs classified in four clinical stages were subjected to different PCR protocols (13A/13B, MC1/MC2, LITSR/L5.8S and LEISH-1/LEISH-2 primers). To the study, 22.3% (48/215) of dogs were classified as without clinical signs, 67.5% (145/215) stage I (mild disease), 7.0% (15/215) stage II (moderate disease) and 3.2% (7/215) stage III (severe disease). The results showed that in blood samples, 13A/13B detected a significant higher number of positive dogs in stage I (25/145) and in total (42/215) (p≤0.05). However, when CS samples were tested, no difference was observed (p>0.05). On the other hand, in blood samples, MC1/MC2 detected significantly fewer positive dogs classified as without clinical signs (0/48), in stage I (0/145) and in total (1/215) (p≤0.05). Likewise, in CS samples, this primers showed also lower detection (1/215) (p≤0.05). So than, we can conclude that PCR on blood samples with 13A/13B primers has greater capacity to detect positive dogs, mainly at the initial of clinical disease than do other primers and MC1/MC2 are not a good choice to detect Leishmania infantum infection in dogs.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar testes moleculares usados para diagnosticar Leishmania spp., em cães apresentando diferentes estágios de infecção. Amostras de sangue e suabe conjuntival (SC) de cães classificados em quatro estágios clínicos foram submetidas a diferentes PCRs (primers 13A/13B, MC1/MC2, LITSR/L5.8S e LEISH-1/LEISH-2). Para o estudo, 22,3% (48/215) dos cães foram classificados como sem sinais clínicos, 67,5% (145/215) estágio I (doença leve), 7,0% (15/215) estágio II (doença moderada) e 3,2% (7/215) estágio III (doença grave). Os resultados mostraram que, em amostras de sangue, 13A/13B detectou número significativamente maior de cães positivos no estágio I (25/145) e no total (42/215) (p≤0,05). No entanto, quando as amostras de SC foram testadas, nenhuma diferença foi observada (p>0,05). Por outro lado, no sangue, MC1/MC2 detectou significativamente menos cães positivos sem sinais clínicos (0/48), em estágio I (0/145) e no total (1/215) (p≤0,05). Da mesma forma, em amostras de SC, MC1/MC2 também apresentou menor detecção (1/215) (p≤0,05). Assim, a PCR em amostras de sangue com 13A/13B tem maior capacidade de detectar cães positivos, principalmente no início da doença do que outros primers, e o par de primers MC1/MC2 não é uma boa escolha para detectar infecção por Leishmania infantum em cães.

Animals , Dogs , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/genetics , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180541, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057254


Abstract INTRODUCTION Chagas disease is a major public health problem that is endemic in Brazil and Latin America. This study aimed to determine the socioeconomic, demographic, and clinical characteristics of 171 patients (mean age, 45 years; female, 65%) with Chagas disease at Hospital Universitário de Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. METHODS We implemented this cross-sectional study using a clinical epidemiological questionnaire, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and quantitative detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood using qRT-PCR. RESULTS Among the patients, 26.3% had a full elementary education, and 13.2% were illiterate. Most (63.6%) were economically classified as class C, and 51.5% were born in Bahia state. A total of 62.0% participants reported previous contact with the triatomine bug. The clinical forms of the disease were indeterminate (69.51%), cardiac (15.24%), digestive (10.37%), and mixed (4.88%). The most common electrocardiographic abnormality was complete right bundle branch block in association with a divisional anterosuperior block. Only 14.6% of the patients complied with benznidazole medication for at least 60 days, and 164 of them were assessed by echocardiography. The parasite load was positive in 56% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Chagas disease affected mostly women, with the indeterminate chronic form of the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Echocardiography , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Parasite Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Middle Aged
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180438, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040619


Leishmania braziliensis is the etiological agent of American mucosal leishmaniasis, one of the most severe clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Here, we report the assembly of the L. braziliensis (M2904) genome into 35 continuous chromosomes. Also, the annotation of 8395 genes is provided. The public availability of this information will contribute to a better knowledge of this pathogen and help in the search for vaccines and novel drug targets aimed to control the disease caused by this Leishmania species.

Leishmania braziliensis/genetics , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 593-596, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042487


Abstract Anaplasma marginale and piroplasm species are widespread among Brazilian cattle herds. Both of these tick-borne pathogens hamper livestock production and cause a significant economic impact. Although buffaloes have demonstrated a high level of adaptability, data on tick-borne pathogens are scarcely reported in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to screen water buffaloes from the state of Maranhão for piroplasm and A. marginale occurrence using PCR assays. All samples were negative for A. marginale. One of the 287 (0.35%) water buffaloes tested was positive for Theileria sp. Sequencing of the 18S rDNA fragment (356 bp) showed that the Theileria sp. identified was closely related to the T. buffeli /orientalis group. Future studies on the clinical signs of infection and the main vector in this country are needed.

Resumo Anaplasma marginale e espécies de piroplasma são amplamente distribuídas no rebanho bovino brasileiro. Ambos os patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos dificultam a produção pecuária e causam um impacto econômico significativo. Embora os búfalos tenham demonstrado um alto nível de adaptabilidade, dados sobre patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos são raramente relatados no Brasil. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar búfalos do estado do Maranhão para piroplasmas e A. marginale utilizando-se a técnica da PCR. Todas as amostras foram negativas para A. marginale . Um dos 287 (0,35%) búfalos testados foi positivo para Theileria sp. O sequenciamento de um fragmento do gene 18S rDNA (356 pb) demonstrou que Theileria sp. identificado estava relacionada ao grupo T. buffeli/orientalis . Estudos futuros sobre os sinais clínicos de infecção e o principal vetor neste país são necessários.

Animals , Cattle , Theileriasis/diagnosis , Buffaloes/parasitology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Theileria/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(4): 579-583, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042483


Abstract Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri is a flagellated protozoan that infects ruminants and it displays high genetic diversity. In this study, we investigated the prevalence rates of this protozoan based on hemoculture and molecular diagnosis. The isolates of T. theileri thus obtained were characterized by molecular markers SSU rDNA and gGAPDH and molecular diagnosis based on Cathepsin L-like gene (PCR-TthCATL). The PCR-TthCATL and hemoculture indicated an overall prevalence rate of 8.13%, and the CATL derived sequence named IB was identified for the first time in cattle in the western Amazon region, as well as IF in Brazil. We also describe a possible new PCR-TthCATL derived sequence in cattle, designated IL.

Resumo Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri é um protozoário flagelado que infecta ruminantes e apresenta alta diversidade genética. Neste estudo, investigamos as taxas de prevalência deste protozoário com base na hemocultura e no diagnóstico molecular. Os isolados de T . theileri obtidos foram caracterizados pelos marcadores moleculares SSU rDNA e gGAPDH e o diagnóstico molecular foi baseado no gene do tipo Catepsina L (PCR-TthCATL). O PCR-TthCATL e a hemocultura indicaram uma taxa de prevalência total de 8,13% e a sequência derivada do gene Catepsina L denominada IB de T. theileri foi identificada pela primeira vez em bovinos da Amazônia Ocidental, bem como a IF no Brasil. Também descrevemos uma possível nova sequência derivada da PCR-TthCATL em bovinos, designada IL.

Animals , Female , Cattle , Trypanosoma/classification , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/parasitology , Genetic Variation/genetics , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trypanosoma/genetics , Trypanosoma/immunology , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Cathepsin L/genetics , Genotype