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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1845-1860, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131546

ABSTRACT

Diferentes tipos de queijos artesanais são produzidos, comercializados e consumidos no Brasil, o que impulsiona o constante desenvolvimento de normas por órgãos oficiais, como o Mapa. A criação do Suasa e do Sisbi-POA foi fundamental para esse setor, por permitir um sistema de equivalência na fiscalização e por ampliar a distribuição. Ainda, o Mapa passou a permitir que queijos artesanais produzidos com leite cru pudessem ser maturados em um período inferior a 60 dias, desde que comprovada sua inocuidade. A redução do tempo de maturação é um tema controverso e polêmico, já que não há critérios específicos que estudos científicos devem contemplar, o que permite múltiplas interpretações de dados. Com a criação e a regulamentação do selo Arte, a fiscalização dos produtos artesanais foi designada aos órgãos de agricultura, pecuária e de saúde pública, em complementação à atribuição já prevista pelo Mapa e pelo Sisbi-POA. Ainda, o selo Arte atribui aos órgãos de inspeção uma função orientadora, atividade que deveria ser prioritariamente executada por agências de extensão e associações. As normas que balizam a produção e comercialização de produtos artesanais devem ser frequentemente atualizadas, devido aos constantes avanços científicos na área e para assegurar a oferta de produtos com qualidade e inócuos aos consumidores.(AU)


Different artisanal cheeses are produced, commercialized and consumed in Brazil, leading to a constant development of related rules by the MAPA and other official agencies. The establishment of two national programs (SUASA and SISBI-POA) allowed an equivalence in inspection system and an expanded distribution. Also, MAPA allowed ripening time lower than 60 days for artisanal raw milk cheeses, based on scientific studies that assure their safety. However, lowering the ripening period is still controversial, once there are no proper established criteria for such scientific studies, leading to potential multiple interpretation of data. The newly established ARTE certification transferred the inspection responsibilities of artisanal products to secretaries of agriculture, livestock and health, in support of what was already predicated by MAPA and SISBI-POA. Based on ARTE certification, the inspection service must also provide orientation guidance to producers, which should be done specifically by extension organs and associations. The norms that guide the production and commercialization of these artisanal products often need to be updated, but based on well-established methodologies and procedures, to ensure the distribution of suitable products to consumers.(AU)


Subject(s)
Cheese/standards , Dairy Products/standards , Identity and Quality Standard for Products and Services , Foods of Animal Origin , Legislation, Food/history , Brazil
2.
Rev. baiana saúde pública ; 44(2): 177-188, 20200813.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1366120

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes é um patógeno de origem alimentar que frequentemente causa infecções, podendo até ser fatal. Trata-se de um microrganismo ubiquitário, transmitido ao ser humano principalmente por meio dos alimentos, como os produtos prontos para o consumo. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os índices de positividade para L. monocytogenes em queijos e produtos cárneos à base de frango, analisados em um laboratório de microbiologia de alimentos do Rio Grande do Sul. A triagem inicial das amostras seguiu o protocolo AOAC, método n° 2004.02, 2004. A confirmação dos resultados positivos foi realizada conforme Instrução Normativa nº 62/2003 (Mapa) e ISO 11290-1:1996, Amd.1:2004. Foram analisadas 666 amostras de queijos de baixa umidade, 3.897 de média umidade e 826 de alta umidade. Dos produtos à base de frango foram analisadas 547 amostras de salsicha, 172 de mortadela e 24 de linguiça. O estudo verificou que os queijos de baixa umidade estão significativamente associados ao resultado positivo (p=0,002) para L. monocytogenes e os queijos de alta umidade associaram-se ao resultado negativo (p=0,002). Com relação aos produtos à base de frango, a salsicha esteve significativamente associada ao resultado negativo para L. monocytogenes (p≤0,01), e a mortadela significativamente associada ao resultado positivo (p≤0,01). Visto que de modo geral esses produtos são consumidos diretamente, sem o emprego de calor, sugere-se reforçar tanto o controle sobre as boas práticas de fabricação quanto o monitoramento dos produtos.


Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that often causes infections and may even be fatal. It is an ubiquitous microorganism, transmitted to humans mainly through food such as ready-to-eat products. This study sought to verify the positivity indexes for L. monocytogenes in cheese and chicken meat products, analyzed in a food microbiology laboratory in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The initial sample screening followed the AOAC protocol, Method No. 2004.02, 2004. Confirmation of positive results was performed according to Normative Instruction 62/2003 (MAPA) and ISO 11290-1: 1996, Amd.1: 2004. A total of 666 low moisture, 3897 medium moisture and 826 high moisture cheese samples were analyzed. Of the chicken meat products, 547 wiener, 172 mortadella and 24 sausage samples were analyzed. Results showed that low moisture cheeses were significantly associated with a positive result (p=0.002) for L. monocytogenes, while high moisture cheeses were associated with a negative result (p= 0.002). As for chicken meat products, the wiener was significantly associated with the negative result for L. monocytogenes (p≤0.01) and the mortadella significantly associated with the positive result (p≤0.01). Since most of these products are consumed directly, without the use of heat, it is suggested to reinforce both the control over Good Manufacturing Practices and the monitoring of the products.


Listeria monocytogenes es un patógeno de origen alimentario causante muchas veces de infecciones, incluso fatales. Es un microorganismo ubiquitario, que se transmite al hombre principalmente a través de los alimentos, generalmente por productos listos para el consumo. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los índices de positividad para L. monocytogenes en quesos y productos cárnicos a base de pollo, analizados en un laboratorio de microbiología de alimentos de Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil). El tamizaje inicial de las muestras siguió el protocolo AOAC, método 2004.02, 2004. La confirmación de los resultados positivos fue realizada conforme a la Instrucción Normativa 62/2003 (Mapa) e ISO 11290-1:1996, Amd.1:2004. Se analizaron 666 muestras de quesos de baja humedad, 3.897 de media humedad y 826 de alta humedad. De los productos a base de pollo se analizaron 547 muestras de salchichas, 172 de mortadela y 24 de chorizos. Este estudio verificó que los quesos de baja humedad fueron significativamente asociados al resultado positivo (p=0,002) para L. monocytogenes, y los quesos de alta humedad al resultado negativo (p=0,002). En cuanto a los productos a base de pollo, las salchichas estuvieron significativamente asociadas al resultado negativo para L. monocytogenes (p≤0,01), y la mortadela fue significativamente asociada al resultado positivo (p≤0,01). Dado que la mayoría de estos productos son consumidos directamente, sin cocción, se sugiere un mayor control de las buenas prácticas de fabricación y de monitoreo de los mismos.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Monitoring , Dairy Products , Good Manufacturing Practices , Food Microbiology , Listeria monocytogenes
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(2): 95-100, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1129933

