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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 240-246, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981856

ABSTRACT

Tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR is a common abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis, which brings difficulties and uncertainties to the evaluation of the evidence weight in actual cases. This paper reviews the types, formation mechanism, occurrence frequency, genetic pattern and quantitative evaluation of evidence of the tri-allelic pattern in autosomal STR in forensic DNA analysis. This paper mainly explains the formation mechanism and genetic patterns based on different types of tri-allelic pattern. This paper also discusses the determination of tri-allelic pattern and the quantitative method of evidence evaluation in paternity testing and individual identification. This paper aims to provide references for scientific and standardized analysis of this abnormal typing phenomenon in forensic DNA analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , DNA/genetics , Forensic Medicine , Gene Frequency , Microsatellite Repeats
2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 359-387, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982590

ABSTRACT

Base editor (BE) is a gene-editing tool developed by combining the CRISPR/Cas system with an individual deaminase, enabling precise single-base substitution in DNA or RNA without generating a DNA double-strand break (DSB) or requiring donor DNA templates in living cells. Base editors offer more precise and secure genome-editing effects than other conventional artificial nuclease systems, such as CRISPR/Cas9, as the DSB induced by Cas9 will cause severe damage to the genome. Thus, base editors have important applications in the field of biomedicine, including gene function investigation, directed protein evolution, genetic lineage tracing, disease modeling, and gene therapy. Since the development of the two main base editors, cytosine base editors (CBEs) and adenine base editors (ABEs), scientists have developed more than 100 optimized base editors with improved editing efficiency, precision, specificity, targeting scope, and capacity to be delivered in vivo, greatly enhancing their application potential in biomedicine. Here, we review the recent development of base editors, summarize their applications in the biomedical field, and discuss future perspectives and challenges for therapeutic applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gene Editing , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genetic Therapy , DNA/genetics
3.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 45-49, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To compare the effects of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method in forensic DNA identification and to explore these two methods in forensic DNA identification.@*METHODS@#The genome DNA of THP-1 cells in different quantities was extracted by the cell lysis method and magnetic beads method, and the DNA content was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The cell lysis method and magnetic beads method were used to type the STR of human blood with different dilution ratios.@*RESULTS@#When the numbers of THP-1 cell were 100, 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by cell lysis method were (1.219±0.334), (5.081±0.335), (9.332±0.318) ng, respectively; and the DNA content extracted by magnetic beads method were (1.020±0.281), (3.634±0.482), (7.896±0.759) ng, respectively. When the numbers of THP-1 cells were 400 and 800, the DNA content extracted by the cell lysis method was higher than that by the magnetic beads method. The sensitivity of cell lysis method and magnetic beads method was similar in STR typing of human blood at different dilution ratios. Complete STR typing could be obtained at 100, 300 and 500-fold dilutions of blood samples, but could not be detected at 700-fold dilution. STR typing of undiluted human blood could not be detected by cell lysis method.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The cell lysis method is easy to operate and can retain template DNA to the maximum extend. It is expected to be suitable for trace blood evidence tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Forensic Medicine , DNA/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Magnetic Phenomena , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , Microsatellite Repeats
4.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(3): 218-225, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415205

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have been used for diagnostic purposes since their introduction in the neonatal screening of phenylketonuria almost 50 years ago. The range of its application has been extended to modern approaches, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) for molecular genetic testing. This study aimed to evaluate the use of a standardized organic method for DNA extraction from DBS samples in the diagnostic setting.Methods: The clinical applicability of the method was tested using 3 samples collected from a newborn screening project for lysosomal storage diseases, allowing the determination of the genotype of the individuals. DNA was extracted from 3 3-mm diameter DBS punches. Quality, purity, and concentration were determined, and method performance was assessed by standard polymerase chain reaction, restriction length polymorphism, Sanger sequencing, and targeted NGS.Results: Results were compared with the ones obtained from DNA samples extracted following the internally validated in-house extraction protocol that used 6 3-mm punches of DBS and samples extracted from whole blood.Conclusion: This organic method proved to be effective in obtaining high-quality DNA from DBS, being compatible with several downstream molecular applications, in addition to having a lower cost per sample


