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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 928-933, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammtidae) are frequently used as biological control agents against Lepidoptera, but practical application of these egg endoparasitoids are complicated because of their complex taxonomy. This study aimed to compare sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) of Trichogramma accessions with those deposited in GenBank in order to access the reliability of the ITS2 as a barcode for discriminating species and evaluating the genetic diversity. ITS2-rDNA sequences obtained from seventeen specimens of Trichogramma confirmed previous identifications based on morphological characteristics. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the existence of highly conserved regions in ITS2 sequences while the neighbour-joining dendrogram indicated that the specimens formed three clusters comprising T. manicobai and T. marandobai (group I), T. galloi (group II) and T. pretiosum (group III). The ITS2 marker was shown to be a powerful DNA barcode for discriminating Trichogramma species and could be used to complement the morphological approach.


Resumo Espécies de Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) são freqüentemente usadas como agentes de controle biológico contra Lepidoptera, esses endoparasitóides de ovos apresentam taxonomia complexa, o que dificulta sua aplicação prática. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar seqüências de regiões espaçadoras internas transcritas de DNA ribossômico (ITS2-rDNA) de acessos de Trichogramma com aquelas depositadas no GenBank, a fim de avaliar a confiabilidade do ITS2 barcode para discriminar espécies e avaliar a diversidade genética. As seqüências de ITS2-rDNA obtidas de dezessete espécimes de Trichogramma confirmaram identidades anteriores com base em características morfológicas. O alinhamento de múltiplas sequências revelou a existência de regiões altamente conservadas nas sequências ITS2, enquanto o dendrograma indicou que os espécimes formavam três grupos compreendendo T. manicobai e T. marandobai (grupo I), T. galloi (grupo II) e T. pretiosum (grupo III). O marcador ITS2 mostrou ser um poderoso DNA barcode para discriminar espécies de Trichogramma podendo ser usado como complemento da abordagem morfológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057277

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present report describes the first case of postpartum disseminated histoplasmosis in a 24-year-old HIV-negative woman. On the tenth day after vaginal delivery, the patient presented with dyspnea, fever, hypotension, tachycardia, and painful hepatomegaly. Yeast-like Histoplasma capsulatum features were isolated in the buffy coat. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the fungal isolate was similar to other H. capsulatum isolates identified in HIV patients from Ceará and Latin America. Thus, histoplasmosis development in individuals with transitory immunosuppression or during the period of immunological recovery should be carefully examined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , DNA, Fungal/analysis , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Postpartum Period , Histoplasma/genetics , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmosis/microbiology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(2): 303-305, Apr.-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042504

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leishmania spp. are important agents of human and animal leishmaniases that have an important impact on public health. In this study, we aimed to detect the circulation of Leishmania spp. in cattle from a visceral leishmaniasis non-endemic area of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. DNA was extracted from blood samples from 100 heifers in the municipality of Pirassununga and was amplified using primers specific for the first internal transcriber spacer (ITS1), to assess the presence of trypanosomatids. The assays revealed that one sample presented bands of between 300 and 350 base pairs. In GenBank, this sample matched 100% with Leishmania infantum (314 base pairs). The results suggest that cattle can be infected by Leishmania infantum in Brazil.


Resumo Leishmania spp. são agentes causadores das leishmanioses em humanos e em animais, gerando grande impacto à saúde pública. Este estudo objetivou detectar a circulação de Leishmania spp. em área não endêmica para leishmaniose visceral de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram extraídas amostras de DNA de 100 novilhas da cidade de Pirassununga. Estas amostras foram amplificadas com os iniciadores específicos para tripanosomatídeos Internal Transcriber Spacer 1 (ITS1). Os ensaios revelaram uma amostra com bandas entre 300 e 350 pares de base (pb). A amostra demonstrou 100% de identidade com Leishmania infantum (314 pb). Os resultados sugerem que o gado pode ser infectado por L. infantum no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Leishmania infantum/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180595, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040622