ABSTRACT

De acuerdo a investigaciones recientes, el consumo de lácteos, además de presentar un alto valor nutritivo, se asocia a un menor peso corporal, atribuyéndole importantes beneficios para la salud. El objetivo del estudio es asociar el consumo de lácteos con la composición corporal, en hombres físicamente activos. Estudio transversal analítico, se evaluaron a 375 hombres, se aplicó encuesta de hábitos alimentarios y antropometría. De los voluntarios evaluados, la edad promedio fue de 23,8 ± 6,9 todos con escolaridad secundaria completa. Con respecto al consumo de lácteos el 35,5 % consumía al menos de 1 vez al día, 28 % 1 porción al día, 9,3% 2 porciones al día y 2,9 % 3 porciones/día. Los que consumen ≥2 porción de lácteos al día presentaban menor IMC, peso y grasa corporal, que aquellos que consumen < de 2 porciones de lácteos. Se presentan correlaciones negativas entre una mayor frecuencia de consumo de lácteos con grasa corporal, % grasa corporal y relación cintura cadera. Al asociar el consumo de ≥ 2 porciones se observó una asociación negativa con % grasa corporal. Finalmente, los sujetos que consumen ≥2 porciones/día de lácteos presentan significativamente menor IMC, peso y % grasa corporal, al realizar las asociaciones con el consumo de ≥ 2 porciones de lácteos solo se mantiene el % de grasa corporal(AU)


According to recent research, the consumption of dairy, in addition to presenting a high nutritional value, is associated with lower body weight, attributing important health benefits. The objety of the study is to associate dairy consumption with body composition in physically active men. Analytical cross-sectional study, 375 men were evaluated, in which a survey of eating habits and anthropometry was applied. Of the volunteers evaluated, the mean age was 23.8 ± 6.9 years and all had completed secondary education. Regarding dairy consumption, 35.5 % consumed at least 1 time a day, 28 % 1 portion a day, 9.3 % 2 portions a day and 2.9 % 3 portions / day. Those who consumed ≥2 servings of dairy products per day had lower BMI, weight and body fat than those who consumed <2 servings of dairy. There are negative correlations between a higher frequency of dairy consumption with body fat (k), body fat % and waist-to-hip ratio. When associating the consumption of ≥ 2 servings, a negative association with body fat% was observed. Finally, the subjects who consume ≥2 servings / day of dairy products have significantly lower BMI, weight and body fat%, when making the associations with the consumption of ≥ 2 servings of dairy only the % body fat is maintained(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Body Composition , Body Mass Index , Dairy Products , Feeding Behavior , Cheese , Anthropometry , Milk
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 478-483, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126147

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el posible efecto protector de la lactancia materna respecto a la obesidad infantil versus fórmulas lácteas. Se consultaron las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y Scielo, considerándose los artículos más actualizados sobre el tema. La evidencia analizada señala que los menores alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva reportan bajos niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad, a diferencia de los alimentados con fórmulas lácteas infantiles. Se concluye que la lactancia materna exclusiva, hasta el sexto mes de vida del lactante, y complementada con alimentación solida (no láctea) hasta los dos o más años, es recomendada y podría proteger contra la obesidad infantil y sus comorbilidades asociadas en la vida adulta.


The aim was to review the evidence supporting the possible health benefits for obesity of breastfeeding versus formula feeding in infants. The search for studies addressing this topic was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scielo databases. "Breastfeeding", "formula feeding" and "obesity" were the keywords used in the search. Only studies with a full version of the manuscript were included. The evidence analyzed indicated that children fed exclusively through breastfeeding reported low levels of overweight and obesity in comparison to those fed by infant milk formulas. To conclude, exclusive breastfeeding until the sixth month of life, and supplementation with solid (non-dairy) food until two years and more, is the gold standard and could protect against childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Dairy Products , Infant Formula , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
5.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(2): 151-164, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130590

ABSTRACT

Para la búsqueda de especies de Arcobacter fueron estudiadas 50 muestras de leche bovina obtenidas de los centros de acopio de la empresa láctea Ecolac, de las provincias de Loja y Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, y se aisló un total de ocho cepas de Arcobacter butzleri (16%). Esta frecuencia de aislamiento concuerda y está dentro de los rangos descriptos en la literatura. Todas las cepas aisladas fueron sensibles a gentamicina. Se encontró alta frecuencia de resistencia a tetraciclina (6/8 cepas) y a ciprofloxacina (4/8 cepas). Se verificó la ocurrencia de multirresistencia en tres de las ocho cepas aisladas.


A total of 50 samples of bovine milk obtained from bulk tanks milk of the collection centers belonging to the company ECOLAC, of the provinces of Loja and Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, were studied for Arcobacter species diagnosis, being isolated 8 strains of Arcobacter butzleri (16%). This frequency of isolation agrees and falls within the ranges described in the literature. All the isolated strains were susceptible to gentamicin. High resistance levels to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were found with 6/8 and 4/8 resistant strains respectively. Multi-resistance was found in three of the eight isolated strains.


Foram estudadas, para a pesquisa de espécies de Arcobacter, 50 amostras de leite bovino, obtidas dos centros de coleta da empresa de laticínios ECOLAC, das províncias de Loja e Zamora Chinchipe, Equador, sendo isoladas em total 8 cepas de Arcobacter butzleri (16%). Esta frequência de isolamento concorda e está dentro dos níveis descritos na literatura. Todas as cepas isoladas foram sensíveis à gentamicina. Foi encontrada alta frequência de resistência à tetraciclina (6/8 cepas) e à ciprofloxacina (4/8 cepas), sendo verificada a ocorrência de multirresistência em três das oito cepas isoladas.


Subject(s)
Cattle , Arcobacter , Arcobacter/isolation & purification , Arcobacter/growth & development , Arcobacter/pathogenicity , Research , Zoonoses , Zoonoses/transmission , Dairy Products , Milk , Milk/parasitology , Diagnosis
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 272-280, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115498

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the antioxidant characteristics and sensory acceptance of Greek yogurt with added whole sorghum flours (WSF) from genotypes BRS305 (tannin) and BR501 (tannin-free). Five formulations were elaborated: 1) Control (without WSF); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 and 5) 4% BRS305 and evaluated for antioxidant capacity, total anthocyanins, total phenols, condensed tannins, sensory acceptance and purchase intention. The 4% BRS305 formulation presented higher antioxidant properties, but lower sensory acceptance. No significant difference was observed for: color, flavor and overall acceptability between the control and 2% BR501; nor for texture and overall acceptability between the control and 4% BR501. Principal component analysis explained that all variables associated with antioxidant properties were positively correlated with the first major component (PC1: 82.7%). The 2% and 4% BR501 formulations were more highly correlated with PC1 (92.7%), as well as the control in relation to sensorial characteristics. The addition of WSF BRS305 improved the antioxidant properties of yogurts and the addition of WSF BR501 did not interfere with the sensory acceptance of the formulations. The similarity of the sensory acceptance of the yogurt containing WSF from the BR 501 genotype to the control, opens perspectives for the insertion of sorghum in human food, using dairy products as suitable matrices, adding potential functionality to this type of product.


