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1.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210162, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365200

ABSTRACT

The ichthyofauna of the La Plata hydrographic basin is divided into Upper and Lower Paraná River systems due to the geographic isolation of the Sete Quedas waterfalls, currently flooded by the lake of the Itaipu dam. In Parodontidae, pairs of species, or groups of cryptic species were described between these systems. Although genetic isolation and speciation have already been proposed in other species in the group, Parodon nasus has been maintained as a valid species and distributed throughout the La Plata river basin. In this perspective, specimens of P. nasus from four different sampling sites in the Upper and Lower Paraná River systems were compared regarding the karyotypes, molecular analyzes of population biology and species delimitation to investigate their genetic and population isolation in the La Plata river basin. Despite a geographic barrier and the immense geographic distance separating the specimens sampled from the Lower Paraná River system compared to those from the Upper Paraná River, the data obtained showed P. nasus as a unique taxon. Thus, unlike other species of Parodontidae that showed diversification when comparing the groups residing in the Lower versus Upper Paraná River, P. nasus showed a population structure and a karyotypic homogeneity.(AU)


A ictiofauna do sistema hidrográfico La Plata é dividida em alto e baixo rio Paraná devido ao isolamento geográfico dos Saltos das Sete Quedas há 22 milhões de anos, atualmente inundado pelo lago da represa da Usina de Itaipu. Em Parodontidae, espécies pares ou grupos de espécies crípticas foram descritos entre esses sistemas. Contudo, embora o isolamento genético e especiação já tenham sido propostos em outras espécies do grupo, Parodon nasus tem sido mantido como espécie válida e distribuída em toda a bacia do rio La Plata. Nessa perspectiva, exemplares de P. nasus de quatro diferentes pontos de amostragem nos sistemas do alto e baixo rio Paraná foram comparados quanto ao arranjo dos cariótipos, análises moleculares de biologia populacional e delimitação de espécies, afim de investigar seu isolamento genético e populacional na bacia do rio La Plata. Apesar da barreira geográfica e imensa distância geográfica separando os exemplares amostrados no sistema baixo rio Paraná em comparação àqueles do alto rio Paraná, os dados obtidos demonstraram P. nasus como único táxon válido. Dessa forma, diferentemente de outras espécies de Parodontidae que demonstraram diversificação quando comparados grupos pares residentes no baixo e alto rio Paraná, P. nasus demonstrou estruturação populacional e homogeneidade cariotípica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biology , DNA, Ribosomal , Characiformes/genetics , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Karyotype
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 928-933, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammtidae) are frequently used as biological control agents against Lepidoptera, but practical application of these egg endoparasitoids are complicated because of their complex taxonomy. This study aimed to compare sequences of internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) of Trichogramma accessions with those deposited in GenBank in order to access the reliability of the ITS2 as a barcode for discriminating species and evaluating the genetic diversity. ITS2-rDNA sequences obtained from seventeen specimens of Trichogramma confirmed previous identifications based on morphological characteristics. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the existence of highly conserved regions in ITS2 sequences while the neighbour-joining dendrogram indicated that the specimens formed three clusters comprising T. manicobai and T. marandobai (group I), T. galloi (group II) and T. pretiosum (group III). The ITS2 marker was shown to be a powerful DNA barcode for discriminating Trichogramma species and could be used to complement the morphological approach.


Resumo Espécies de Trichogramma Westwood, 1833 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) são freqüentemente usadas como agentes de controle biológico contra Lepidoptera, esses endoparasitóides de ovos apresentam taxonomia complexa, o que dificulta sua aplicação prática. Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar seqüências de regiões espaçadoras internas transcritas de DNA ribossômico (ITS2-rDNA) de acessos de Trichogramma com aquelas depositadas no GenBank, a fim de avaliar a confiabilidade do ITS2 barcode para discriminar espécies e avaliar a diversidade genética. As seqüências de ITS2-rDNA obtidas de dezessete espécimes de Trichogramma confirmaram identidades anteriores com base em características morfológicas. O alinhamento de múltiplas sequências revelou a existência de regiões altamente conservadas nas sequências ITS2, enquanto o dendrograma indicou que os espécimes formavam três grupos compreendendo T. manicobai e T. marandobai (grupo I), T. galloi (grupo II) e T. pretiosum (grupo III). O marcador ITS2 mostrou ser um poderoso DNA barcode para discriminar espécies de Trichogramma podendo ser usado como complemento da abordagem morfológica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hymenoptera/genetics , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics
3.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(2): e210007, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279475

