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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 90-94, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247690

ABSTRACT

La biología molecular tiene mayor afinidad en las áreas de la salud, en odontología su principal aplicación ha sido en la identificación de microorganismos orales patógenos mediante el uso de secuencias genéticas específicas (ácido desoxirribonucleico [DNA], ácido ribonucleico [RNA] y proteínas). Las pruebas a nivel molecular se caracterizan por su rapidez, reproductibilidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de los microorganismos diana. El presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica servirá como herramienta para comprender los principios de las técnicas más destacadas como son: PCR estándar y RT-PCR en tiempo real, PCR con transcriptasa inversa, microarreglos y ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA), además de sus ventajas y desventajas respecto a las pruebas convencionales (AU)


Molecular biology has a greater affinity in the areas of health. In dentistry, its main application has been the identification of pathogenic oral microorganisms, through the use of specific genetic sequences (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA], ribonucleic acid [RNA] and proteins). Molecular tests are characterized by their rapidity, reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity of target microorganisms. This literature review article will serve as a tool to understand the principles of the most prominent techniques such as: Standard PCR, Real-time RT-PCR, Reverse transcriptase PCR, microarrays and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in addition to their advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional tests (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Molecular Biology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Databases, Genetic
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888190

ABSTRACT

As one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the world, female breast cancer is induced by the high level of estrogen. Saussureae Involucratae Herba(SIH), a gynecological medicinal, regulates estrogen-induced diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of SIH on breast cancer has not been reported. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential efficacy of SIH on breast cancer based on in vitro experiment and network pharmacology. The inhibitory effect of SIH water extract on proliferation and migration of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells was examined. The result demonstrated SIH water extract significantly suppressed the proliferation of breast cancer cells(IC_(50)=6.47 mg·mL~(-1)) and also restricted the migration. A total of 39 components of SIH were retrieved from traditional Chinese medicine database(TCMD) and 160 targets of SIH were screened by target fishing with the PharmaDB database. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM) was used to establish a 1 001-targets data set of breast cancer. Based on the overlaps(45) of targets between SIH and breast cancer, a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was built to analyze the interactions among these targets with STRING platform and Cytoscape. Finally, through topology and GO and KEGG analysis, 8 targets, 101 pathways and 85 biological processes were found to involve the treatment of breast cancer by SIH. SIH may exert the anti-breast cancer effect by regulating cell cycle, inhibiting proliferation, migration and adhesion of cancer cells, and modulating estrogen receptor. This study clarified the mechanism of SIH in treating breast cancer, which lays a foundation for the further development of SIH.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888039

ABSTRACT

The acupoint application of Euodiae Fructus at Yongquan(KI1) can significantly improve the sleep quality of patients with insomnia with berberine as the main effective component for the efficacy. Nineteen active compounds and 203 drug targets were screened out from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). After comparison with GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man(OMIM), 24 common genes of diseases and drugs were obtained. STRING 11.0 was used to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network of the overlapping genes, and Matthews correlation coefficient(MCC) was employed to screen the core genes, which were then subjected to enrichment analysis with gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG). The results revealed that the main compounds of Euodiae Fructus, such as berberine and rutaecarpine, participated in the biological processes(such as neurotransmitter receptor activity) by regulating C-reactive protein(CRP), estrogen receptor 1(ESR1), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT) receptor, and interleukin-6(IL-6) to exert sedative, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Sixty 4-week-old SPF mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a positive drug(diazepam tablets) group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose berberine groups. Medication with corresponding drugs was performed for one week. The results demonstrated that berberine was potent in reducing the activities and standing times of mice, down-regulating the levels of CRP and IL-6 mRNA in the hypothalamus, and up-regulating the expression of 5-HT(P<0.01); however, no significant effect on ESR1 was observed. The network of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was constructed by network pharmacology and verified by tests. The findings indicated that the therapeutic efficacy of Euodiae Fructus in treating insomnia was achieved by participating in multiple biological processes, such as neurotransmitter receptor activity, which provided a scientific basis for its clinical application.


Subject(s)
Animals , Databases, Genetic , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Gene Ontology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/genetics
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1913, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: High-throughput sequencing of genomes, exomes, and disease-focused gene panels is becoming increasingly common for molecular diagnostics. However, identifying a single clinically relevant pathogenic variant among thousands of genetic polymorphisms is a challenging task. Publicly available genomic databases are useful resources to filter out common genetic variants present in the population and enable the identification of each disease-causing variant. Based on our experience applying these technologies at Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, Brazil, we recognized that the Brazilian population is not adequately represented in widely available genomic databases. METHODS: Here, we took advantage of our 5-year experience as a high-throughput sequencing core facility focused on individuals with putative genetic disorders to build a genomic database that may serve as a more accurate reference for our patient population: SELAdb. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Currently, our database comprises a final cohort of 523 unrelated individuals, including patients or family members managed by different clinics of HCFMUSP. We compared SELAdb with other publicly available genomic databases and demonstrated that this population is very heterogeneous, largely resembling Latin American individuals of mixed origin, rather than individuals of pure European ancestry. Interestingly, exclusively through SELAdb, we identified a spectrum of known and potentially novel pathogenic variants in genes associated with highly penetrant Mendelian disorders, illustrating that pathogenic variants circulating in the Brazilian population that is treated in our clinics are underrepresented in other population databases. SELAdb is freely available for public consultation at: http://intranet.fm.usp.br/sela


