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1.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 39(2): 117-225, abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388345

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: En Chile, el cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) es la segunda causa de muerte por neoplasias malignas en la mujer. El principal agente causal es el virus papiloma humano (VPH). Comparando con la población general, los o las trabajadoras(es) sexuales (TS) tienen alto riesgo de adquirir VPH. OBJETIVO: Analizar la prevalencia y genotipos del VPH cervical y vaginal en TS que se atienden en un Centro de Salud Sexual de Santiago, Chile. Pacientes y MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 97 mujeres TS, de 19 a 70 años de edad. Se obtuvieron dos muestras por paciente, una de exocérvix y otra de paredes vaginales. El ADN de VPH fue identificado por reacción de polimerasa en cadena (RPC) y su genotipo fue investigado para 32 tipos de VPH. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de VPH global fue de 45%, observándose portación cervical en 41,2% y vaginal en 36,1%, con una coinfección de 32%. El 63% de las muestras tenía genotipos de alto riesgo. Los VPH de alto riesgo más frecuentes fueron el VPH 66 (12%), VPH 58 (9,3%), seguidos por VPH 16, VPH 59 y VPH 82 con igual frecuencia (8% c/u). Treinta y dos mujeres (43%) fueron infectadas con genotipos múltiples. CONCLUSIÓN: El VPH es una infección frecuente entre las TS. Este es el primer estudio en Chile sobre prevalencia y genotipos de VPH en TS.


BACKGROUND: In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignancy in women. The main causal agent of cervical cancer is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Compared with the general population, sex workers (SW) are at increased risk of acquiring HPV. AIM: To analyze the prevalence and genotypes of cervical and vaginal HPV in female SW attending a Sexual Control Centre. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 97 women (19-70 years old). Two samples were taken per patient, one from exocervix and the other from vaginal walls. HPV DNA. was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping using specific probes for 32 types of HPV. RESULTS: The overall frequency of HPV was 45%, 41.2% in cervical carrier and 36.1% in vaginal carrier, 32% were co-infected, 63% of HPV were high-risk genotypes. The most frequent high-risk HPV was HPV 66 (12%), HPV 58 (9.3%), followed by HPV 16, HPV 59 and HPV 82 with the same frequency (8% each one). Thirty two (43%) of females were infected with multiple genotypes. CONCLUSION: HPV is frequent infection among SW. This is the first study in Chile on the prevalence and genotypes of HPV in sex workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphapapillomavirus/genetics , Sex Workers , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral/analysis , DNA, Viral/genetics , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the risk of reentry in HBV reactive blood donors and feasibility of HBV reentry strategy.@*METHODS@#HBsAg+ or HBV DNA+ donors who had been quarantined for more than 6 months in Jiangsu Province could propose for reentry application. Blood samples were routinely screened by dual-ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab/Ag, and anti- Treponema pallidum and those non-reactive ones were tested by minipool nucleic acid testing (NAT) for three times. To identify occult HBV donors, samples of NAT non-reactive were further tested by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) for HBV seromarkers (including HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb). Donors of only 4 ECLIA patterns were accepted to reentry, including all 5 HBV seromarkers negative, anti-HBs only but having history of hepatitis B vaccine injection, HBcAb only, HBsAb+ / HBcAb+ with HBsAb more than 200 IU/L. Additionally, the detection rate of HBV infection was compared between routine screening mode and ECLIA, as well as the reentry qualified rate of HBsAg+ and HBV DNA+ blood donors.@*RESULTS@#From Oct. 2016 to Aug. 2019, a total of 737 HBV reactive donors had applied for reentry, including 667 HBsAg+ reactive and 70 HBV DNA+ reactive donors. Among 3 screening methods, the highest HBV detection rate (43.15%, 318/737) was observed on ECLIA, while only 4.75% (35/737) on ELISA and 3.12% (23/737) on NAT, respectively. Among 4 qualified patterns of HBV serological markers, the highest proportion was found in the all negative group (22.90%, 155/677), followed by the group with HBsAb+ only and history of hepatitis B vaccine injection (19.35%, 131/677), and the median concentration of HBsAb was 237.7 IU/L. The unqualified rate of HBV DNA+ donors was 82.86%, which was significantly higher than 47.98% of HBsAg+ donors.@*CONCLUSION@#Routine screening tests merely based on ELISA and NAT could miss occult HBV donors and may not be sufficient for blood safety. HBsAb concentration and vaccine injection history should be included in the evaluation of HBV reactive donors who intend to apply for reentry. There is a relatively larger residual risk of occult HBV infection in blood donors quarantined for HBV DNA reactive.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans
3.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 429-438, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928467