ABSTRACT

Some pelagic and usually large sized fishes are preferential targets for sport and commercial fishing. Despite their economic importance, cytogenetic data on their evolutionary processes and management are very deficient, especially due to logistical difficulties. Here, information for two of such charismatic species, the tarpon, Megalops atlanticus (Elopiformes: Megalopidae), and the sailfish, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoriformes: Istiophoridae), both with a wide Atlantic distribution, were provided. Cytogenetic data were obtained using conventional methods (Giemsa staining, Ag-NORs technique, and C-banding), base-specific fluorochrome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probes. Megalops atlanticus has 2n = 50 chromosomes, all acrocentric ones (NF = 50), while Istiophorus platypterus has 2n = 48 chromosomes, 2m + 2st + 44a (NF = 52). Megalops atlanticus populations from the South Atlantic and Caribbean share identical karyotypic patterns, likely associated with gene flow between them. In turn, I. platypterus presents karyotype similarities with phylogenetically close groups, such as Carangidae. The chromosomal characteristics of these species highlight their independent evolutionary paths. Additionally, the current data contribute to knowledge of new aspects of pelagic fish fauna and will support further comparative studies with congeneric species, clarifying evolutionary karyotype trends of these fish groups.(AU)


Alguns peixes pelágicos de grande porte são alvos preferenciais para a pesca esportiva e comercial. Apesar de sua importância econômica, os dados citogenéticos sobre seus processos evolutivos e de manejo são muito deficientes, principalmente devido às dificuldades logísticas. Aqui são apresentadas informações cromossômicas de duas espécies carismáticas, o tarpão, Megalops atlanticus (Elopiformes: Megalopidae), e o agulhão-vela, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoriformes: Istiophoridae), ambos com ampla distribuição no oceano Atlântico. Os dados citogenéticos foram obtidos usando métodos convencionais (coloração em Giemsa, técnica de Ag-NORs e bandamento C), coloração com fluorocromos específicos e hibridização fluorescente in situ (FISH) com sondas DNAr. Megalops atlanticus possui 2n = 50 cromossomos, todos acrocêntricos (NF = 50), enquanto Istiophorus platypterus possui 2n = 48 cromossomos, 2m + 2st + 44a (NF = 52). Populações de M. atlanticus do Atlântico Sul e Caribe compartilham padrões cariotípicos idênticos, provavelmente associados ao fluxo gênico entre regiões. Por sua vez, I. platypterus apresenta semelhanças cariotípicas micro e macroestruturais com grupos filogeneticamente próximos, como Carangidae. As características cromossômicas destas espécies destacam seus caminhos evolutivos independentes. Adicionalmente, os dados apresentados contribuem com novos aspectos da fauna pelágica e apoiarão futuros estudos comparativos com espécies congenéricas, esclarecendo as tendências evolutivas do cariótipo destes grupos de peixes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal , Cytogenetics , Gene Flow , Fisheries , Fishes/genetics
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887950

ABSTRACT

Root rot was occurred widely in the production area of Rehmannia glutinosa, and which result in serious influence on the yield and quality of R. glutinosa. In the present work, a new phytopathogen was isolated from roots with root rot symptom in the production area of R. glutinosa. The colony of the pathogen growing on PDA medium was gray-black, the structure of hyphae was compact, the aerial hyphae was less developed, and the back of the colony was black. The hyphae of the pathogen were uneven in size, about 2 to 3 μm in diameter and twined with each other, the conidia of the pathogen were small, nearly round and about 1 μm in diameter. The healthy roots of R. glutinosa were inoculated with the pathogen in vitro, black-brown rot was observed at the inoculate sites after a few days' incubation. The rhizosphere soil of healthy R. glutinosa seedlings were inoculated in vivo, the leaves were wilted and the roots were black-brown rotted after several days' normal culture, the symptoms were consistent with those observed in the field. The genomic DNA of the pathogen was amplified by fungus rDNA-ITS universal primer ITS1/ITS4 and homologous analyzed, the pathogen was in a branch with Heterophoma sp., Phoma sp., P. novae-verbascicola and P. herbarum with the nuclear acid homology of 99.21% to 99.43%. The pathogen shown 97.00% to 98.02% nuclear acid homology with H. verbascicola, H. novae-verbascicola, H. poolensis, P. herbarum, H. sylvatica, H. verbascicola and H. verbasci-densiflori when amplified by the tub2 gene special primer Btub2 fd/Btub4 rd, and H. novae-verbascicola was the highest. The pathogen was in a branch with H. novae-verbascicola when amplified by the lsu gene special primer LR0 R/LR7. Based on the morphological characteristics, nucleotide sequence analysis and Koch's test results, the isolated pathogen causing root rot of R. glutinosa was identified as H. novae-verbascicola. This study is of great significance for the further theoretical research on root rot of R. glutinosa and root rot control in field.