RESUMEN El trabajo tuvo como propósito desarrollar y evaluar las características antioxidantes y la aceptación sensorial de yogurt griego con adición de harinas integrales de sorgo (HIS) de los genotipos BRS305 (con taninos) y BR501 (sin taninos). Cinco formulaciones fueron elaboradas: 1) Control (sin HIS); 2) 2% BR501; 3) 4% BR501; 4) 2% BRS305 y 5) 4% BRS305. Las formulaciones fueron evaluadas en función de su actividad antioxidante, antocianinas totales, fenólicos totales, taninos condensados, aceptación sensorial e intención de compra. La formulación 4% BRS305 presentó más propiedades antioxidantes, pero menor aceptación sensorial que las otras formulaciones. No se observó diferencia significativa entre el control y el 2% BR501 para el color, sabor e impresión global, ni tampoco para textura e impresión global en relación al 4% BR501. El análisis de componente principal ha explicado que todas las variables asociadas a las propiedades antioxidantes han sido positivamente correlacionadas con el primer componente principal (PC1: 82,7%). Las formulaciones 2% y 4% BR501 se han correlacionado más con el PC1 (92,7%), así como el control con las características sensoriales. La adición de HIS BRS305 ha mejorado las propiedades antioxidantes de los yogurts y la adición de HIS BR501 no ha interferido en la aceptación sensorial de las formulaciones. La similitud de la aceptación sensorial del yogurt que contiene el HIS del genotipo BR501 con el control, abre perspectivas para la inserción del sorgo en la alimentación humana, utilizando productos lácteos como matrices adecuadas, agregando funcionalidad potencial a este tipo de producto.


Subject(s)
Tannins/genetics , Yogurt , Sorghum/chemistry , Flour , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Tannins/analysis , Taste , Dairy Products , Principal Component Analysis , Functional Food , Anthocyanins/analysis
7.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e45097, jan.- mar.2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096633

ABSTRACT

O óleo de peixe é fonte de ômega 3, que atua no combate, prevenção e/ou tratamento de doenças crônicas. O queijo coalho é bastante consumido no Nordeste brasileiro, e na forma de creme adicionado de óleo de peixe torna-se uma nova alternativa para o consumidor. Assim, objetivou-se desenvolver e avaliar formulações de creme de queijo coalho (CQQ) com orégano, com ou sem óleo de peixe. Inicialmente, foi realizada uma pesquisa com 70 consumidores de queijo, seguida da elaboração de três formulações de CQQ (F1: sem óleo de peixe; F2: com 0,54g óleo de peixe; F3: com 1,08g de óleo de peixe). Obtidos os CQQs, as formulações (F1, F2 e F3) foram avaliadas no que se refere a: fungos, coliformes totais e termotolerantes, estafilococus coagulase positiva e Salmonella sp; aceitação e preferência sensorial; composição centesimal, fenólicos totais, atividade antioxidante, pH, acidez total titulável e valor calórico. O sabor foi o fator mais importante na escolha de um produto, sendo o ômega 3 (54,28%) e o orégano (57,14%) escolhidos pela maioria dos entrevistados. Todas as formulações estavam seguras microbiologicamente e apresentaram a mesma aceitabilidade e preferência sensorial. A aceitabilidade variou entre 7,43 a 8,13. As formulações de CQQ são de acordo com a legislação, desnatadas (1,77 a 2,66% de lipídios), têm muito alta umidade (≥55%) e baixa acidez (3,12 a 3,28g ácido lácteo/100g), e apresentaram expressiva atividade antioxidante e potencial para comercialização (índice de aceitação ≥70%). Os CQQs são viáveis para incorporação de óleo de peixe, sendo um produto fonte de ômega 3 e que pode apresentar propriedade funcional. (AU)


Fish oil is a source of omega 3 that acts in the fight, prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases. Coalho cheese is largely consumed in the Northeastern Brazil, and in the form of cream added with fish oil it becomes a new alternative to consumers. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and assess coalho cheese cream (CCC) formulations added with oregano, with or without fish oil. Firstly, a survey was conducted with 70 cheese consumers, followed by the preparation of three CCC formulations (F1: without fish oil; F2: with 0.54g of fish oil; F3: with 1.08g of fish oil). The CCC formulations (F1, F2 and F3) were analyzed for fungi, total and thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Salmonella sp.; acceptability and sensory preference were also assessed, as well as the centesimal composition, total phenols, antioxidant activity, pH, total titratable acidity and calories. Taste was the most important factor in the choice of the product, being omega 3 (54.28%) and oregano (57.14%) chosen by the majority of the participants. All formulations were microbiologically safe and had the same acceptability and sensory preference. The acceptability index varied from 7.43 to 8.13. The CCC formulations are in conformity with legislation, are low fat (1.77 to 2.66% of lipids), have high moisture (>55%) and low acidity (3.12 to 3.28g of lactic acid/100g), and have an expressive antioxidant activity and marketing potential (acceptability was >70%). The CCCs are viable for incorporation of fish oil, being an omega-3 source product with functional property. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Cheese , Food Handling , Dairy Products , Origanum
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(2): 546-555, 01-03-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146419

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter spp. is an emerging pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and the consumption of dairy food can characterize sources of infection. We aimed to verify the viability and a presence of transcripts associated with characteristics of virulence and adaptation of C. jejuni isolated from Minas Frescal cheeses, produced with contaminated milk and stored under refrigeration for up to ten days. The samples were analyzed for bioindicators, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidity, moisture and sodium chloride. Campylobacter spp. recovered were evaluated for the production of transcripts of: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 and sodB. The results were correlated with the viability of C. jejuni and changes in their transcriptome. Storage at lowtemperatures reduced C. jejuni from the first to the fourth day. The variations in humidity, pH and acidity influenced the decreasing of C. jejuni. There was a reduction in transcripts' production of the four genes, more pronounced on the fourth day, indicating the inability of the microorganism to perform its metabolic activities, due to the conditions of injury. Despite the presence of mechanisms of virulence and adaptation, C. jejuni could not remain viable four days after production. However, consumption of fresh cheese contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni can be a source of infection when consumed up to four days after production.