ABSTRACT

The genetic information of ancient Paragonimus westermani, the oriental lung fluke infecting over 20 million people worldwide, has not been thoroughly investigated thus far. We analysed genetic markers (COI and ITS2) of P. westermani from coprolite specimens (n = 6) obtained from 15th to 18th century Korean mummies. Our results indicated that all P. westermani sequences were generally distinct from the other species of the genus Paragonimus. The sequences were clustered into three groups: Group I for East Asia; Group II for South and Southeast Asia; and Group III for India and Sri Lanka. In this study, we found that ancient P. westermani sequences in Korea belong to Group I, adding invaluable information to the existing knowledge of Paragonimus paleogenetics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mummies/parasitology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Paragonimus westermani/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Paleodontology , Parasite Egg Count , Phylogeny , Asia , Paragonimus westermani/genetics
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8224, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019569

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease that affects a large part of the world population. Knowing the sand fly fauna of a region is of fundamental importance for guiding health surveillance actions related to the prevention and control of leishmaniasis. A total of 86 specimens of sand flies (60 females and 26 males) were collected. Using the classification proposed by Galati (2003), the following species were identified: Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912), Migonemyia migonei (França, 1920), Evandromyia cortelezzi (Brethes, 1923), Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho, 1939), Nyssomyia whitmani (Atunes & Coutinho, 1939), Psathyromyia lutziana (Costa Lima, 1932), Ev. lenti (Mangabeira, 1938), Brumptomyia sp. (França and Parrot, 1921), and Pressatia sp. (Mangabeira, 1942). Using PCR with internal transcribed spacer target to identify infected sand flies, five Lu. longipalpis females were infected with Leishmania spp. Despite the small number of specimens collected, considerable species diversity was found in the study area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Psychodidae/parasitology , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Brazil , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Leishmania/genetics
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(3): 214-219, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040568

ABSTRACT

Since the description of Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in 2005, several methods have been proposed to identify and differentiate these species from C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Species-specific uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and compared with sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the LSU 28S rDNA gene, microsatellite typing of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA gene. There was agreement between results of testing of 98 clinical isolates with the four PCR-based methods, with 59 isolates identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 37 as C. orthopsilosis, and two as C. metapsilosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/isolation & purification , Mycological Typing Techniques/methods , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA Fingerprinting , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Genotype
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 172-176, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775126

ABSTRACT

Abstract Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. A total of 75 clinical isolates of Candida species were obtained from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients with pulmonary symptoms. Candida cultures were identified based on nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1-ITS2 rDNA) sequence analysis by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Molecular identification indicated that the isolates belonged predominantly to C. albicans (52%), followed by C. tropicalis (24%), C. glabrata (14.7%), C. krusei (5.3%), C. parapsilosis (1.3%), C. kefyr (1.3%) and C. guilliermondii (1.3%). Given the increasing complexity of disease profiles and their management regimens in diverse patients, rapid and accurate identification of Candida species can lead to timely and appropriate antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Fungal/diagnosis , Candida/classification , Candida/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Time Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36483

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is to determine the characteristics of genotype and phenotype of Echinococcus granulosus derived from wild sheep and to compare them with the strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto (sheep-dog) and E. granulosus camel strain (camel-dog) in Iran. In Khojir National Park, near Tehran, Iran, a fertile hydatid cyst was recently found in the liver of a dead wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). The number of protoscolices (n=6,000) proved enough for an experimental infection in a dog. The characteristics of large and small hooks of metacestode were statistically determined as the sensu stricto strain but not the camel strain (P=0.5). To determine E. granulosus genotype, 20 adult worms of this type were collected from the infected dog. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 subunit (COX1) of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified from individual adult worm by PCR. Subsequently, the PCR product was sequenced by Sanger method. The lengths of ITS2 and COX1 sequences were 378 and 857 bp, respectively, for all the sequenced samples. The amplified DNA sequences from both ribosomal and mitochondrial genes were highly similar (99% and 98%, respectively) to that of the ovine strain in the GenBank database. The results of the present study indicate that the morpho-molecular features and characteristics of E. granulosus in the Iranian wild sheep are the same as those of the sheep-dog E. granulosus sensu stricto strain.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Dogs , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/anatomy & histology , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genotype , Iran , Phenotype , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/parasitology , Species Specificity
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36478