Subject(s)
DNA, Ribosomal , Fungi/genetics , Plant Leaves , Rehmannia/genetics , Seedlings
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(4): e200055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135408

ABSTRACT

The South American giant fishes of the genus Arapaima, commonly known as pirarucu, are one of the most iconic among Osteoglossiformes. Previously cytogenetic studies have identified their karyotype characteristics; however, characterization of cytotaxonomic differentiation across their distribution range remains unknown. In this study, we compared chromosomal characteristics using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols in pirarucu populations from the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia river basins to verify if there is differentiation among representatives of this genus. Our data revealed that individuals from all populations present the same diploid chromosome number 2n=56 and karyotype composed of 14 pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes. The minor and major rDNA sites are in separate chromosomal pairs, in which major rDNA sites corresponds to large heterochromatic blocks. Comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH) showed that the genome of these populations shared a great portion of repetitive elements, due to a lack of substantial specific signals. Our comparative cytogenetic data analysis of pirarucu suggested that, although significant genetic differences occur among populations, their general karyotype patterns remain conserved.(AU)


Os peixes gigantes da América do Sul do gêneroArapaima, comumente conhecidos como pirarucus, são um dos mais icônicos de Osteoglossiformes. Estudos citogenéticos prévios identificaram suas características cariotípicas, entretanto a caracterização da diferenciação citotaxonômica através de suas distribuições geográficas ainda são desconhecidas. Nesse estudo, nós comparamos características cromossômicas utilizando técnicas de citogenética clássica e molecular em populações das bacias dos rios Amazonas e Tocantins-Araguaia, a fim de verificar se há alguma diferenciação entre representantes desse gênero. Nossos dados revelaram que indivíduos de todas as populações apresentam número diploide de 2n=56 cromossomos e que seus cariótipos são compostos de 14 pares de cromossomos meta- e submetacêntricos e 14 pares de subtelo- e acrocêntricos. Os sítios maiores e menores de rDNA estão localizados em pares cromossômicos separados, onde os sítios maiores de rDNA correspondem a grandes blocos heterocromáticos. Hibridizações genômicas comparativas (CGH) mostraram que o genoma dos espécimes dessas populações é amplamente compartilhado, devido à falta de sinais substanciais específicos. Nossos dados de citogenética comparativa do pirarucu sugerem que embora diferenças genéticas significativas ocorram entre populações, os padrões cariotípicos gerais se mantêm conservados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA, Ribosomal , Cytogenetics , Karyotype , Fishes/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Amazonian Ecosystem , Rivers , Data Analysis
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(2): e200013, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135383

ABSTRACT

Ancistrus is a specious genus of armored catfishes that has been extensively used for cytogenetic studies in the last 17 years. A comparison of the extensive karyotypic plasticity within this genus is presented with new cytogenetic analysis for Ancistrus cf. multispinis and Ancistrus aguaboensis. This study aims to improve our understanding of chromosomal evolution associated with changes in the diploid number (2n) and the dispersion of ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) within Ancistrus. Ancistrus cf. multispinis and A. aguaboensis exhibit 2n of 52 and 50 chromosomes, respectively. Given that A. cf. multispinis shares a 2n = 52 also found in Pterygoplichthyini, the sister group for Ancistrini, a Robertsonian (Rb) fusion event is proposed for the 2n reduction in A. aguaboensis. 5S rDNAs pseudogenes sites have already been associated with Rb fusion in Ancistrus and our analysis suggests that the 2n reduction in A. aguaboensis was triggered by double strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal rearrangements at 5S rDNA sites. The presence of evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) into rDNA cluster is proposed to explain part of the Rb fusion in Ancistrus. Cytogenetic data presented extends the diversity already documented in Ancistrus to further understand the role of chromosomal rearrangements in the diversification of Ancistrini.(AU)