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , Neonatal Screening , Sequence Analysis, DNA/statistics & numerical data , DNA/genetics , Dried Blood Spot Testing/statistics & numerical data
5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 747-753, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984167

ABSTRACT

In criminal investigations, postmortem interval (PMI) is important information to be inferred in homicide investigations, as well as the focus and the difficulty in forensic pathology research. Because the DNA content in different tissues is relatively constant and shows changes regularly with the extension of PMI, it has become a research hotspot of PMI estimation. This paper reviews the recent progress of PMI estimation technologies including DNA-based single cell gel electrophoresis, image analysis, flow cytometry, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing, hoping to provide references for forensic medicine practice and scientific research.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postmortem Changes , Autopsy/methods , DNA/genetics , Forensic Medicine , Forensic Pathology
6.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 611-617, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984155

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The previously established 38-plex InDel system was optimized and its performance was validated according to the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Method (SWGDAM) application guidelines. The ancestry inference accuracy of individuals from East Asian, European, African and mixed populations was verified.@*METHODS@#DNA standard sample 9947A was used as the template to establish the optimal amplification conditions by adjusting primer balance, Mg2+ final concentration and optimizing PCR thermal cycle parameters and amplification volume. The allelic dropout, nonspecific amplification and whether the origin of the inferred samples matched the known information were compared to evaluate the performance of this system.@*RESULTS@#The optimal dosage of this system was 0.125-2 ng DNA template. The results of InDel typing were accurate, the amplification equilibrium was good, and the species specificity was good. This system showed certain tolerance to DNA samples including the inhibitor such as hemoglobin (≤80 μmol/L), indigo (≤40 mmol/L), calcium ion (≤1.0 mmol/L), and humic acid (≤90 ng/μL). The system enabled the direct amplification of DNA from saliva and blood on filter paper, and the results of ethnic inference were accurate. The system successfully detected the mixed DNA sample from two individuals. The test results of the system for common biological materials in practical cases were accurate.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results of the 38-plex InDel system are accurate and reliable, and the performance of the system meets the requirement of the SWGDAM guidelines. This system can accurately differentiate the ancestry origins of individuals from African, European, East Asian, and Eurasian populations and can be implemented in forensic practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting/methods , INDEL Mutation , Genetics, Population , Gene Frequency
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 316-335, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929165