ABSTRACT

A study of 426 rabbits from 3 cities in Jilin province (Changchun City and Jilin City) and Liaoning province (Shenyang City) was conducted between May and June 2015. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rabbits was 0.94% (4/426), with 0% (0/116), 1.72% (3/174), and 0.74% (1/136) in Jilin, Changchun, and Shenyang City, respectively. Only 3 farms (farm 1 and farm 3 in Changchun City, farm 8 in Shenyang City) were PCR-positive for E. bieneusi. Moreover, rabbits of more than 6 months (1.72%) had the highest E. bieneusi prevalence, followed by rabbits of 4-6 months (1.26%), 2-3 months (0.58%), and less than 1 month (0%). Analysis of ITS gene of E. bieneusi suggested that all 4 E. bieneusi isolates were genotype D, and were classified as group 1a. The present results first demonstrated the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi in domestic rabbits in China. Effective control measures should be implemented to prevent E. bieneusi infection in domestic rabbits, other animals, and humans.


Subject(s)
Animals , China/epidemiology , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Enterocytozoon/genetics , Genotype , Microsporidiosis/epidemiology , Rabbits/microbiology , Zoonoses/microbiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36473

ABSTRACT

We performed a molecular genetic study on the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA (ITS1 region) gene in 4-day-old adult worms of Macroorchis spinulosus recovered in mice experimentally infected with metacercariae from crayfish in Jeollanam-do Province, Korea. The metacercariae were round, 180 µm in average diameter, encysted with 2 layers of thick walls, but the stylet on the oral sucker was not clearly seen. The adult flukes were oval shape, and 760-820 µm long and 320-450 µm wide, with anterolateral location of 2 large testes. The phylogenetic tree based on ITS1 sequences of 6 M. spinulosus samples showed their distinguished position from other trematode species in GenBank. The most closely resembled group was Paragonimus spp. which also take crayfish or crabs as the second intermediate host. The present study is the first molecular characterization of M. spinulosus and provided a basis for further phylogenetic studies to compare with other trematode fauna in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Metacercariae/classification , Mice , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Trematoda/classification
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 974-982, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768195

ABSTRACT

Abstract ITS2 (Internal transcribed spacer 2) sequences have been used in systematic studies and proved to be useful in providing a reliable identification of Trichogramma species. DNAr sequences ranged in size from 379 to 632 bp. In eleven T. pretiosum lines Wolbachia-induced parthenogenesis was found for the first time. These thelytokous lines were collected in Peru (9), Colombia (1) and USA (1). A dichotomous key for species identification was built based on the size of the ITS2 PCR product and restriction analysis using three endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI). This molecular technique was successfully used to distinguish among seventeen native/introduced Trichogramma species collected in South America.


Resumo Sequências do Espaço Transcrito Interno 2 (ITS2) têm sido utilizadas em estudos taxonômicos e sua utilidade constatada pela confiabilidade que o método confere à identificação das espécies de Trichogramma. Esta técnica molecular foi bem sucedida em distinguir dezessete espécies nativas e introduzidas de Trichogramma, coletadas na América do Sul. As sequências do DNAr variaram de 379 a 632 pb. Em 11 linhagens de T. pretiosum estudadas, o endosinbionte Wolbachia foi detectado pela primeira vez. Estas linhagens telítocas foram encontradas no Peru (9), Colômbia (1) e Estados Unidos (1). Uma chave dicotômica para identificação de espécies foi construída baseada no tamanho do produto da PCR do ITS2 e em análises de restrição utilizando-se três endonucleases (EcoRI, MseI and MaeI).


Subject(s)
Animals , Wasps/classification , Wasps/physiology , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Parthenogenesis , Sequence Analysis, DNA , South America , Wasps/genetics , Wasps/microbiology , Wolbachia/physiology
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(2): 359-366, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749714

ABSTRACT

Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Piper/microbiology , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Microbiological Techniques , Molecular Sequence Data , Sequence Analysis, DNA
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(3): 353-362, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745984