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains to be the major cause of chronic liver diseases in China. Since the nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon-alpha do not directly target the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nuclei of HBV-infected hepatocytes, those standard-of-care medications cannot efficiently cure the infected hepatocytes and rarely achieve the functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, new antiviral drugs targeting distinct steps of HBV replication and immunotherapeutics reinvigorating antiviral immune responses are urgently needed for the functional cure of CHB. Based on the extensive discussion of the biological and clinical significance of new virologic biomarkers and distinct mechanism of drug candidates currently in clinical development, we propose that the selection of virologic and immunological biomarkers for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy as well as setting the therapeutic endpoints in the clinical trials should be based on the mode of action of investigational drugs. In addition, due to the complexity of CHB pathogenesis, selection of specific subpopulation of CHB patients for the clinical trials of drugs with a specific mode of action should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , DNA, Circular , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Virus Replication
4.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 131-136, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928459

ABSTRACT

To meet the unmet medical needs and better reflect the new clinical evidence of chronic hepatitis B management, Chinese Society of Hepatology developed expert consensus on expanding diagnosis and treatment in China. The recommendations include to expand HBsAg screening in the population and HBV DNA detection by sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), decrease the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) threshold for treatment of chronic hepatitis B, and promptly start antiviral therapy in the patients who are at risk of disease progression, and appropriately manage the patients with low level viremia.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , DNA, Viral , Expert Testimony , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927667

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to investigate whether cytokine profiles and virological markers might add value in monitoring the effects of peginterferon (PEG-IFN) therapy for hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB).@*Methods@#HBeAg positive patients with CHB were treated with PEG-IFN for 48 weeks. Clinical biochemical, and HBV serological indexes, as well as cytokines, were detected at baseline and every 12 weeks.@*Results@#A total of 116 patients with CHB were enrolled in this study; 100 patients completed the 48-week treatment and follow-up, of whom 38 achieved serum HBeAg disappearance, 25 achieved HBeAg seroconversion, 37 showed HBsAg decreases ≥ 1 log 10 IU/mL, 9 showed HBsAg disappearance, and 8 became HBsAb positive. The cytokine levels at baseline and during treatment were similar between the HBeAg disappearance group and non-disappearance group. The disappearance of HBeAg was independently associated with HBeAg levels at weeks 12 and 24, and with the HBeAg decline at week 24 ( P < 0.05). The HBsAg response was independently associated with HBsAg, the HBsAg decline, HBeAg, the HBeAg decline at week 12, and HBsAg at week 24 ( P< 0.05).@*Conclusion@#There was no significant correlation between the response to interferon (IFN) and cytokines during PEG-IFN treatment. The changes in virological markers predicted the response to IFN after 48 weeks.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cytokines , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936146

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on helper T lymphocytes 17 (Th17), regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) and Th17/Treg ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients in different alanine aminetransferase (ALT) stages.@*METHODS@#In the study, 336 chronic hepatitis B patients in the first hospital of Lanzhou University were analyzed. The hepatitis B antigen antibody parameters were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, the liver function parameters were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer, the HBV loads were measured by quantitative PCR, Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry. Among them, 111 cases (ALT < 40 U/L) of ALT were normal hepatitis B, 108 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above normal upper limit and < 2 times higher (40 U/L≤ALT < 80 U/L), and 117 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above 2 times normal upper limit (80 U/L≤ALT). According to the viral load, they were divided into low replication group with HBV DNA < 4.0 lg copies/mL, medium replication group with 4.0 lg copies/mL≤HBV DNA < 6.0 lg copies/mL and high replication group with HBV DNA ≥ 6.0 lg copies / mL. Dunnett T3 variance analysis were used to analyze the effects of HBV on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio in the chronic hepatitis B patients in different ALT stages. The changes of virological and immunological indexes before and after treatment were observed for 24 weeks of antiviral therapy in the hepatitis B patients with ALT≥double upper limit of normal group.@*RESULTS@#In the ALT normal group, different virus load HBV had minor effects on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio. In the ALT≥2 times upper limit of normal group, with the virus load increased, Th17 (3.18%±0.79% in low replication group, 3.78%±0.92% in medium replication group and 4.57%±1.15% in high replication group), Treg cells (5.52%±1.58% in low replication group, 5.89%±1.84% in medium replication group and 6.37%±2.35% in high replication group) and their ratio Th17/Treg (0.57±0.25 in low replication group, 0.65±0.29 in medium replication group and 0.73±0.36 in high replication group) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After entecavir treatment 24 weeks, the patient' s HBV-DNA decreased significantly, Th17 (3.89%±1.02% vs. 2.06%±0.46%), Treg (6.02%±2.03% vs. 5.06%±1.25%), Th17/Treg ratio (0.65±0.28 vs. 0.41±0.14) decreased significantly (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Investigation on the effects of HBV on Th17 and Treg cells and their ratios in different ALT states can clarify the effects of HBV on the body from the immunological perspective and can further understand the ALT grouping for antiviral treatment theoretical significance, which is helpful for clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Alanine/therapeutic use , Alanine Transaminase/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
7.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 389-394, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935956