Campylobacter spp. é um patógeno emergente que causa gastroenterite em seres humanos e o consumo de produtos lácteos pode caracterizar fontes de infecção. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a viabilidade e a presença de transcritos associadas a características de virulência e adaptação de C. jejuniisoladas de queijos frescos, produzidos com leite contaminado e mantidos refrigeradas por dez dias. Foram analisados bioindicadores, Campylobacter spp., pH, acidez, umidade e cloreto de sódio. Campylobacter spp. recuperados foram avaliados quanto à produção dos transcritos: ciaB, dnaJ, p19 e sodB. Os resultados foram correlacionados com a viabilidade de C. jejuni e alterações no transcriptoma. O armazenamento em baixas temperaturas reduziu C. jejuni do primeiro ao quarto dia. As variações na umidade, pH e acidez influenciaram a queda de C. jejuni. Houve uma redução na produção de transcritos dos quatro genes, mais pronunciada no quarto dia, indicando a incapacidade do micro-organismo em realizar suas atividades metabólicas, devido às condições de injúria. Apesar da presença de mecanismos de virulência e adaptação, C. jejuni não permaneceu viável quatro dias após a produção. Porém, o consumo de queijo fresco contaminado com Campylobacter jejunipode ser uma fonte de infecção quando consumido até quatro dias após a produção.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Cheese , Campylobacter jejuni , Virulence , Dairy Products , Gastroenteritis , Infections , Noxae
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(1): e00028019, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055615

ABSTRACT

Anormalidades lipídicas e inflamação sistêmica subclínica estão associadas ao processo de aterosclerose, sendo utilizadas como marcadores de risco cardiovascular. Estudos sugerem um possível efeito benéfico dos produtos lácteos na saúde cardiovascular, mas os resultados em marcadores lipídicos e inflamatórios ainda são controversos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a associação entre o consumo de produtos lácteos e seus diferentes subgrupos e proteína C-reativa (PCR), LDL-colesterol (LDL-C) e razão triglicerídeo/HDL-colesterol (TG/HDL-C) nos participantes do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9.372). O consumo de lácteos foi avaliado por meio de questionário de frequência alimentar validado e apresentado em porções/dia. O consumo total de lácteos foi descrito em quatro categorias (≤ 1 porção/dia a > 4 porções/dia). As associações foram estimadas por meio do odds ratios (OR), utilizando-se o grupo de menor consumo (≤ 1 porção/dia) como referência. Os menores valores de OR para TG/HDL-C no modelo multivariado (0,70; IC95%: 0,55-0,90 em homens; e 0,55; IC95%: 0,43-0,70 em mulheres) foram encontrados no grupo com consumo > 4 porções/dia de lácteos totais. Esses resultados foram apoiados pelas associações inversas encontradas entre diferentes subgrupos de lácteos e a razão TG/HDL-C. Não foi encontrada associação entre consumo de produtos lácteos e seus subgrupos e valores de LDL-C e de PCR. Os resultados sugerem um possível efeito benéfico dos lácteos no perfil lipídico, porém são necessárias evidências de estudos longitudinais e de intervenção que elucidem os mecanismos de efeito dos diferentes tipos de lácteos.


Lipid abnormalities and subclinical systemic inflammation are associated with atherosclerosis and are used as markers of cardiovascular risk. Studies have suggested a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on cardiovascular health, but the results in lipid and inflammatory markers are still controversial. This study aimed to assess the association between consumption of dairy products and their different subgroups and C-reactive protein (CRP), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) in participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9,372). Consumption of dairy products was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire and expressed as servings/day. Total consumption of dairy products was described in four categories (≤ 1 serving/day to > 4 servings/day). The associations were estimated via odds ratios (OR), using the group with the lowest consumption (≤ 1 serving/day) as the reference. The lowest ORs for TG/HDL-C in the multivariate model (0.70; 95%CI: 0.55-0.90 in men; and 0.55; 95%CI: 0.43-0.70 in women) were found in the group that consumed > 4 servings day of dairy products. These results were supported by the inverse associations between different subgroups of dairy products and the TG/HDL-C ratio. No association was found between consumption of dairy products and their subgroups and LDL-C and CRP. The results suggest a possible beneficial effect of dairy products on lipid profile, but longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect mechanisms of different types of dairy products.


Las anormalidades lipídicas e inflamación sistémica subclínica están asociadas con el proceso de arteriosclerosis, siendo utilizadas como marcadores de riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios sugieren un posible efecto benéfico de los productos lácteos en la salud cardiovascular, pero los resultados en marcadores lipídicos e inflamatorios todavía son controvertidos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la asociación entre el consumo de productos lácteos y sus diferentes subgrupos y proteína C-reativa (PCR), LDL-colesterol (LDL-C) y razón triglicéridos/HDL-colesterol (TG/HDL-C) en los participantes del Estudio Longitudinal de Salud del Adulto (ELSA-Brasil) (n = 9.372). El consumo de lácteos fue evaluado mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia alimentaria validado, y presentado en porciones/día. El consumo total de lácteos se describió en cuatro categorías (≤ 1 porción/día a > 4 porciones/día). Las asociaciones fueron estimadas mediante odds ratios (OR), utilizando el grupo de menor consumo (≤ 1 porción/día) como referencia. Los menores valores de OR para TG/HDL-C en el modelo multivariado (0,70; IC95%: 0,55-0,90 en hombres; y 0,55; IC95%: 0,43-0,70 en mujeres) se encontraron en el grupo con consumo > 4 porciones/día de lácteos totales. Estos resultados se apoyaron en las asociaciones inversas encontradas entre diferentes subgrupos de lácteos y la razón TG/HDL-C. No se encontró asociación entre consumo de productos lácteos y sus subgrupos y valores de LDL-C y de PCR. Los resultados sugieren un posible efecto benéfico de los lácteos en el perfil lipídico, pese a que se necesitan evidencias de estudios longitudinales y de intervención que eluciden los mecanismos de efecto de los diferentes tipos de lácteos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Diet Surveys , Dairy Products/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Lipids/blood , Socioeconomic Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil , Biomarkers/blood , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. iberoam. psicol. (En línea) ; 13(3): 228-238, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1224696