ABSTRACT

A pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", paralogous to the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), has been recently found in many triatomine species distributed throughout North America, Central America and northern South America. Among characteristics used as criteria for pseudogene verification, secondary structures and free energy are highlighted, showing a lower fit between minimum free energy, partition function and centroid structures, although in given cases the fit only appeared to be slightly lower. The unique characteristics of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" as a processed or retrotransposed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type are reviewed, with emphasis on its potential functionality compared to the functionality of genes and spacers of the normal rDNA operon. Besides the technical problem of the risk for erroneous sequence results, the usefulness of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses and systematic/taxonomic studies should be highlighted, based on consistence and retention index values, which in pseudogenic sequence trees were higher than in functional sequence trees. Additionally, intraindividual, interpopulational and interspecific differences in pseudogene amount and the fact that it is a pseudogene in the nuclear rDNA suggests a potential relationships with fitness, behaviour and adaptability of triatomine vectors and consequently its potential utility in Chagas disease epidemiology and control.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Insect Vectors/genetics , Pseudogenes , Triatominae/genetics , Chagas Disease/transmission , Genes, Insect/genetics , Insect Vectors/classification , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Triatominae/classification
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 59-65, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748250

ABSTRACT

Thermophilic and thermotolerant micro-organisms strains have served as the natural source of industrially relevant and thermostable enzymes. Although some strains of the Trametes genus are thermotolerant, few Trametes strains were studied at the temperature above 30 °C until now. In this paper, the laccase activity and the mycelial growth rate for Trametes trogii LK13 are superior at 37 °C. Thermostability and organic cosolvent tolerance assays of the laccase produced at 37 °C indicated that the enzyme possessed fair thermostability with 50% of its initial activity at 80 °C for 5 min, and could remain 50% enzyme activity treated with organic cosolvent at the concentration range of 25%–50% (v/v). Furthermore, the test on production of laccase and lignocellulolytic enzymes showed the crude enzymes possessed high laccase level (1000 U g−1) along with low cellulose (2 U g−1) and xylanase (140 U g−1) activity. Thus, T. trogii LK13 is a potential strain to be applied in many biotechnological processes.


Subject(s)
Laccase/metabolism , Trametes/enzymology , Trametes/growth & development , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Enzyme Stability , Laccase/chemistry , Microscopy , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Solvents , Temperature , Trametes/cytology , Trametes/radiation effects
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(2): 391-395, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749700

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was the identification and differentiation of Trichogramma exiguum Pinto and Platner species, T. pretiosum Riley, and T. galloi Zucchi using sequences of the ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA. After extracting DNA from the studied species, a PCR reaction was performed, where the amplified samples were subjected to sequencing. The sequences obtained were submitted to a similarity search in GenBank (NCBI - National Center for Biotechnology Information) using the BLAST program, aiming to determine the similarity of these sequences with the species already deposited in the referenced database, and then multiple sequences were aligned using version 2.0 of the ClustalX program. According to the results of the multiple alignments of all sequences obtained, it was possible to observe the differences between the T. pretiosum, T. galloi and T. exiguum species. It was concluded that using the sequences of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA was efficient in the differentiation of the studied Trichogramma species, which suggests a strong inter-specific variation among species.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a identificação e diferenciação das espécies Trichogramma exiguum Pinto e Platner, T. pretiosum Riley e T. galloi Zucchi utilizando o sequenciamento da região ITS2 do DNA ribossomal. Após a extração do DNA das espécies estudadas, foi realizada a reação de PCR, onde as amostras amplificadas foram submetidas ao sequenciamento. As sequências obtidas foram submetidas à busca por similaridade no GenBank (NCBI – National Center for Biotechnology Information) por meio do programa BLAST visando-se determinar a similaridade destas com sequências das espécies já depositadas no referido banco de dados e em seguida foi feito o alinhamento múltiplo das sequências com o auxílio do programa CLUSTALX, versão 2.0. De acordo com os resultados do alinhamento múltiplo de todas as sequências obtidas, foi possível verificar as diferenças entre as espécies de T.pretiosum, T. galloi e T. exiguum. Isto permitiu concluir que a utilização do sequenciamento da região ITS2 do DNA ribossomal foi eficiente na diferenciação das espécies de Trichogramma estudadas, o que sugere uma forte variação inter-específica entre as espécies.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Hymenoptera/genetics , Hymenoptera/classification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
16.
Clinics ; 70(2): 87-90, 2/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741428

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. .