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal alanine aminotransferase and high level of HBV DNA. Methods: Treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who were followed up at the Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected as subjects. Demographic characteristics, the results of laboratory examination before treatment and one year after treatment were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into tenofovir dipivoxil (TDF) and propofol fumurate tenofovir (TAF) treatment group according to different types of medication. The changes of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg serological conversion and HBsAg quantitative level were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 38 cases were enrolled. Among them, there were 16 and 22 cases in the TDF and TAF group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic characteristics, baseline HBV DNA levels and HBsAg quantitative levels between the two groups. Virological response was achieved in 60.5% (23/38) of patients after one year of antiviral therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels below the lower limit of detection [68.2% (15/22) vs. 50.0% (8/16), P=0.258] and higher HBeAg seroconversion rate [18.2%] (4/22) vs. 6.3% (1/16), P=0.374] was obtained in TAF than TDF group; however, there was no statistically significant differences between the two. Serum HBsAg quantitative level was significantly reduced with TDF and TAF treatment. In addition, alanine aminotransferase elevation was reduced in TAF than TDF treated group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age was an independent predictor of a virological response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: HBeAg-positive CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase, and high HBV DNA level can obtain better curative effect after TDF and TAF treatment.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 316-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935944

ABSTRACT

Objective: To dynamically observe the clinical efficacy of entecavir and the changes of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 levels in peripheral blood of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers treated with entecavir, and further explore its clinical significance. Methods: There were 31 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (A), 32 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the treatment group (B), and 15 cases of chronic hepatitis B virus carriers in the non-treatment group (C).Three groups peripheral blood samples and clinical data at 0, 24 and 48 weeks were collected and compared. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were detected by flow cytometry, and the level of sPD-1 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ANOVA and Spearman correlation analysis were performed on the measurement data among the three groups. Results: At week 0, the serum levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA were significantly higher in groups A and C than group B. PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes in peripheral blood were significantly higher in group B (4.70%±1.58%) than group A (3.25%±1.01%) and group C (2.77%±0.67%) (F=16.65, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 in group B [(1 866.62±1 472.70) pg/ml] was significantly higher than group A [(824.86±538.66) pg/ml] and group C [(618.19±602.62) pg/ml] (F=10.95, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). At 48 weeks, the serum HBsAg did not decrease significantly in groups A and C than baseline (P>0.05), but were significantly higher than group B (P<0.05). Serum HBeAg levels were decreased significantly in groups A and B than baseline (P<0.05). <0.05), but group A was significantly higher than group B (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group C (P>0.05). Serum HBV DNA level was significantly lower in groups A and B than group C (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference between group A and group B (P>0.05). Peripheral blood PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes were significantly lower in Group A (1.56%±0.73%) and group B (1.32%±0.43%) than group C (2.64%±0.85%) (P<0.05). Peripheral blood sPD-1 were significantly lower in group A [(289.05±215.86) pg/ml] and group B [(236.01±173.92) pg/ml] than group C [(650.34±598.46) pg/ml] (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between group A and group B. Correlation analysis results: In group A at 48 weeks, the decreased level of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocyte ratio had no correlation with the decreased level of HBsAg and HBV DNA, but was positively correlated with the decreased level of HBeAg (r=0.376, P<0.05). The decreased level of sPD-1 had no correlation with the changes of HBsAg, but was positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBeAg and HBV DNA (r=0.598 and 0.384, P<0.05). In group B at 48 weeks, the decreased levels of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes and sPD-1 were positively correlated with the decreased levels of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA (P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus replication and expressions in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were significantly inhibited after 48 weeks of antiviral treatment, which is related not only to entecavir treatment, but also to the immunological mechanism involved in sPD-1. Moreover, the inhibition of HBeAg expression is associated with a decrease in the number and/or activity of PD-1+CXCR5+CD4+T lymphocytes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , Receptors, CXCR5/analysis , T-Lymphocytes
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 304-308, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935942