Ancistrus é um gênero rico em espécies de peixes conhecidos como cascudos e tem sido alvo de estudos citogenéticos nos últimos 17 anos. Uma comparação da plasticidade presente no gênero é apresentada com novas análises citogenéticas para Ancistrus cf. multispinis e Ancistrus aguaboensis. Este estudo visa melhorar nossa compreensão da evolução cromossômica associada as alterações do número diploide (2n) e a dispersão de DNAs ribossômicos (rDNAs) em Ancistrus. Ancistrus cf. multispinis e A. aguaboensis apresentaram 2n de 52 e 50 cromossomos, respectivamente. Visto que A. cf. multispinis compartilha 2n = 52 também encontrado em Pterygoplichthyini, o grupo irmão para Ancistrini, um evento de fusão Robertsoniana (Rb) é proposto para a redução do 2n em A. aguaboensis. Sítios de pseudogenes de rDNA 5S já foram associados a eventos de fusão Rb em Ancistrus e nossas análises sugerem que a redução do 2n em A. aguaboensis foi desencadeada por quebras na dupla fita e rearranjos cromossômicos em sítios de rDNA 5S. A presença de evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs) em clusters de rDNA foi proposta para explicar parte da fusão Rb em Ancistrus. Os dados citogenéticos apresentados ampliam a diversidade já documentada em Ancistrus visando melhor entender o papel dos rearranjos cromossômicos na diversificação de Ancistrini.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal , Cytogenetic Analysis , Gender Identity
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828402

ABSTRACT

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Genetics , China , DNA, Ribosomal , Resins, Plant , Thymelaeaceae
8.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(1): e020019, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092690

ABSTRACT

Abstract Knowledge of the Arabian Gulf fish's parasite fauna is very poor. Until recently, only scattered reports from different locations are known for ecto- and endoparasites. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the digenean species that infects one of the most economically fish species in the Arabian Gulf, the rosy goatfish Parupeneus rubescens . One plagiorchiid species has been described, belonging to the Gorgoderidae family, and has been named as Phyllodistomum vaili Ho, Bray, Cutmore, Ward & Cribb, 2014 based on its morphological and morphometric characteristics. In order to accurately classify and characterize this plagiorchiid species, molecular analysis was carried out using both nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA gene regions and revealed that the present plagiorchiid species was associated with other species belonging to the Gorgoderidae family and deeply embedded in the Phyllodistomum genus, closely related to the previously described P. vaili (gb- KF013187.1, KF013173.1). The present study therefore revealed that the species Phyllodistomum is the first account as endoparasites from the rosy goatfish inhabiting the Arabian Gulf.


Resumo O conhecimento da fauna de parasitas dos peixes do Golfo Árabe é escasso. Atualmente, apenas relatórios dispersos de diferentes locais são conhecidos para ecto e endoparasitas. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar as especies digenéticas que infectam uma das espécies economicamente mais importantes do Golfo Arábico, o peixe-cabra rosado Parupeneus rubescens . Uma espécie de plagiorquídeo foi descrita, pertencente à família Gorgoderidae e foi denominada Phyllodistomum vaili Ho, Bray, Cutmore, Ward & Cribb, 2014, com base em suas propriedades morfológicas e morfométricas. A fim de classificar e caracterizar com precisão essa espécie de plagiorquídeo, a análise molecular foi realizada usando as regiões nucleares do gene 18S e 28S rRNA, revelando que a atual espécie de plagiorchídeo estava associada a outras espécies pertencentes à família Gorgoderidae e, profundamente incorporada ao gênero Phyllodistomum , intimamente relacionado ao P. vaili descrito anteriormente (gb - KF013187.1, KF013173.1). O presente estudo revelou, portanto, que a espécie Phyllodistomum vailli é o primeiro relato como endoparasita do peixe-cabra rosado que habita o Golfo Arábico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Perciformes/parasitology , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia , Trematoda/classification , Trematoda/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S , RNA, Ribosomal, 28S
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 625-631, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057969

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current parasitological study was carried out to investigate helminth parasites infecting the Red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan inhabiting Hurghada City at the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt. Third-stage larvae of nematode parasite was isolated from the intestine as well as body cavity of the examined fish. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this parasite belonged to Anisakidae family within the genus Pseudoterranova. The present species is named Pseudoterranova decipiens based on the presence of triangular mouth aperture with prominent boring teeth and soft swellings of the cuticle, long muscular esophagus, ventrally excretory pore, and narrow transverse slit of anal opening followed by a short mucron. The morphological characteristics of this species were confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA gene region of the present parasite. It demonstrated a close identity ≥89% with taxa under family Anisakidae, 85% with Raphidascarididae, and 79-84% with Toxocaridae. A preliminary genetic comparison between gene sequence of the present parasite and other oxyurid species placeed it as a putative sister taxon to other Pseudoterranova decipiens described previously. This study demonstrated that the 18S rDNA gene region of Pseudoterranova decipiens yielded a unique sequence that confirmed its taxonomic position in Anisakidae.