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in genome editing, especially CRISPR-Cas nucleases, have revolutionized both laboratory research and clinical therapeutics. CRISPR-Cas nucleases, together with the DNA damage repair pathway in cells, enable both genetic diversification by classical non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ) and precise genome modification by homology-based repair (HBR). Genome editing in zygotes is a convenient way to edit the germline, paving the way for animal disease model generation, as well as human embryo genome editing therapy for some life-threatening and incurable diseases. HBR efficiency is highly dependent on the DNA donor that is utilized as a repair template. Here, we review recent progress in improving CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos by designing a suitable DNA donor. Moreover, we want to provide a guide for producing animal disease models and correcting genetic mutations through CRISPR-Cas nuclease-induced HBR in mammalian embryos. Finally, we discuss recent developments in precise genome-modification technology based on the CRISPR-Cas system.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Endonucleases/metabolism , Gene Editing , Mammals/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 264-268, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the application value of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) based on cell-free fetal DNA.@*METHODS@#The results of 2777 cases of basic and extended NIPT were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical data and outcome of pregnancy were analyzed, in addition with the diagnosis rate and testing efficiency.@*RESULTS@#Among the 2777 pregnant women, 1192 (42.9%) had accepted basic NIPT and 1585 (57.1%) accepted extended NIPT. With a failure rate of 0.1%, 8 and 6 cases were reported respectively as high-risk pregnancies for trisomy 21 and sex chromosomal abnormalities. Other genetic abnormalities were detected in 32 cases. The positive predictive value for trisomy 21 was 85.7%, and one case of 47,XXX was diagnosed among 3 women with high risks for sex chromosomal abnormalities. For those with a high risk for other genetic abnormalities, pregnant diagnosis rates of basic and extended NIPT were 71.4% (5/7) and 68.2% (15/22), respectively. Seven copy number variations (CNVs) were confirmed, including one pathogenic CNV, one likely pathogenic CNV and 5 variants of unknown significance. Among 6 cases with high-risk of maternal CNVs, 5 fetuses and the mothers were confirmed to be carriers. No CNV was detected in the remainder fetus by chromosomal microarray analysis, while its mother was a carrier of the corresponding CNV.@*CONCLUSION@#NIPT has shown a relatively high positive predictive value for the screening of trisomy 21 and maternal CNVs but with a limited efficiency for the discovery of fetal CNVs. For other genetic abnormalities signaled by NIPT, informed choice by the pregnant women during pre-testing consultation is recommended. Invasive prenatal diagnosis should be considered in the combination of NIPT reports and fetal ultrasound, while the residual risks should be fully informed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , DNA/genetics , DNA Copy Number Variations , Fetus , Noninvasive Prenatal Testing , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 135-138, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the value of re-sampling for patients who had failed non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) due to low cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) fraction.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 20 387 patients undergoing NIPT test was reviewed. The patients were re-sampled when initial blood test did not yield a result due to cffDNA fraction. The results were analyzed, and the outcome of pregnancy was followed up.@*RESULTS@#Among all samples, 17 (0.08%) had failed to yield a result due to low cffDNA fraction, all of which accepted re-sampling. A result was attained in 16 cases, with a success rate of 94.12%. Only one sample had failed the re-test.@*CONCLUSION@#For patients who had failed the initial NIPT due to low cffDNA fraction, re-sampling should be considered with gestational week and ultrasound results taken into consideration.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aneuploidy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , DNA/genetics , Fetus , Prenatal Diagnosis
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 674-683, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153384

ABSTRACT

Abstract The principle and the techniques applied in DNA extraction play a pivotal role in the obtention of a purified genetic material. The present study investigates the efficiency of eight protocols in the DNA extraction of Hypostomus commersoni, an essential component of South American freshwater ichthyofauna. The quality of samples was assessed through spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis, and PCR-RAPD markers amplification. The efficiency of DNA extraction was influenced both by the method applied and the target-tissue of choice. Higher concentrations and yield of DNA were obtained from ocular tissue, with a positive spectrum of incubation in lysis buffer for up to 36 hours after sample collection, using fresh tissues and in the presence of a high concentration of Proteinase K (20 mg.ml-1). In these conditions, samples were successfully amplified. To date, there is no record of description for the parameters analyzed in this work, neither the description of RAPD markers for the species H. commersoni.


Resumo Os princípios e as técnicas aplicadas na extração de DNA desempenham um papel crucial na obtenção de material genético purificado. O presente estudo investiga a eficiência de oito protocolos na extração de DNA de Hypostomus commersoni, um importante componente ictiofaunístico de riachos da América do Sul. A qualidade das amostras foi avaliada por espectrofotometria, eletroforese em gel e amplificação por marcadores de PCR-RAPD. A eficiência da extração de DNA foi influenciada tanto pelo método aplicado quanto pelo tecido-alvo de escolha. Maiores concentrações e rendimento de DNA foram obtidos a partir do tecido ocular, com um espectro positivo de incubação em tampão de lise por até 36 horas após a coleta da amostra, utilizando tecidos frescos e na presença de alta concentração de proteinase K (20 mg.ml-1). Nestas condições, as amostras foram amplificadas com sucesso. Até o momento, não há registro de descrição para os parâmetros analisados neste trabalho, nem a descrição de marcadores RAPD para a espécie H. commersoni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/genetics , DNA/genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Genomics
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3162-3178, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921414