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the efficacy of entecavir antiviral therapy on the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in Tibet region. Methods: HBeAg-positive CHB patients who were treated with entecavir in the outpatient and inpatient Department of Infectious Diseases of the Tibet Autonomous Region people's Hospital between January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among the 140 subjects with CHB, 95 cases were CHB alone, and the other 45 cases were diagnosed as CHB combined with NAFLD by ultrasound. All patients were given entecavir 0.5 mg orally once daily on an empty stomach for 48 weeks. HBeAg negative conversion rate, blood glucose, blood lipid, liver function and the degree of liver fibrosis were compared between the two groups at the 12th, 24th and 48th weeks of treatment to evaluate the virological response. SPSS 19.0 statistical software was used to process the data. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (x¯±s). Descriptive statistical analysis was used for t-test, and the categorical variables were expressed as percentage (%) and χ2 test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: After 48 weeks of treatment, the HBeAg and HBV DNA negative conversion rate were significantly better in patients with CHB alone (group B) than CHB combined with NAFLD (group A), that is to say, HBeAg negative conversion rate in group A and B patients were 28.90% and 40%, respectively, and group B was better than group A. HBV DNA negative conversion rate was significantly elevated in group B (83.2%) than group A (64.4%), with statistical significance (P<0.05), and the difference between the both groups was statistically significant. Alanine aminotransferase level was significantly decreased in patients with CHB alone than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index was significantly decreased after treatment than before treatment in both group of patients, and the depletion was more pronounced in CHB alone group. Liver stiffness values were significantly decreased in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD than CHB alone group. Moreover, liver stiffness values was higher in group A than group B before treatment under the influence of fat attenuation factors, and the differences before treatment and after treatment were 3.50±4.66 and 2.05±2.53, respectively; however, group B was not affected by fat attenuation factors, so LSM value reduction in group A was more obvious, and the differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference in blood glucose and blood lipids levels before and after treatment between the two groups. Conclusion: NAFLD has a certain effect on antiviral therapy and liver fibrosis in patients with CHB, i.e., the effect of antiviral therapy in patients with CHB alone is better than patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. Patients with CHB combined with NAFLD when treated with antiviral therapy had a significantly greater degree of liver stiffness reduction than patients with CHB alone. Therefore, it is necessary to actively intervene the risk factors associated with NAFLD according to the actual situation of different individuals to improve clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Viral , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tibet , Treatment Outcome
10.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 99-102, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935916

ABSTRACT

Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the template for HBV replication. Currently, there is a lack of therapeutic drugs that directly target cccDNA. Therefore, blocking cccDNA supplements as fast as possible and reducing the existing cccDNA is the key to achieving a complete cure of chronic hepatitis B. Previous studies have suggested that cccDNA had a long half-life, but a recent study showed that it only took a few months to update cycle of cccDNA pool, and its number was much less than previously predicted. In the future, with the advent of new antiviral drugs that can completely inhibit HBV replication, it is expected that the cccDNA pool will be completely cleared due to its supplement complete blockade, so as to achieve virological cure of chronic hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA, Circular/genetics , DNA, Viral , Half-Life , Hepatitis B/drug therapy , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Replication
11.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 728-733, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935451

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the type, length, and CG loci of HBV DNA CpG islands in HBsAg positive maternal C genotype and its relationship with intrauterine HBV transmission, so as to provide a new perspective for the study of intrauterine transmission of HBV. Methods: From June 2011 to July 2013, HBsAg-positive mothers and their newborns who delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan were collected. Epidemiological data were collected through face-to-face questionnaires and electronic medical records. Serum HBV markers and serum HBV DNA were detected by electrochemiluminescence and quantitative fluorescence PCR, respectively. Intrauterine transmission of HBV was determined by positive HBsAg and/or HBV DNA in femoral venous blood before injection of HBV vaccine/Hepatitis B immunoglobulin within 24 h of birth. A total of 22 mothers and their newborns with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml in intrauterine transmission were selected as the intrauterine transmission group, and 22 mothers with HBV DNA load ≥106 IU/ml without intrauterine transmission were chosen as the control group by random seed method. The distribution prediction of CpG islands of HBV DNA in 39 mothers with genotype C by HBV DNA sequencing was analyzed. Results: Among 39 mothers with HBV C genotype, 19 were in the intrauterine transmission group, and 20 were in the control group. The HBV DNA of 39 patients with genotype C traditional CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ, while the control group had traditional CpG island Ⅰ and novel CpG island Ⅳ and Ⅴ. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and Ⅲ and the number of CG loci of CpG island Ⅱ in the intrauterine transmission group differed from those in the control group (P<0.05). The CpG island Ⅱ length ≥518 bp and the number of CG loci ≥40 in the intrauterine transmission group (11/19) were significantly higher than those in the control group (2/20) (P<0.05). The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG loci in the X gene promoter region (Xp region) were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). In the HBV intrauterine transmission group, most of maternal (12/19) HBV DNA CpG island Ⅱ completely covered the Xp region, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (5/20), and the number of HBV DNA Xp region CG loci was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: The distribution of maternal C genotype HBV DNA CpG islands is related to intrauterine transmission. The length of CpG island Ⅱ and the number of CG sites may increase the risk of intrauterine transmission of HBV.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , CpG Islands , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935354