Resumo O presente estudo parasitológico foi realizado para investigar os helmintos parasitos que infectam o peixe imperador Lethrinus lentjan, que habita a cidade de Hurghada no Golfo de Suez, Mar Vermelho, no Egito. Larvas de terceiro estágio de parasitos nematoides foram isoladas do intestino e da cavidade do corpo do peixe examinado. Microscopia eletrônica de luz e de varredura revelou que este parasita pertence à família Anisakidae dentro do gênero Pseudoterranova. A espécie atual é denominada Pseudoterranova decipiens baseada na presença de abertura triangular da boca com dentes proeminentes chatos e inchaços moles da cutícula, esôfago muscular longo, poro ventralmente excretor e fenda transversal estreita da abertura anal seguida por um mucron curto. As características morfológicas desta espécie foram confirmadas pela análise molecular da região do gene 18S rDNA do presente parasito. Demonstrou uma identidade próxima ≥89% com taxa sob família Anisakidae, 85% com Raphidascarididae, e 79-84% com Toxocaridae. Uma comparação genética preliminar entre a sequência genética do presente parasito e outras espécies de oxiurídeos coloca-o como um taxon irmão putativo para outros Pseudoterranova descritos anteriormente. Este estudo demonstra que a região do gene 18S rDNA de Pseudoterranova decipiens produz uma sequência única que confirma sua posição taxonômica em Anisakidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Fishes/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Indian Ocean , Egypt , Fishes/classification , Nematoda/classification , Nematoda/genetics , Nematoda/ultrastructure
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 367-375, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042538

ABSTRACT

Abstract Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.


Resumo Renicolídeos são parasitos que habitam túbulos renais e ureteres de aves que se alimentam de moluscos e peixes. Puffinus puffinus, ave marinha migratória, foi registrada como hospedeiro definitivo de Renicola spp. Estudos relacionados com as espécies de renicolídeos e as lesões renais resultantes são importantes para o entendimento das causas de óbito de aves marinhas. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os trematódeos renicolídeos e avaliar os achados histológicos em dois P. puffinus encalhados no litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Os parasitos foram avaliados por ensaios histológicos, ultraestruturais e moleculares, enquanto as alterações teciduais foram analisadas por métodos histológicos. As características morfológicas e morfométricas dos parasitos, juntamente com a reação em cadeia da polimerase e sequenciamento (regiões ribossomal e mitocondrial), identificaram a espécie como Renicola sloanei. Os resultados também sugerem que este helminto pode ser a forma adulta de Cercaria pythionike. A dilatação dos ductos coletores foi o principal achado histológico renal. Em conclusão, R. sloanei foi identificado, e pela primeira vez P. puffinus foi descrito como hospedeiro deste digenético induzindo alterações renais discretas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trematoda/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Kidney/parasitology , Phylogeny , Trematoda/classification , Trematoda/genetics , Trematoda/ultrastructure , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Helminth/genetics
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 360-366, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042528

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycoplasma ovis is an emerging zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution and can cause mild to severe hemolytic anemia, icterus, and poor weight gain in animals. Although M. ovis has been described in small ruminants worldwide, data on M. ovis in sheep in Brazil is unknown. The objective of the present study was to present the first report of hemotropic mycoplasma (HM) in sheep from Brazil. We evaluated factors associated with this infection, such age group, tick presence, and anemia. Blood samples were collected from 33 sheep from a farm in southern Brazil and screened for hemoplasmas using PCR. Out of 33 samples, 26 (78.8%) tested positive for M. ovis. The sequencing of positive samples showed 100% identity with multiple M. ovis 16S rDNA sequences. No association was observed between the presence of M. ovis and the FAMACHA© score (p = 0.620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45.4%) was the tick species found on the animals. No significant association between M. ovis infection and presence of ticks (p = 0.4134) and age group (p = 0.4221) was observed. This is the first report of M. ovis infection in sheep from Brazil and only the second report of this pathogen in sheep in Latin America.