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las prácticas de consumo conspicuo o de lujo, también llamado consumo lujoso, asociado a los hábitos alimenticios de familias en condición de desplazamiento forzado. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa con el método hermenéutico, donde se empleó la triangulación de fuentes y técnicas. Se recopilaron datos cualitativos de 10 mujeres cabeza de familia y sus hijos menores de edad. Los participantes llegaron a Bogotá (Colombia) después de ser desplazados. Los análisis de datos se llevaron a cabo con Nvivo 11. Los resultados muestran que productos como la carne, los frijoles, los lácteos y las frutas se consideran alimentos lujosos que no se contemplan en la alimentación diaria de las familias participantes. Los resultados también muestran que este tipo de alimentos se consumen exclusivamente en los momentos de celebración y son usados para tener un estatus mayor frente a sus pares, lo que afecta significativamente la nutrición, el desarrollo y el crecimiento de los menores. Esta práctica alimentaria se debe a los bajos ingresos de la población desplazada, donde la importancia es la relación que existe entre el precio del alimento consumido y el salario del que lo compra, entonces el consumo se centra en saciar el apetito y aumentar la percepción de llenura, lo cual no favorece una adecuada nutrición, lo que conlleva a un deterioro de la salud de la población


The objective of this study was to identify the practices of conspicuous or luxury consumption, also called luxurious consumption, associated with the eating habits of families in conditions of forced displacement. A qualitative methodology was used with the hermeneutic method, where the triangulation of sources and techniques was employed. Qualitative data was collected from 10 female heads of household and their minor children. The participants arrived in Bogotá, Colombia, after being displaced. Data analysis was carried out with Nvivo 11. The results show that products such as meat, dairy and fruits are considered luxurious foods that are not included in the daily diet of the participating families. The results also show that this types of food is consumed exclusively at times of celebration, of their peers, which significantly affects the nutrition, development and growth of the children. This food practice is due to the low income of the displaced population, where the importance is the relationship between the price of the food consumed and the salary of the person who buys it, so consumption is focused on satisfying the appetite and increasing the perception of fullness, which does not favor adequate nutrition, leading to a deterioration in the health of the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perception , Feeding Behavior , Food , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Colombia , Armed Conflicts , Dairy Products , Economics , Employment , Human Migration , Fruit , Data Analysis
12.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 54: 14, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058887

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To characterize complementary feeding and to analyze the influence of individual and contextual factors on dietary practices of low birth weight infants. METHODS This cross-sectional study included 2,370 low birth weight infants aged 6 to 12 months included in the Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey in Brazilian Municipalities (2008), which covered the 26 state capitals, the Federal District and 37 municipalities. Dietary practices were assessed using two indicators: I) dietary diversity, characterized by the consumption of five food groups: meat, beans, vegetables, fruit and milk; II) consumption of ultra-processed foods, characterized by the ingestion of at least one of the following foods on the day prior to the survey: soda, or processed juice, or cookie, cracker and crisps. The covariates of interest were the socioeconomic characteristics of infants, mothers and health services. The contextual factor was the "municipal prevalence of child undernutrition." The individualized effect of the study factors on outcomes was assessed by multilevel Poisson regression. RESULTS Approximately 59% of infants consumed ultra-processed foods, while 29% had diverse feeding. Mothers living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, with higher education and working outside the home were more likely to offer dietary diversity. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among infants living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, whose mothers were younger and multiparous. CONCLUSIONS The low prevalence of diverse feeding combined with the high prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption characterizes the low quality of feeding of low birth weight Brazilian infants. Individual and contextual factors impact the feeding quality of this population, suggesting the need for effective strategies to increase the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and decrease the consumption of ultra-processed foods by this vulnerable population.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Caracterizar a alimentação complementar e analisar a influência de fatores individuais e contextuais sobre práticas alimentares de lactentes que nasceram com baixo peso. MÉTODOS Este estudo transversal incluiu 2.370 lactentes nascidos com baixo peso e com idade entre 6 e 12 meses incluídos na Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno em Municípios Brasileiros (2008), que abrangeu as 26 capitais, o Distrito Federal e mais 37 municípios. As práticas alimentares foram avaliadas usando dois indicadores: i) diversidade alimentar, caracterizada pelo consumo dos cinco grupos alimentares: carnes, feijão, legumes e verduras, frutas e leite; ii) consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados, caracterizado pela ingestão de pelo menos um dos seguintes alimentos no dia anterior à pesquisa: refrigerante, ou suco industrializado, ou bolacha, biscoito e salgadinho. As covariáveis de interesse corresponderam às características socioeconômicas, dos lactentes, das mães e dos serviços de saúde. O fator contextual foi a "prevalência municipal de desnutrição infantil". O efeito individualizado dos fatores de estudo sobre os desfechos foi avaliado mediante regressão de Poisson com estrutura multinível. RESULTADOS Aproximadamente 59% dos lactentes consumiram alimentos ultraprocessados, enquanto 29% apresentaram diversidade alimentar. Mães que residiam em municípios com prevalência de desnutrição infantil inferior a 10%, com maior nível de escolaridade e que trabalhavam fora de casa foram mais propensas a oferecer diversidade alimentar. O consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados foi maior entre lactentes residentes em municípios com prevalência de desnutrição infantil inferior a 10%, cujas mães eram mais jovens e multíparas. CONCLUSÕES A baixa prevalência de alimentação diversa aliada à alta prevalência do consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados caracteriza a baixa qualidade da alimentação dos lactentes brasileiros com baixo peso ao nascer. Fatores individuais e contextuais impactam a qualidade da alimentação dessa população, sugerindo a necessidade de adoção de estratégias eficazes para aumentar o consumo de alimentos in natura e minimamente processados e diminuir o consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados por esta população vulnerável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Feeding Behavior , Infant Food/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Diet Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dairy Products , Infant Food/classification , Infant Food/adverse effects , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
13.
Rev. chil. reumatol ; 36(3): 92-99, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282545

ABSTRACT

Desde una perspectiva histórica, el consumo de leche de otros mamíferos y sus derivados ha jugado un rol importante en el desarrollo de la sociedad humana. Sin embargo, en los últimos años se han planteado dudas respecto al real beneficio del consumo de productos lácteos y suplementos de calcio en la salud ósea. Más aún, se les han atribuido potenciales efectos adversos como el incremento del riesgo cardiovascular, aumento en la incidencia de cáncer, trastornos digestivos, nefrolitiasis y una mayor mortalidad. Si bien la evidencia disponible puede ser controversial, en la mayoría de los casos desmiente categóricamente estas afirmaciones.En esta revisión de la literatura, intentamos despejar las inquietudes respecto al beneficio y riesgo del consumo de lácteos, suplementos de calcio y Vitamina D.