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influencing factors of HBV intrauterine transmission and their interaction effects by integrating logistic regression model and Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) decision tree model. Methods: A total of 689 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates in the obstetrics department of the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan from 2007 to 2013 were enrolled, and the basic information of mothers and their neonates were obtained by questionnaire survey and medical record review, such as the general demographic characteristics, gestational week and delivery mode. HBV DNA and HBV serological markers of the mothers and newborns were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay respectively. The CHAID decision tree model and unconditional logistic regression analysis were used to explore the factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission in neonates of HBsAg-positive mothers. Results: Among the 689 neonates, the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission was 11.47% (79/689). After adjusted for confounding factors, the first and second logistic multivariate analysis showed that cesarean delivery was a protective factor for HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.14-0.43; OR=0.27, 95%CI: 0.15-0.46); both models indicated that maternal HBeAg positivity and HBV DNA load ≥2×105 IU/ml before delivery were risk factors of HBV intrauterine transmission (OR=3.89, 95%CI: 2.32-6.51; OR=3.48, 95%CI: 2.12-5.71), respectively. The CHAID decision tree model screened three significant factors influencing HBV intrauterine transmission, the most significant one was maternal HBeAg status, followed by delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load. There were interactions between maternal HBeAg status and delivery modes, as well as delivery mode and maternal HBV DNA load before delivery. The rate of HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns of HBeAg-positive mothers by vaginal delivery increased from 19.08% to 29.37%; among HBeAg-positive mothers with HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml, the rate of HBV intrauterine transmission increased to 33.33% in the newborns by vaginal delivery. Conclusions: Maternal HBeAg positivity,maternal HBV DNA ≥2×105 IU/ml and vaginal delivery could be risk factors for HBV intrauterine transmission in newborns. Interaction effects were found between maternal HBeAg positivity and vaginal delivery, as well as vaginal delivery and high maternal HBV DNA load. Logistic regression model and the CHAID decision tree model can be used in conjunction to identify the high-risk populations and develop preventive strategies accurately.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/genetics , Decision Trees , Female , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Logistic Models , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
13.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 347-353, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935219

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the influence of HBsAg expression in peritumoral tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients on their postoperative recurrence. Methods: The HCC patients treated in Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital from October 2009 to August 2010 were selected. The clinicopathological data and adjacent tissues of 718 patients were collected, and dextran polymer immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues. According to the expression of HBsAg in adjacent tissues, the tissues were divided into HBsAg positive group and HBsAg negative group. Kaplan-Meier method and Log rank test were used for survival analysis, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Among the 718 patients in the whole group, 153 were HBsAg negative and 565 were HBsAg positive. There was a statistically significant difference in serum HBV DNA level between HBsAg-positive and HBsAg-negative patients (P<0.001). The number of patients with serum DNA≥2 000 IU/ml and<2 000 IU/ml in HBsAg negative group were 52 and 93, while the patients in HBsAg positive group were 325 and 205. The cumulative recurrence rates of all patients at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery were 30.2%, 54.3%, and 62.7%, respectively. The expression of HBsAg was related to the recurrence (P=0.038). Multivariate analysis showed that γ-GT, PT, multiple tumors, tumor length, and portal vein invasion were independent risk factors for recurrence of HCC (P<0.05). In HBeAg-negative patients with low viral load (HBV DNA <2 000 IU/ml) and without cirrhosis, the recurrence rates of HBsAg-positive patients were 14.3% and 31.0% at 3 and 5 years, respectively, compared with HBsAg negative patients (all 0), the difference was statistically significant (P=0.021). Conclusion: The positive expression of HBsAg in peritumoral tissue increases the postoperative recurrence risk of HCC patients.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , China , DNA, Viral/analysis , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/metabolism , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/pathology
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(4): 530-538, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350900

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most common agents of infection in solid organ transplant patients, with significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study aimed to establish a threshold for initiation of preemptive treatment. In addition, the study compared the performance of antigenemia with qPCR results. Study design: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in 2017 in a single kidney transplant center in Brazil. Clinical validation was performed by comparing in-house qPCR results, against standard of care at that time (Pp65 CMV Antigenemia). ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the ideal threshold for initiation of preemptive therapy based on the qPCR test results. Results: Two hundred and thirty two samples from 30 patients were tested with both antigenemia and qPCR, from which 163 (70.26%) were concordant (Kappa coefficient: 0.435, p<0.001; Spearman correlation: 0.663). PCR allowed for early diagnoses. The median number of days for the first positive result was 50 (range, 24-105) for antigenemia and 42 (range, 24-74) for qPCR (p<0.001). ROC curve analysis revealed that at a threshold of 3,430 IU/mL (Log 3.54), qPCR had a sensitivity of 97.06% and a specificity of 74.24% (AUC 0.92617 ± 0.0185, p<0.001), in the prediction of 10 cells/105 leukocytes by antigenemia and physician's decision to treat. Conclusions: CMV Pp65 antigenemia and CMV qPCR showed fair agreement and a moderate correlation in this study. The in-house qPCR was revealed to be an accurate method to determine CMV DNAemia in kidney transplant patients, resulting in positive results weeks before antigenemia.