Resumo Mycoplasma ovis é um patógeno zoonótico emergente com distribuição mundial e pode causar anemia hemolítica de leve a grave, icterícia e baixo ganho de peso em animais. Embora M. ovis tenha sido descrito em pequenos ruminantes em todo o mundo, os dados sobre M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil são desconhecidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar o primeiro relato de micoplasmas hemotrópicos em ovinos no Brasil. Avaliamos os fatores associados a essa infecção, como faixa etária, presença de carrapatos e anemia. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 33 ovelhas de uma fazenda no sul do Brasil e testadas para hemoplasmas usando a PCR. Das 33 amostras, 26 (78,8%) apresentaram resultado positivo. O sequenciamento das amostras positivas mostrou 100% de identidade com múltiplas sequências de M. ovis 16S rDNA. Não foi observada associação entre a presença de M. ovis e o escore FAMACHA© (p = 0,620). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (15/33, 45,4%) foi a espécie de carrapato encontrada nos animais. Não houve associação significativa entre infecção por M. ovis e presença de carrapatos (p = 0,4134) e faixa etária (p = 0,4221). Este é o primeiro relato de infecção por M. ovis em ovinos no Brasil e o segundo relato deste patógeno em ovinos na América Latina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sheep Diseases/microbiology , Mycoplasma/classification , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Phylogeny , Sheep Diseases/diagnosis , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Sheep , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Rhipicephalus/microbiology , Mycoplasma/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma/genetics , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(3): 416-424, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042514

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this was describe an infection by Kudoa orbicularis in freshwater catfish Trachelyopterus galeatus. A sample of 80 specimens of T. galeatus was collected in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari, Marajó Island, in the state of Pará, Brazil. Pseudocysts were found in the muscle fibers of the epaxial and hypaxial regions of 85.0% of the specimens analyzed, reflecting a high infection rate. The pseudocysts contained spores that were pseudo-square in shape, with a mean length of 4.65 µm (range: 4.04-5.54) and mean width of 1.53 µm (1.56-1.74). Analyses on the morphology of the spores and a partial 934-bp sequence of the SSU rDNA gene confirmed that the microparasite was Kudoa orbicularis. This is the second record of this microparasite in a siluriform host in the Brazilian Amazon region.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a infecção por Kudoa orbicularis em Trachelyopterus galeatus. Foram analisados 80 espécimes de T. galeatus capturados no município de Cachoeira do Arari, ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, Brasil. A presença de pseudocistos nas fibras musculares das regiões epiaxial e hipoaxial em 85,0% dos exemplares analisados, mostra alto grau de infecção. Os pseudocistos continham esporos de formato pseudoquadrado, medindo 4,65 (4,04-5,54) µm de comprimento e 5,25 (4,78-5,98) µm de largura, com quatro cápsulas polares de tamanho iguais medindo 2,22 (2,05-2,32) µm de comprimento e 1,53 (1,56-1,74) µm de largura. Através das análises morfológicas dos esporos e molecular de uma sequência parcial de 934bps do gene SSU rDNA, confirma que o microparasito é Kudoa orbicularis, sendo este o segundo registro desse microparasito em hospedeiro da ordem Siluriformes da Amazônia brasileira.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/parasitology , Myxozoa/isolation & purification , Fish Diseases/parasitology , Phylogeny , Brazil , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Myxozoa/cytology , Myxozoa/genetics , Fish Diseases/diagnosis , Fresh Water
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742306

ABSTRACT

Anaplasma marginale and A. platys were detected and characterized (16S rDNA sequence analysis) from dairy and indigenous cattle, and the latter in domestic dogs in Vietnam. A phylogenetic tree was inferred from 26 representative strains/species of Anaplasma spp. including 10 new sequences from Vietnam. Seven of our Vietnamese sequences fell into the clade of A. marginale and 3 into A. platys, with strong nodal support of 99 and 90%, respectively. Low genetic distances (0.2–0.4%) within each species supported the identification. Anaplasma platys is able to infect humans. Our discovery of this species in cattle and domestic dogs raises considerable concern about zoonotic transmission in Vietnam. Further systematic investigations are needed to gain data for Anaplasma spp. and members of Anaplasmataceae in animal hosts, vectors and humans across Vietnam.