From the historical perspective, milk and dairy product consumption has played an important role in the development of human society. However, in the recent years, some doubts have been raised regarding the benefits of dairy food consumption and calcium supplements on bone health. Additionally, potential adverse effects have been attributed to their use, such as increased cardiovascular risk, increased incidence of cancer, digestive troubles, nephrolithiasis and increased mortality rate. Although the available evidence may be controversial, in most cases it categorically refutes these statements.In this review of the literature, we try to address concerns regarding benefit and risks of consumption of dairy products, calcium and vitamin D supplements.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Calcium/adverse effects , Dairy Products/adverse effects , Risk Assessment
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 345-353, dic. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057399

ABSTRACT

Abstract A novel microbiological system in microtiter plates consisting of five bioassays is presented for the detection and classification of antibiotic residues in milk. The bioassays were optimized for the detection of beta-lactams (Bioassay B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrolides (Bioassay M: Bacillus megaterium with fusidic acid), tetracyclines (Bioassay T: B. megaterium with chloramphenicol), quinolones (Bioassay Q: Bacillus licheniformis) and sulfamides (Bioassay QS: B. licheniformis with trimethoprim) at levels near the maximum residue limits (MRL). The response of each bioassay was interpreted visually (positive or negative) after 4-5.5h of incubation. The system detects and classifies beta-lactams (5 pg/l of amoxicillin, 4 pg/l of ampicillin, 36 pg/l of cloxacillin, 22 pg/l of amoxicillin, 3 pg/l of penicillin, 114 pg/l of cephalexin, 89pg/l of cefoperazone and 116 pg/l of ceftiofur), tetracyclines (98 pg/l of chlortetracycline, 92 pg/l of oxytetracycline and 88 pg/l of tetracycline), macrolides (33 pg/l of erythromycin, 44 pg/l of tilmicosin and 50 pg/l of tylosin), sulfonamides (76 pg/l of sulfadiazine, 85 pg/l of sulfadimethoxine, 77 pg/l of sulfamethoxazole and 87pg/l of sulfathiazole) and quinolones (94 pg/l of ciprofloxacin, 98 pg/l of enrofloxacin and 79 pg/l marbofloxacin). In addition, the specificity values were high for B, T, Q (99.4%), M (98.8%) and QS (98.1%) bioassays. The control of antibiotics through this system can contribute to improving the quality and safety of dairy products.


Resumen Se presenta un novedoso sistema microbiológico en placas de microtitulación compuesto por 5 bioensayos para la detección y clasificación de residuos de antibióticos en leche. Los bioensayos fueron optimizados para la detección de betalactámicos (bioensayo B: Geobacillus stearothermophilus), macrólidos (bioensayo M: Bacillus megaterium con ácido fusídico), tetraciclinas (bioensayo T: Bacillus megaterium con cloranfenicol), quinolonas (bioensayo Q: Bacillus licheniformis) y sulfamidas (bioensayo QS: Bacillus licheniformis con trimetoprima), a niveles cercanos a los límites máximos de residuos (LMR). La respuesta de cada bioensayo se interpretó visualmente (positiva o negativa) después de 4 a 5,5 h de incubación. El sistema detecta y clasifica betalactámicos (5 pg/l de amoxicilina, 4 pg/l de ampicilina, 36 pg/l de cloxacilina, 22 pg/l de amoxicilina, 3 pg/l de penicilina, 114 pg/l de cefalexina, 89 pg/l de cefoperazona y 116 pg/l de ceftiofur), tetraciclinas (98 pg/l de clortetraciclina, 92 pg/l de oxitetraciclina y 88 pg/l de tetraciclina), macrólidos (33 pg/l de eritromicina, 44 pg/l de tilmi-cosina y 50 pg/l de tilosina), sulfamidas (76 pg/l de sulfadiacina, 85 pg/l de sulfadimetoxina, 77 pg/l de sulfametoxazol y 87 pg/l de sulfatiazol) y quinolonas (94 pg/l de ciprofloxacina, 98 pg/l de enrofloxacina y 79pg/l de marbofloxacina). Además, los valores de especificidad fueron altos para los bioensayos B, T, Q (99,4%), M (98,8%) y QS (98,1%). El control de residuos de antibióticos mediante este sistema puede contribuir a mejorar la calidad e inocuidad de los productos lácteos.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Food Microbiology/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Sulfonamides/analysis , Tetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Macrolides/analysis , Dairy Products , beta-Lactams/analysis
15.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(2): 87-91, 2019/12/27. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099728

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. A nivel mundial la tuberculosis es una de las diez causas de muerte, con una incidencia de 7 920 pacientes entre 0 ­ 14 años en la región de América; siendo el abdomen el sitio extrapulmonar más común. OBJETIVOS. Describir las características etarias, clínicas, microbio-lógicas, complicaciones y comorbilidades asociadas en los pacientes pediátricos con tuberculosis abdominal. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio retrospectivo, base de datos de 23 pacientes y edades de 0 meses a 17 años 11 meses y 29 días de edad con evidencia confirmatoria de la presencia del microorganismo; de los servicios de Gastroenterología y Epidemiología en el Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca ", período 2007 a 2018. RESULTADOS. Se informaron 47,8% (11; 23) de sexo masculino y 52,2% (12; 23) de sexo femenino; 26,1% (6; 23) con antecedente de ingesta de lácteos no pasteurizados. Los tres datos clínicos más frecuentes fueron dolor abdominal, fiebre y pérdida de peso. El 8,7% (2;23) tuvieron convivencia con personas con tuberculosis activa positivo; 30,4% (7; 23) registraron prueba cutánea de derivado proteico pu-rificado positiva; 30,4% (7; 23) identificación de bacterias ácido-alcohol resistentes positivo; 43,5% (10; 23) estudios de imagen compatibles; 8,7% (2; 23) proteína C reactiva de mucosa intestinal po-sitivo; 4,3% (1; 36) cultivo positivo y 8,7% (2; 23) pacientes con inmunodeficiencia. CONCLUSIÓN. La tuberculosis abdominal, se presentó en menores de edad con síntomas inespecíficos de dolor abdominal, fiebre y pérdida de peso, expuestos a ingesta de productos lácteos no pasteurizados, combe positivo e inmunodeficiencia.