Resumo Introdução: Citomegalovírus (CMV) é um dos agentes infecciosos mais comuns em pacientes com transplante de órgãos sólidos, com morbidade e mortalidade significativas. Objetivo: Este estudo visou estabelecer um limite para o início do tratamento preemptivo. Além disso, comparou o desempenho da antigenemia com os resultados da qPCR in house. Desenho do estudo: Este foi um estudo de coorte prospectivo realizado em 2017 em um centro único de transplante renal no Brasil. A validação clínica foi realizada comparando resultados de qPCR in house, com o padrão de atendimento na época (Antigenemia para CMV Pp65). A análise da curva ROC foi realizada para determinar o limite ideal para o início da terapia preemptiva baseado nos resultados do teste qPCR in house. Resultados: 232 amostras de 30 pacientes foram testadas com antigenemia e qPCR, das quais 163 (70,26%) foram concordantes (Coeficiente Kappa: 0,435, p<0,001; Correlação Spearman: 0,663). PCR permitiu diagnósticos precoces. O número médio de dias para o primeiro resultado positivo foi 50 (intervalo, 24-105) para antigenemia e 42 (intervalo, 24-74) para qPCR (p<0,001). A análise da curva ROC revelou que em um limite de 3.430 UI/mL (Log 3,54), qPCR teve sensibilidade de 97,06% e especificidade de 74,24% (AUC 0,92617 ± 0,0185, p<0,001), na previsão de 10 células/10(5) leucócitos por antigenemia e na decisão do médico de tratar. Conclusões: Antigenemia para CMV Pp65 e qPCR para CMV mostraram uma concordância aceitável e uma correlação moderada neste estudo. qPCR in house revelou-se um método preciso para determinar DNAemia do CMV em pacientes transplantados renais, obtendo resultados positivos semanas antes da antigenemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnosis , World Health Organization , DNA, Viral , Prospective Studies , Viral Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Antigens, Viral
15.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 346-352, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285683

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The association between uterine cervix and anogenital carcinomas and human papillomavirus, HPV, is well established, however the involvement of this virus in the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas remains controversial. Objectives To evaluate the relationship between HPV infection and oral squamous cell carcinomas, and to estimate the incidence of this infection in these patients. Methods Four electronic databases were searched to find studies that met the following inclusion criteria: i) performed in humans; ii) were cohort, case-control or cross-sectional; iii) assessed the HPV oncogenic activity by the E6 and E7 mRNA; iv) included primary oral squamous cell carcinomas which; v) diagnosis had been confirmed by biopsy. Information about the country; study period; sample obtainment; sites of oral squamous cell carcinomas; number, gender and age range of the population; the prevalence of HPV infection and subtypes detected; use of tobacco or alcohol and oral sex practice were extracted. The methodological quality of included articles was assessed using 14 criteria. Results The search strategy retrieved 2129 articles. Assessment of the full text was done for 626 articles, but five were included. The total of participants included was 383, most of them male with mean age between 51.0 and 63.5 years old. Seventeen patients were HPV/mRNA-positive, being the subtypes 16 and 18 detected more frequently. Nine of the HPV/mRNA-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas occurred on the tongue. The quality score average of included articles was five points. Conclusions Among the 383 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients included, 17 (4.4%) were HPV/mRNA-positive, nevertheless it was not possible to assess if HPV infection was associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas because none of the studies included was longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations do not have control group.


Resumo Introdução A associação entre os carcinomas de colo uterino e anogenitais e o papilomavírus humano (HPV) está bem estabelecida; entretanto, o envolvimento desse vírus no desenvolvimento de carcinomas espinocelulares orais permanece controverso. Objetivos Avaliar a relação entre a infecção pelo HPV e os carcinomas espinocelulares orais e estimar a proporção dessa infecção nesses pacientes. Método Quatro bases de dados eletrônicas foram pesquisadas para encontrar estudos que atendessem aos seguintes critérios de inclusão: i) feitos em humanos; ii) estudos do tipo coorte, caso-controle ou transversal; iii) avaliaram a atividade oncogênica do HPV pelo mRNA E6 e E7; iv) incluíram CECOs primários, cujo diagnóstico foi confirmado por biópsia; v) o diagnóstico foi confirmado por biópsia. Informações sobre o país; período do estudos; obtenção da amostra; locais dos carcinomas espinocelulares orais; número, sexo e faixa etária da população; prevalência de infecção por HPV e subtipos detectados; informações sobre o uso de tabaco ou álcool e a prática de sexo oral foram obtidas. A qualidade metodológica dos artigos incluídos foi avaliada através de 14 critérios. Resultados A estratégia de busca recuperou 2.129 artigos. A avaliação de texto completo foi feita em 626 artigos, mas apenas cinco foram incluídos. O total de participantes incluídos foi de 383, a maioria do sexo masculino e com média de idade entre 51,0 e 63,5 anos. Dezessete pacientes eram HPV/mRNA-positivos, os subtipos 16 e 18 foram detectados com maior frequência. Nove dos carcinomas espinocelulares orais HPV/mRNA-positivos ocorreram na língua. A média do escore de qualidade dos artigos incluídos foi de cinco pontos. Conclusões Entre os 383 pacientes incluídos com carcinomas espinocelulares orais, 17 (4,4%) eram HPV/mRNA-positivos; entretanto, não foi possível avaliar se a infecção por HPV estava associada com carcinomas espinocelulares orais porque nenhum dos estudos incluídos era longitudinal e as investigações transversais não têm grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Papillomaviridae/genetics , DNA, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/epidemiology , Middle Aged
16.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mar. 24, 2021. 9 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151432