Subject(s)
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasma , Anaplasmataceae , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Cattle , DNA, Ribosomal , Dogs , Humans , Phylogeny , Trees , Vietnam
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing in South Korea. Since treatment strategy differs by NTM species, accurate identification is necessary. In this study, using Mycobacterium pulmonary isolates recently recovered from a general hospital in Seoul, the prevalence of NTM isolates was investigated. METHODS: A total of 483 Mycobacterium pulmonary strains isolated between May and November 2018 from an 814-bed general hospital in South Korea were analyzed. Bacterial species were identified based on nucleotide sequences of the 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer and the rpoB gene. RESULTS: From a total of 1,209 pulmonary specimens from patients suspected to be infected with mycobacteria, 324 deduplicate strains were isolated, comprising 90 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 229 NTM strains. Among the NTM isolates, 61.5% (n=144) were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), including 92 M. avium and 52 Mycobacterium intracellulare, while 8.1% (n=19) represented Mycobacterium abscessus, including 10 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and 9 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense. In addition, 12 (5.1%) Mycobacterium lentiflavum, 12 (5.1%) Mycobacterium gordonae, 6 (2.6%) Mycobacterium kansasii, and 5 (2.1%) Mycobacterium fortuitum were identified. In addition, Mycobacterium mucogenicum (n=2), Mycobacterium septicum (n=1), Mycobacterium colombiens (n=1), Mycobacterium asiaticum (n=1), and Mycobacterium celatum (n=1) were identified. CONCLUSION: Among the recently recovered Mycobacterium pulmonary strains, more than half were identified as NTM, and MAC was the most prevalent NTM, followed by M. abcessuss.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , DNA, Ribosomal , Hospitals, General , Humans , Korea , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium fortuitum , Mycobacterium kansasii , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prevalence , Seoul , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761756

ABSTRACT

From October 2015 to August 2018, tapeworm proglottids were obtained from 10 patients who were residents of Daegu and Gyeongbuk provinces and had a history of raw beef consumption. Most of them had no overseas travel experience. The gravid proglottids obtained from the 10 cases had 15–20 lateral uterine branches. A part of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) DNA of the 10 cases, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with AleI restriction enzyme, produced the same band pattern of Taenia saginata, which differentiated from T. asiatica and T. solium. Sequences of ITS1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) showed higher homology to T. saginata than to T. asiatica and T. solium. Collectively, these 10 cases were identified as T. saginata human infections. As taeniasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans, it is necessary to maintain hygienic conditions during livestock farming to avoid public health concerns.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Cestoda , DNA , DNA, Ribosomal , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Livestock , Parasitic Diseases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Red Meat , Republic of Korea , Taenia saginata , Taenia , Taeniasis
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761752

ABSTRACT

Since Kudoa septempuntata was identified as a causative agent of food poisoning associated with raw olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, interest and concern regarding the parasite have increased. However, there have been no investigations or reports of other Kudoa species infecting the fish (except for K. paralichthys, which infects the brain) in Korea. We found cysts filled with myxospores of Kudoa species in muscles of cultured olive flounder specimens and identified these to the species level. Mature spores were quadrate, measuring 8.7±0.5 μm in length, 9.2±0.4 μm in thickness, and 12.9±0.6 μm in width. The spores containing 4 polar capsules had a length of 2.1±0.2 μm and a width of 1.8±0.3 μm. The partial 18S and 28S rDNA of isolates showed 99–100% similarities with K. ogawai. Using these morphological and molecular analyses, the species was identified as K. ogawai. This study is the first report of K. ogawai infection in cultured olive flounder in Korea.


Subject(s)
Capsules , DNA, Ribosomal , Flounder , Foodborne Diseases , Korea , Muscles , Olea , Parasites , Spores
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761729

ABSTRACT

Sinuolinea capsularis Davis, 1917 is myxosporean that infect the urinary system of the host fish. Insufficient morphological and molecular data of S. capsularis exits, and it is therefore difficult to make an accurate identification of the parasite. We tried a series of morphological and molecular analysis to identify an myxosporean isolated from urinary bladder of cultured olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, from Jeju island in the Republic of Korea. Some of them were observed under a light microscope and SEM, and remain samples were used molecular and phylogenetic analysis. Mature spores were subspherical, measuring 13.9±0.6 μm in length and 13.8±0.8 μm in width. Two spherical polar capsules on opposite sides in the middle of the spore had a diameter range of 4.3±0.4 μm. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that spores a severely twisted the suture line. By the morphological comparison and analysis, it was identified as S. capsularis. In addition, we obtained the partial 18S rDNA of S. capsularis and first registered it in NCBI. Phylogenetic analysis showed that S. capsularis clustered with Zschokkella subclade infecting the urinary system of marine fish, and it supported the infection site tropism effect on phylogeny of marine myxosporeans as well as the origin of Sinuolinea is not monophyly.