ABSTRACT

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) not only serves as the material basis of biological inheritance, but also shows great potential in the development of novel biological materials due to its programmability, functional diversity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. DNA hydrogel is a three-dimensional mesh polymer material mainly formed by DNA. It has become one of the most interesting emerging functional polymer materials in recent years because of the perfect combination of the DNA biological properties that it retained and the mechanical properties of its own skeleton. At present, single- or multi-component DNA hydrogels developed based on various functional nucleic acid sequences or by combining different functional materials have been widely used in the field of biomedicine, molecular detection, and environmental protection. In this paper, the development of preparation methods and classification strategies of DNA hydrogels are summarized, and the applications of DNA hydrogels in drug delivery, biosensing and cell culture are also reviewed. Finally, the future development direction and potential challenges of DNA hydrogels are prospected.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , Drug Delivery Systems , Hydrogels , Polymers
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3071-3087, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921407

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the genome editing technologies based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) have developed rapidly. The system can use homologous directed recombination (HDR) to achieve precise editing that it medicated, but the efficiency is extremely low, which limits its application in agriculture and biomedical fields. As an emerging genome editing technology, the CRISPR/Cas-mediated DNA base editing technologies can achieve targeted mutations of bases without generating double-strand breaks, and has higher editing efficiency and specificity compared with CRISPR/Cas-mediated HDR editing. At present, cytidine base editors (CBEs) that can mutate C to T, adenine base editors (ABEs) that can mutate A to G, and prime editors (PEs) that enable arbitrary base conversion and precise insertion and deletion of small fragments, have been developed. In addition, glycosylase base editors (GBEs) capable of transitioning from C to G and double base editors capable of editing both A and C simultaneously, have been developed. This review summarizes the development, advances, advantages and limitations of several DNA base editors. The successful applications of DNA base editing technology in biomedicine and agriculture, together with the prospects for further optimization and selection of DNA base editors, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , DNA/genetics , Gene Editing , Technology
13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 555-560, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985248

ABSTRACT

Cartridge cases are crucial physical evidence in gun-related crimes. The successful identification of the touch DNA on cartridge cases can help to screen the suspects and reconstruct the gun-related crime scene. With the improvement of DNA extraction methods and the sensitivity of amplification kit, forensic examiners are expected to obtain more valuable information by testing the touch DNA on cartridge cases. In practical cases, the touch DNA detection on cartridge cases often encounters with low DNA content degradation, mixing and the gunshot residual interference, which brings more challenges to DNA examination and identification. This article reviews forensic research of touch DNA on the cartridge cases from the aspects of factors affecting touch DNA on cartridge cases, advances in the extraction and amplification methods, and the practical applications in order to provide reference for forensic identification of touch DNA on the cartridge cases in real cases.


Subject(s)
Crime , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting , Forensic Genetics , Touch
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 220-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985212

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the application value of automatic nucleic acid extractor combined with vacuum concentrator in forensic DNA extraction. Methods Gradient samples of human peripheral venous blood were collected at 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240, 280 and 320 fold dilution. The samples of each gradient were treated with no inhibitor, black oil, rust, fruit acid, tin foil and indigo, respectively. The automatic nucleic acid extractor was used for DNA purification and extraction of the above samples. The extracted DNA eluent (6 μL) was taken for amplification directly, and the rest was concentrated by vacuum concentrator. DNA was amplified and examined using the Investigator 26plex QS kit before and after concentration. Results Only gradient samples treated with fruit acid obtained complete STR typing results at 40 fold dilution. The other 5 methods obtained complete STR typing results at 40-160 fold dilution. The results of STR typing after DNA concentration showed that the average peak height and detection rates of gene loci both increased to a certain extent, but the effect was not obvious. Conclusion The automatic nucleic acid extractor has an efficient inhibitor removal ability and high extracting efficiency of DNA. The vacuum concentrator can concentrate DNA samples to a certain extent. Combining the automatic nucleic acid extractor with the vacuum concentrator can improve the examination success rate of forensic materials.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA/genetics , DNA Fingerprinting , Microsatellite Repeats , Nucleic Acids , Vacuum
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1120-1130, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878618