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, 141 los países/territorios han detectado casos de infección por alguna de las tres variantes de preocupación (VOC) reconocidas actualmente por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). De ese total, 32 países/territorios corresponden a la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , DNA, Viral/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Mutation , Americas/epidemiology
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 37-42, ene.-feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279071

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La identificación de portadores del virus de la hepatitis B en donantes de sangre es imperativo para evitar la transmisión de la enfermedad a través de transfusiones sanguíneas. Objetivo: Determinar si los donantes de sangre con resultados positivos de los marcadores serológicos HbsAg y anti-HBc eran portadores de ADN del virus de la hepatitis B. Métodos: Se recolectaron 12 745 muestras de seis bancos de sangre ecuatorianos, las cuales fueron analizadas con pruebas serológicas para identificar los marcadores infecciosos HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs mediante prueba ELISA automatizada. Todas las muestras positivas para uno, dos o los tres marcadores fueron analizadas con técnica molecular para determinar la presencia de ADN viral. Resultados: Se identificó que 27.5 % de las muestras reactivas solo a anti-HBc y 100 % de las muestras con resultados positivos de HBsAg/anti-HBc-IgM/IgG presentaron ADN del virus de la hepatitis B (p = 0.001). Conclusiones: La elección de los marcadores de infección y los métodos de detección definen los resultados. Es importante la realización de dos pruebas serológicas y una molecular para identificar a los portadores del virus de la hepatitis B y evitar su transmisión.


Abstract Introduction: Identification of hepatitis B virus carriers in blood donors is imperative in order to avoid transmission of the disease via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine if blood donors with positive results for serological markers HBsAg and anti-HBc were hepatitis B virus DNA carriers. Methods: 12,745 samples were collected from six Ecuadorian blood banks and analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs infectious markers by automated ELISA. All samples that tested positive for one, two or all three markers were analyzed with molecular techniques to determine the presence of viral DNA. Results: 27.5 % of the samples that were reactive for anti-HBc alone and 100 % of those with positive results for HbsAg and IgM/IgG anti-HBc were identified to contain hepatitis B virus DNA (p = 0.001). Conclusions: The selection of infection markers, as well as the detection methods define the results. Performing two serological and one molecular test is important in order to identify hepatitis B virus carriers and prevent its transmission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , DNA, Viral/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Blood Banks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Biomarkers/blood , Carrier State/diagnosis , Carrier State/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Ecuador
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 30-36, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279070

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se requiere analizar diversos parámetros para el control de calidad adecuado de las unidades de sangre de cordón umbilical (USCU) cuando se utilizan con fines terapéuticos. Objetivo: Optimizar las unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC) de cultivos clonogénicos y detectar el genoma del virus del papiloma humano (VPH) en USCU. Métodos: Se incluyeron 141 muestras de sangre de cordón umbilical (SCU), de segmento y de UFC de cultivos clonogénicos de USCU. Se realizó extracción de ADN, cuantificación y amplificación por PCR del gen endógeno GAPDH. Se detectó el gen L1 del VPH con los oligonucleótidos MY09/MY11 y GP5/GP6+; los productos de PCR se migraron en electroforesis de agarosa. El ADN purificado de las UFC se analizó mediante electroforesis de agarosa y algunos ADN, con la técnica sequence specific priming. Resultados: La concentración de ADN extraído de UFC fue superior comparada con la de SCU (p = 0.0041) y la de segmento (p < 0.0001); así como la de SCU comparada con la de segmento (p < 0.0001). Todas las muestras fueron positivas para la amplificación de GAPDH y negativas para MY09/MY11 y GP5/GP6+. Conclusiones: Las USCU criopreservadas fueron VPH netativas; además, es factible obtener ADN en altas concentraciones y con alta pureza a partir de UFC de los cultivos clonogénicos.