Subject(s)
Capsules , DNA, Ribosomal , Flounder , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Olea , Parasites , Phylogeny , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Republic of Korea , Spores , Sutures , Tropism , Urinary Bladder
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761717

ABSTRACT

Anisakiasis is a zoonotic disease induced by anisakid nematodes, and endoscopic inspection is used for a diagnosis or remedy for it. Anisakis simplex, Anisakis physeteris, and Pseudoterranova decipiens had been reported to be the major species causing human infections, particularly, in Japan. However, in Korea, recent studies strongly suggested that Anisakis pegreffii is the major species of human infections. To support this suggestion, we collected anisakid larvae (n=20) from 20 human patients who were undergone gastrointestinal endoscopy at a health check-up center in Korea, and molecular identification was performed on the larvae using PCR-RFLP analysis and gene sequencing of rDNA ITS regions and mtDNA cox2. In addition, anisakid larvae (n=53) collected from the sea eel (Astroconger myriaster) were also examined for comparison with those extracted from humans. The results showed that all human samples (100%) were identified as A. pegreffii, whereas 90.7% of the samples from the sea eel were A. pegreffii with the remaining 9.3% being Hysterothylacium aduncum. Our study confirmed that A. pegreffii is the predominant species causing human anisakiasis in Korea, and this seems to be due to the predominance of this larval type in the fish (sea eels) popularly consumed by the Korean people. The possibility of human infection with H. aduncum in Korea is also suggested.


Subject(s)
Anisakiasis , Anisakis , Diagnosis , DNA, Mitochondrial , DNA, Ribosomal , Eels , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Japan , Korea , Larva , Zoonoses
19.
Mycobiology ; : 173-179, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760542

ABSTRACT

Cladophialophora is characterized by simple hyphomycetes with brown hyphae that give rise to branched chains of pale brown conidia and shows affinities with the Herpotrichiellaceae. A fungal strain belonging to the genus Cladophialophora was isolated from soil in Daegu, Korea. This strain produces numerous greenish to dark black lanose aerial mycelia with hair like structures. It is morphological similar to C. chaetospira, C. inabaensis, and C. multiseptata; however, the conidiophores and conidia sizes of the newly isolated strain (KNU16-032) are clearly different from them. The novelty of the strain was also confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis using the data sets of the internal transcribed spacer region of and the partial sequence of 28S ribosomal DNA region along with the cultural characteristics. Because morphological observations and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strain is distinct from previously known Cladophialophora species, we propose this species as a new species Cladophialophora lanosa sp. nov., and provide the detailed descriptions in this study.


Subject(s)
Cultural Characteristics , Dataset , DNA, Ribosomal , Hair , Hyphae , Korea , Mitosporic Fungi , Soil , Spores, Fungal
20.
Mycobiology ; : 191-199, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760540

ABSTRACT

Most of lichens are formed by Ascomycota, less than 1% are lichenized Basidiomycota. The flora investigation of lichenized Ascomycota of South Korea has been well studied in the past three decades; however, prior to this study, none of basidiolichens was discovered. During the recent excursion, an unexpected clavarioid basidiolichen, Sulzbacheromyces sinensis was collected. Morphology and ecology has been recorded in detail. DNA was extracted, and ITS, 18S, 28S nuclear rDNA were generated. In order to further confirm the systematic position of the Korean specimens, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis including all the species of the order Lepidostromatales were conducted based on the ITS. As a result, the phylogenetic tree of the order Lepidostromatales was reconstructed, which differed from the previous studies. The inferred phylogenetic tree showed that species of Sulzbacheromyces in three different continents (Asia, South Africa and South America) were separated into three clades with support. In this study, the species worldwide distribution map of Lepidostromatales was illustrated, and S. sinensis had a widest distribution range (paleotropical extend to the Sino-Japanese) than other species (paleotropical or neotropical). Prior to this study, the range of distribution, southernmost and northernmost points and the fruiting time of S. sinensis were recorded, and the genus Sulzbacheromyces was firstly reported from Korean peninsula and Philippines.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Asia , Basidiomycota , DNA , DNA, Ribosomal , Ecology , Fruit , Geography , Korea , Lichens , Philippines , Phylogeny , South Africa , Trees
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