ABSTRACT

As the demand for high-performance computing continues to grow, traditional computing models are facing unprecedented challenges. Among the many emerging computing technologies, DNA computing has attracted much attention due to its low energy consumption and parallelism. The DNA circuit, which is the basis for DNA computing, is an important technology for the regulation and processing of the molecular information. This review highlights the basic principles of DNA computing, summarizes the latest research progress, and concludes with a discussion of the challenges of DNA computing. Such integrated molecular computing systems are expected to be widely used in the fields of aerospace, information security and defense system.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(5): e10743, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1180738

ABSTRACT

Amphiphilic copolymers have a wide variety of medical and biotechnological applications, including DNA transfection in eukaryotic cells. Still, no polymer-primed transfection of prokaryotic cells has been described. The reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymer synthesis technique and the reversible deactivation radical polymerization variants allow the design of polymers with well-controlled molar mass, morphology, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity ratios. RAFT was used to synthesize two amphiphilic copolymers containing different ratios of the amphiphilic poly[2-(dimethyl-amino) ethyl methacrylate] and the hydrophobic poly [methyl methacrylate]. These copolymers bound to pUC-19 DNA and successfully transfected non-competent Escherichia coli DH5α, with transformation efficiency in the range of 103 colony-forming units per µg of plasmid DNA. These results demonstrate prokaryote transformation using polymers with controlled amphiphilic/hydrophobic ratios.


Subject(s)
Polymers , DNA/genetics , Bacteria , Transfection , Cations
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200189, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, ColecionaSUS, LILACS | ID: biblio-1143863

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of triatomine bloodmeal sources is essential for understanding vector-host interactions in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycles. Expensive commercial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction kits are widely used for bloodmeal identification. This study assessed the performance of an inexpensive phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocol for identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources, comparing it with a commercially available kit. METHODS: Both methods were used to obtain DNA from the intestinal contents of Triatoma brasiliensis blood-fed on either Columba sp., Mus musculus, or Gallus gallus. Subsequently, the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared with GenBank data. RESULTS: Twelve (80%) samples extracted with the commercial kit and four (26.7%) with phenol-chloroform were pure (according to the A260/A280 ratio). Samples extracted with phenol-chloroform, except for Columba sp. samples, had higher DNA concentration than those extracted with the commercial kit. Samples extracted using phenol-chloroform and blood-fed on G. gallus had significantly higher DNA concentration than those blood-fed on Columba sp. (p-value <0.001) and M. musculus (p-value <0.001). The 215-base-pair 12S rRNA fragment was amplified from all samples and produced reliable sequences, enabling the identification of the bloodmeal source, most of which showed identity and coverage above 95%. The phenol-chloroform method was much less expensive than the commercial kit but took considerably more time to perform. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that both DNA extraction methods produced reliable sequences enabling identification of triatomine bloodmeal sources but differed greatly in cost and time required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Triatoma/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , DNA/genetics , Chloroform , Phenol , Mice
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 559-564, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985153

ABSTRACT

Traditional species identification has gone through five stages -- morphology, cytology, biochemistry, immunology and molecular biology. At present, the use of DNA technology for species identification has become a research hotspot. In the use of DNA for species identification, the presentation and application of DNA barcode is of epoch-making significance. With the successful application of new technology in species identification, forensic species identification has also made corresponding development, and is expected to play an important role in forensic related fields. This paper briefly describes the general situation and principles of DNA barcode technology as well as its advantages and limitations when applied to biological classification, and discusses the future significance and feasibility of DNA barcode technology in forensic applications, in order to provide new ideas for future forensic identification.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Forensic Medicine
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2877-2891, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878537

ABSTRACT

Studies on the interaction between small organic molecules and DNA are important means to explore drug mechanism and new drugs. Quercetin is a polyhydroxy flavone compound with activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, hypoglycemic and anti-hypertensive, immunomodulation and cardiovascular protection. Experimental studies aim at confirming if an interaction exists between quercetin and DNA, and determining the type of interaction. The interaction between quercetin and herring DNA can be detected by fluorescence spectrometry and resonance scattering fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The mode of the interaction between quercetin and herring DNA can be detected by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and fluorescence polarization analysis. This review helps understand the in vitro interaction between quercetin and DNA, and assist the development of drugs for corresponding diseases.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , Quercetin , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
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