INTRODUCTION. Worldwide, tuberculosis is one of the ten causes of death, with an incidence of 7 920 patients between 0 - 14 years in the Americas region; the abdomen being the most common extrapulmonary site. OBJECTIVES. Describe the age, clinical, microbiological, complications and associated comorbidities in pediatric patients with abdominal tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND ME-THODS. Retrospective study, database of 23 patients and ages from 0 months of age to 17 years 11 months and 29 days of age with confirmatory evidence of the presence of the microorganism; of the Gastroenterology and Epidemiology services at the New Civil Hospital of Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca ", period 2 007 to 2 018. RESULTS. 47,8% (11; 23) men and 52,2% (12; 23) women were reported; 26,1% (6; 23) with a history of unpasteurized dairy intake. The three most frequent clinical data were abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. 8,7% (2; 23) lived together with people with positive active tuberculosis; 30,4% (7; 23) recorded a positive purified protein derivative skin test; 30,4% (7; 23) positive acid-alcohol resistant bacteria identification; 43,5% (10; 23) compatible imaging studies; 8,7% (2; 23) positive intestinal mucosal C-reactive protein; 4,3% (1; 36) positive culture and 8,7% (2; 23) patients with immunodeficiency. CONCLUSION. Abdominal tuberculosis occurred in minors with nonspecific symptoms of abdominal pain, fever and weight loss, exposed to intake of unpasteurized dairy products, positive combe and immunodeficiency


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tuberculosis, Bovine , Tuberculosis, Gastrointestinal , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Diagnostic Imaging , Dairy Products , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tomography , Food Contamination , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Epidemiology , Diagnosis , Intestinal Perforation , Laparotomy , Mycobacterium bovis
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 776-782, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058141

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV) sigue siendo la principal causa de muerte en los países occidentales, aunque ha habido una disminución sustancial en su incidencia en las últimas 2 décadas. A pesar de la reducción en la incidencia, la prevalencia de ECV sigue creciendo debido al aumento de la población que envejece en estos países. Entre los factores modificables de las ECV se pueden nombrar la diabetes (DM) y la hipertensión arterial (HTA). Los lácteos son un grupo de alimentos heterogéneos con productos que difieren en el contenido de agua, cantidad de fermentación y nutrientes como grasa y sodio, y ha excepción de lácteos bajos en grasa, no se ven como alimentos saludables en la prevención de estas 2 enfermedades. El presente trabajo muestra los resultados especialmente de metaanálisis de los últimos años que relacionan el consumo de lácteos con DM e HTA.


ABSTRACT Although there has been a substantial decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in the last 2 decades, it remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Despite a reduction in incidence, the prevalence of CVD continues to grow due to the increase in the aging population in these countries. Among the modifiable factors of CVD we can name diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure. Dairy products are a group of heterogeneous foods with products that differ in water content, amount of fermentation and nutrients such as fat and sodium, and, except for low-fat dairy products, they are not seen as healthy foods in the prevention of these 2 diseases. The present work shows the results of a meta-analysis of the last years that relate the consumption of dairy products with diabetes and high blood pressure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dairy Products/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Yogurt/adverse effects , Cheese/adverse effects , Milk/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Hypertension/etiology
17.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(5): 1478-1489, sept./oct. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049029

ABSTRACT

In Brazil's food industry, dairy production is one of the most important sectors, whose most relevant byproduct is whey. Due to the difficulties of reuse and environmental impacts caused when discarded as effluent in water bodies, an alternative for its final destination would be the application of this residue in the soil. The purpose of this study was to determine chemical changes and mobility and distribution of solutes in the soil after applications of whey rates, as well as to analyze the leachate collected after each application. The test was carried out in a laboratory, in PVC columns filled with soil. The treatments consisted of 2 x 2 samples of a typical dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Oxisol) and a typical dystrophic fluvic Inceptisol (Inceptisol), sampled in the layers 0- 20 and 20-40 cm. Each experimental unit consisted of 11 PVC rings (diameter of 6.6 cm, height of 7 cm). The columns were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Four whey rates were applied, corresponding to a soil pore volume of 0.2, at intervals of six days. The leachate was collected 24 and 120 hours after each application to measure pH, electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), contents of total N, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. Six days after the last whey application, the columns were opened and the soil of each ring was analyzed for pH, EC, total N, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The high electrolyte concentrations of whey resulted in a general increase in soil EC. The increase of N-NH4+ and N-NO3- in the soil was high due to mineralization. High concentrations of K, Na and Ca caused displacement of Mg from the exchange complex. It was concluded that from an environmental standpoint, whey soil application is a viable alternative, given that problems of salinization and leaching of undesirable elements are avoided by an adequate management.


Entre os setores da indústria alimentícia, o segmento de laticínios é um dos mais importantes do Brasil, sendo o soro de leite o seu maior subproduto. Devido às dificuldades de reaproveitamento e aos impactos ambientais causados, quando descartado como efluente em corpos de água, uma alternativa para a sua destinação final seria a aplicação desse resíduo no solo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar alterações químicas e a mobilidade e distribuição de solutos no solo após aplicação fracionada de soro de leite, assim como a caracterização dos percolados recolhidos após cada aplicação. O ensaio, em laboratório, foi conduzido em colunas de PVC preenchidas com solo. Os tratamentos corresponderam a um fatorial 2 x 2, sendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico típico (LVAd) e de um Cambissolo Flúvico Tb distrófico (CYbd), coletados em duas profundidades: 0­20 e 20­40 cm. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída de 11 anéis de PVC, com 6,6 cm de diâmetro interno e 7 cm de altura. As colunas foram dispostas em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Foram realizadas quatro aplicações de soro de leite, correspondentes a 0,2 volume de poros de solo, a cada intervalo de seis dias. O percolado foi recolhido após 24 e 120 horas de cada aplicação sendo realizadas as seguintes determinações: pH, condutividade elétrica (CE), demanda química de oxigênio (DQO), teores de N total, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca e Mg. Após seis dias da última aplicação de soro de leite, as colunas foram desmontadas e o solo de cada anel analisado. As análises compreenderam: pH em água, CE (1:5), N total, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, Na, K, Ca e Mg. As elevadas concentrações eletrolíticas do soro de leite provocaram aumento generalizado da CE no solo. Houve incremento maior do nitrogênio assimilável (N-NH4+ e N-NO3-) no solo em decorrência de processos de mineralização. Elevadas concentrações de K, Na e Ca causaram deslocamento de Mg do complexo de troca. Conclui-se que a aplicação de soro de leite no solo é uma alternativa viável do ponto de vista ambiental, desde que seja feito um correto manejo, a fim de evitar problemas de salinização e perdas por lixiviação de elementos indesejáveis.


Subject(s)
Land Use , Percolation , Dairy Products , Whey
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 460-465, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001467

ABSTRACT

Abstract The fidelity of the genomes is defended by mechanism known as Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) systems. Three Type II CRISPR systems (CRISPR1- cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas) have been identified in enterococci isolates from clinical and environmental samples. The aim of this study was to observe the distribution of CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3-cas in non-clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from food and fecal samples, including wild marine animals. The presence of CRISPRs was evaluated by PCR in 120 enterococci strains, 67 E. faecalis and 53 E. faecium. It is the first report of the presence of the CRISPRs system in E. faecalis and E. faecium strains isolated from wild marine animal fecal samples. The results showed that in non-clinical strains, the CRISPRs were more frequently detected in E. faecalis than in E. faecium. And the frequencies of CRISPR1-cas and CRISPR2 were higher (60%) in E. faecalis strains isolated from animal feces, compared to food samples. Both strains showed low frequencies of CRISPR3-cas (8.95% and 1.88%). In conclusion, the differences in the habitats of enterococcal species may be related with the results observe in distribution of CRISPRs systems.