Abstract Introduction: Analysis of several markers is required for adequate quality control in umbilical cord blood units (UCBU) when are used for therapeutic purposes. Objective: To optimize colony-forming units (CFU) from clonogenic cultures and to detect the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome in UCBU. Methods: One hundred and forty-one umbilical cord blood (UCB), segment or CFU samples from UCBU clonogenic cultures were included. DNA extraction, quantification and endogenous GAPDH gene PCR amplification were carried out. Subsequently, HPV L1 gene was detected using the MY09/MY11 and GP5/GP6+ oligonucleotides. PCR products were analyzed with electrophoresis in agarose gel. CFU-extracted purified DNA was analyzed by electrophoresis in agarose gel, as well as some DNAs, using the SSP technique. Results: CFU-extracted DNA concentration was higher in comparison with that of UCB (p = 0.0041) and that of the segment (p < 0.0001), as well as that of UCB in comparison with that of the segment (p < 0.0001). All samples were positive for GAPDH amplification and negative for MY09/MY11 and GP5/GP6+. Conclusions: Cryopreserved UCBUs were HPV-negative. Obtaining CFU DNA from clonogenic cultures with high concentrations and purity is feasible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Papillomaviridae/isolation & purification , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/virology , Genome, Viral , Fetal Blood/virology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Histocompatibility Testing , HeLa Cells , Cryopreservation , Cell Line , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating) , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Fetal Blood/cytology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878357

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one dried blood spot (DBS) as an alternative sample to plasma.@*Method@#A total of 571 paired DBS/plasma samples were collected from men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users (IDUs), and serological and molecular assays were performed. Using plasma results as the reference standard, the performance of DBS tests for HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA was evaluated. Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis were performed to assess the correlation and concordance between DBS and plasma.@*Results@#Among paired plasma/DBS samples with detectable HIV-1 RNA and HCV RNA, five samples (5/32) were not detectable in DBS, while measurable HIV-1 RNA levels were present in plasma (1.44 to 3.99 log @*Conclusion@#The performance of the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA using one DBS was acceptable. DBS, as an alternative sample to plasma, may be a viable option for the simultaneous detection of HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA, and HCV RNA in resource-limited settings or for individuals living in areas that are difficult to access.


Subject(s)
DNA, Viral/analysis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Syphilis/diagnosis , Treponema pallidum/isolation & purification
20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1160-1167, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878100

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) is a promising disease-monitoring marker for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated correlations between HBcrAg with antiviral efficacy and virological and histological variables.@*METHODS@#One hundred and forty-five CHB patients from the mainland of China between August 2013 and September 2016 who underwent liver biopsy received entecavir therapy and had paired liver biopsy at 78 weeks. We analyzed correlations between HBcrAg and virological and histological variables in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. We also explored the predictors of HBeAg loss after 78 weeks of antiviral therapy. Pearson correlation analysis and logistic forward stepwise regression were the main statistic methods.@*RESULTS@#HBeAg-positive patients (n = 93) had higher baseline HBcrAg (median 7.4 vs. 5.3 log10 U/mL P < 0.001) and greater HBcrAg declines (median 1.6 vs. 0.9 log10 U/mL P = 0.007) than HBeAg-negative patients after 78 weeks of therapy. At baseline, HBcrAg correlated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in both HBeAg-positive (r = 0.641, P < 0.001) and -negative patients (r = 0.616, P < 0.001), with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.495, P < 0.001), but not with anti-hepatitis B virus core antibody (anti-HBc). Weak correlations existed between HBcrAg, histology activity index (HAI; r = 0.232, P = 0.025), and Ishak fibrosis score (r = -0.292, P = 0.005) in HBeAg-positive patients. At 78 weeks, significant correlations existed only between HBcrAg and anti-HBc in HBeAg-positive (r = -0.263, P = 0.014) and HBeAg-negative patients (r = -0.291, P = 0.045). Decreased HBcrAg significantly correlated with reduced HBV DNA (r = 0.366, P = 0.001; r = 0.626, P < 0.001) and HBsAg (r = 0.526, P = 0.001; r = 0.289, P = 0.044) in HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, and with reduced HAI in HBeAg-positive patients (r = 0.329, P = 0.001). Patients with HBeAg loss (n = 29) showed a larger reduction in HBcrAg than those without (median 2.3 vs. 1.3 log10 U/mL, P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, decreased HBcrAg was an independent predictor of HBeAg loss (P = 0.005).@*CONCLUSIONS@#HBcrAg reflects viral replication and protein production. Decreased HBcrAg could predict HBeAg loss after antiviral therapy.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01962155; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01962155?term=NCT01962155&draw=2&rank=1.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , China , DNA, Viral , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Virus Replication
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