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter/genetics , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , /genetics , /genetics , Acinetobacter/classification , Phylogeny
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19164

ABSTRACT

Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.), Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis berlandi (=A. simplex sp. C), and Anisakis typica are the 4 major species of Anisakis type I larvae. In the Republic of Korea (Korea), A. pegreffii, A. berlandi, and A. typica larvae in fish hosts has seldom been documented. In this study, molecular analysis was performed on Anisakis larvae from the sea eels (Astroconger myriaster), the major source of human anisakiasis in Korea, collected from Tongyeong City, a southern coastal area of Korea. All 20 sea eels examined were infected with Anisakis type I larvae (160 larvae; 8 per fish). Their species were analyzed using PCR-RFLP patterns and nucleotide sequences of internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, 5.8 subunit gene, and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2). Most (86.8%; 112/129) of the Anisakis type I larvae were A. pegreffii, and 7.8% (10/129) were A. typica. The remaining 5.4% (7/129) was not identified. Thus, A. pegreffii is the major species of anisakid larvae in sea eels of the southern coast of Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anisakiasis/parasitology , Anisakis/classification , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Eels/growth & development , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Larva/classification , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Republic of Korea
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1211-1220, Oct.-Dec. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741270

ABSTRACT

A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/metabolism , Cellulose/metabolism , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Colombia , Cellulase/analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Fungal/chemistry , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Helminth/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Hydrolysis , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 977-983, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727029

ABSTRACT

Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/isolation & purification , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Sterilization/methods , Triticum/microbiology , Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Fungal/isolation & purification , DNA, Plant/chemistry , DNA, Plant/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/isolation & purification , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plant Leaves/microbiology , Plant Leaves/ultrastructure , Surface Properties , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolation & purification , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultrastructure , Triticum/ultrastructure
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1197-1208, jul.-sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753682

ABSTRACT

Ganoderma includes species of great economic and ecological importance, but taxonomists judge the current nomenclatural situation as chaotic and poorly studied in the neotropics. From this perspective, phylogenetic analyses inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences have aided the clarification of the genus status. In this study, 14 specimens of Ganoderma and two of Tomophagus collected in Brazil were used for DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of the ITS and LSU regions (rDNA). The phylogenetic delimitation of six neotropical taxa (G. chalceum, G. multiplicatum, G. orbiforme, G. parvulum, G. aff. oerstedtii and Tomophagus colossus) was determined based on these Brazilian specimens and found to be distinct from the laccate Ganoderma from Asia, Europe, North America and from some specimens from Argentina. Phylogenetic reconstructions confirmed that the laccate Ganoderma is distinct from Tomophagus, although they belong to the same group. The use of taxonomic synonyms Ganoderma subamboinense for G. multiplicatum, G. boninense for G. orbiforme and G. chalceum for G. cupreum was not confirmed. However, Ganoderma parvulum was confirmed as the correct name for specimens called G. stipitatum. Furthermore, the name G. lucidum should be used only for European species. The use of valid published names is proposed according to the specimen geographical distribution, their morphological characteristics and rDNA analysis. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1197-1208. Epub 2014 September 01.


Ganoderma incluye especies de gran importancia económica y ecológica, sin embargo, su nomenclatura actual es caótica y poco estudiada en el neotrópico. En este estudio se utilizaron 14 muestras de Ganoderma y dos de Tomophagus recolectados en Brasil para la extracción de ADN, amplificación y secuenciación de las regiones ITS y LSU. La delimitación filogenética de seis táxones neotropicales fue discutida con base en especímenes brasileños y secuencias del GenBank. Estas especies mostraron ser distintas de los Ganoderma lacados de Asia, Europa, América del Norte y de algunos ejemplares de Argentina. Las reconstrucciones filogenéticas confirman que los Ganoderma lacados son distintos de Tomophagus, aunque pertenecen al mismo grupo. No se confirman los sinónimos de G. subamboinense a G. multiplicatum, de G. boninense a G. orbiforme y G. chalceum a G. cupreum. G. parvulum se confirma como el nombre correcto para G. stipitatum. G. lucidum sólo se debe utilizar para especies europeas. Por lo tanto, se propone el uso de nombres publicados válidamente de acuerdo con la distribución geográfica de las muestras, características morfológicas y análisis de ADNr.


Subject(s)
DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Ganoderma/cytology , Ganoderma/genetics , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
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