Resumo A fidelidade dos genomas ​​é defendida por mecanismos conhecidos como sistemas de repetições palindrômicas curtas agrupadas e regularmente interespaçadas (CRISPRs). Três tipos de sistemas CRISPR II (CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas) têm sido identificados em cepas de enterococos isolados de amostras clínicas e ambientais. O objetivo deste estudo foi observar a distribuição dos CRISPR1-cas, CRISPR2 e CRISPR3-cas em cepas não-clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis e Enterococcus faecium isoladas de amostras alimentícias e fecais, incluindo animais marinhos selvagens. A presenca dos CRISPRs foi determinada por PCR em 120 cepas de enterococos, sendo 67 E. faecalis e 53 E. faecium. É o primeiro relato da presença do sistema CRISPRs nas estirpes E. faecalis e E. faecium isoladas de amostras fecais de animais marinhos selvagens. Os resultados mostraram que em cepas não-clínicas, os CRISPRs foram mais frequentemente detectados em E. faecalis do que em E. faecium. E as frequências de CRISPR1-cas e CRISPR2 foram maiores (60%) em cepas de E. faecalis isoladas de fezes de animais, quando comparadas à amostras de alimentos. Ambas as cepas apresentaram baixas freqüências de CRISPR3-cas (8,95% e 1,88%). Em conclusão, as diferenças nos habitats das espécies de enterococos podem estar relacionadas com os resultados observados na distribuição dos sistemas CRISPRs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Food Microbiology , Turtles/microbiology , Vegetables/microbiology , Chickens/microbiology , Dairy Products/microbiology , Milk/microbiology , Spheniscidae/microbiology , Fur Seals/microbiology , Meat/microbiology
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 113-124, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053054

ABSTRACT

En Venezuela se distribuyen productos lácteos en polvo a través de los Comité Locales de Abastecimiento y Producción (CLAP). Con el objetivo de evaluar la composición nutricional de catorce marcas de productos lácteos provenientes de industrias mexicanas y distribuidos en Venezuela, se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, con muestreo a conveniencia de 14 marcas de lácteos obtenidas en hogares beneficiados del área metropolitana de Caracas-Venezuela. Se cotejó la información presentada en el rotulado del producto y se efectuó un análisis químico de la composición nutricional. Los valores obtenidos se compararon utilizando como referencia a la norma COVENIN. En el etiquetado se encontró que sólo 2 marcas se denominan producto lácteo y el 43% de las marcas expresan el mismo contenido nutricional en el rótulo. En la analítica química se encontró inexactitud con la información presentada en el etiquetado nutricional. El análisis de componentes principales seguido de un conglomerado jerárquico permitió diferenciar 4 clúster o grupos: 2 reales y 2 ideales. La mayoría de los productos analizados son significativamente más altos en carbohidratos y sodio (p<0,05), además de bajos en proteínas y calcio (p<0,05). En conclusión, todas las muestras evaluadas incumplen la normativa correspondiente, al presentar irregularidades en la denominación del producto e informar valores que no se corresponden con el contenido nutricional resultante de los análisis químicos(AU)


In Venezuela, powdered milk products are distributed through the Local Supply and Production Committee (CLAP). The objective was to evaluate the nutritional composition of fourteen brands of dairy products from Mexican industries distributed in Venezuela, a descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted, with convenience sampling of 14 brands of dairy products obtained in households benefiting from the Caracas Metropolitan area - Venezuela. The information presented in the product labeling was checked and a chemical analysis of the nutritional composition was performed. The values obtained were compared using the COVENIN standard as a reference. In the labeling, it was found that only 2 brands are called dairy products and 43% of the brands express the same nutritional content on the label. The chemical analysis showed inaccuracy with the information presented in the nutritional labeling. The analysis of principal components followed by a hierarchical conglomerate allowed us to differentiate 4 clusters or groups: 2 real and 2 ideal. Most of the products analyzed are significantly higher in carbohydrates and sodium (p <0.05), as well as low in protein and calcium (p <0.05). In conclusion, all the samples evaluated fail to comply with the corresponding regulations, presenting irregularities in the product name and reporting values that do not correspond to the nutritional content resulting from chemical analyzes(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Oryza/chemistry , Sodium/administration & dosage , Dairy Products/analysis , Milk Substitutes/administration & dosage , Food Quality , Diet, Food, and Nutrition , Food-Processing Industry
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 620-628, mar./apr. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048615

ABSTRACT

The demand for functional foods has increased in recent years, following a market trend in which the consumer values foods associated with health improvements. Skim milk yogurts were produced with yeast ß-glucan (YBG, 0.5 and 1.0 %) isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared with full fat (FFY) and skim milk (SMY) yogurt as controls. The samples were analyzed for physical, chemical, color,syneresis, culture starter count, textural, microstructure and sensory attributes. Yeast ß-glucan was not able to retain the serum of yogurts during cold storage. Skim yogurt firmness increased with the addition of 0.5% yeast ß-glucan, presenting a more compact microstructure. Yogurts containing yeast ß-glucan had low scores by the untrained panelists in the sensorial analysis (0.5% YBG overall acceptance 5.2, FFY 6.8, SY 6.3) and low purchase intention. Thus, although similar characteristics were observed, low scores in the sensorial analysis and purchase intention were a barrier to commercializing skim milk yogurt with yeast ß-glucan developed in the present study


A demanda por produtos funcionais tem aumentado recentemente, seguindo um padrão no qual os consumidores valorizam os alimentos que são associados a melhoria da saúde. Iogurte desnatado foi produzido com ß-glucana extraída de Saccharomyces cerevisiae e comparado com iogurte integral e iogurte desnatado. O iogurte desnatado contendo ß-glucana não reteve soro durante a estocagem refrigerada. A firmeza do produto aumentou com a adição de 0,5% de ß-glucana e sua microestrutura foi mais compacta. Iogurtes contendo ß-glucana apresentaram menor escore na análise sensorial. Assim, embora características semelhantes tenham sido observadas, os baixos escores da análise sensorial são uma barreira para a comercialização de iogurte desnatado contendo ß-glucana produzido no presente estudo


Subject(s)
Polysaccharides , Yogurt , Dairy Products , beta-Glucans , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Functional Food
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