Subject(s)
Humans , Genomics , Databases, Genetic , Brazil , Cohort Studies , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We investigated the expression of the N-myc and STAT interactor (NMI) protein in invasive ductal carcinoma tissue and estimated its clinicopathologic significance as a prognostic factor. The expression levels and prognostic significance of NMI were also analyzed according to the molecular subgroup of breast cancers.METHODS: Human NMI detection by immunohistochemistry was performed using tissue microarrays of 382 invasive ductal carcinomas. The correlation of NMI expression with patient clinicopathological parameters and prognostic significance was analyzed and further assessed according to the molecular subgroup of breast cancers. Moreover, in vitro experiments with 13 breast cancer cell lines were carried out. We also validated NMI expression significance in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database.RESULTS: Low NMI expression was observed in 190 cases (49.7%). Low NMI expression was significantly associated with the “triple-negative” molecular subtype (p < 0.001), high nuclear grade (p < 0.001), high histologic grade (p < 0.001), and advanced anatomic stage (p = 0.041). Patients with low NMI expression had poorer progression-free survival (p = 0.038) than patients with high NMI expression. Low NMI expression was not significantly associated with patient prognosis in the molecular subgroup analysis. In vitro, a reduction of NMI expression was observed in 8 breast cancer cell lines, especially in the estrogen receptor-positive and basal B type of triple-negative breast cancer molecular subgroups. The HPA database showed that low NMI expression levels were associated with a lower survival probability compared with that associated with high NMI expression (p = 0.053).CONCLUSION: NMI expression could be a useful prognostic biomarker and a potential novel therapeutic target in invasive ductal carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Breast , Breast Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Ductal , Cell Line , Cohort Studies , Databases, Genetic , Disease-Free Survival , Down-Regulation , Estrogens , Genome , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Prognosis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759913

ABSTRACT

Anthropological genetics emerged as a new discipline to investigate the origin of human species in the second half of the twentieth century. Using the genetic database of blood groups and other protein polymorphisms, anthropological geneticists started redrawing the ancient migratory history of human populations. A peculiarity of the Korean experience is that clinical physicians were the first experts using genetic data to theorize the historical origin of the respective population. This paper examines how South Korean physicians produced the genetic knowledge and discourse of the Korean origin in the 1970s and 1980s. It argues that transnational scientific exchange led clinical researchers to engage in global anthropological studies. The paper focuses on two scientific cooperative cases in medical genetics at the time: the West German-South Korean pharmacogenetic research on the Korean population and the Asia-Oceania Histocompatibility Workshop. At the outset, physicians introduced medical genetics into their laboratory for clinical applications. Involved in cooperative projects on investigating anthropological implications of their clinical work, medical researchers came to use their genetic data for studying the Korean origin. In the process, physicians simply followed a nationalist narrative of the Korean origin rather than criticizing it. This was partially due to their lack of serious interest in anthropological work. Their explanations about the Korean origin would be considered “scientific” while hiding their embracing of the nationalist narrative.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Databases, Genetic , Education , Genetics , Genetics, Medical , Histocompatibility , Humans
7.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 280-288, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Lung cancer is a malignant tumor disease with high morbidity and high mortality. The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type, among them, lung squamous cell carcinoma own special pathological type and specific treatment, is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer and can be divided into peripheral type and central type according to clinical phenotype. This study explores the differences in gene levels and their potential values based on clinical differences between central and peripheral in lung squamous cell carcinoma.@*METHODS@#The lung squamous cell carcinoma dataset was collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, clinical information and the corresponding gene expression profiles were downloaded. Then we further sort and analyze all these data.@*RESULTS@#In clinical characteristics analysis, result showed that central lung squamous cell carcinoma was more likely to metastasis with lymph node than peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma (46.2%, 67/145 vs 28.9%, 26/90; P=0.019), while there were no significant differences in gender, age, tumor size, distant metastasis, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and EGFR mutation. Gene expression analysis showed 1,031 differentially expressed genes between central and peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma, of which 629 genes were up-regulated and 402 genes were down-regulated (peripheral vs central). Further enrichment analysis showed differentially expressed genes were mainly riched in 6 signaling pathways. Among them, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was the main enrichment pathway of differentially expressed genes, and other differential expressed genes were mainly involved in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism. The analysis of interaction network showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox A (HNF1A) and cytochrome p450 family, Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) own widely effect in up-regulated genes, while ALB and APOA1 at the key positions of the network in down-regulated genes were CONCLUSIONS: Central and peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma showed clinical phenotype difference not only reflected in the incidence of lymph node metastasis, but also in gene expression profiles. Among them, HNF1A, CYP3A4, ALB, APOA1 at the key position of the differential gene interaction network and maybe as regulatory factors in the phenotypic difference.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lung Neoplasms , Genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Smoking , Genetics
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the differentially expressed genes between gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa by bioinformatics analysis, identify the important gene participating in the occurrence and progression of gastric cancer, and predict the functions of these genes.@*METHODS@#The gene expression microarray data GSE100935 (including 18 gastric cancer samples and normal gastric mucosal tissues) downloaded from the GEO expression profile database were analyzed using Morpheus to obtain the differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer, and a cluster analysis heat map was constructed. The online database UALCAN was used to obtain the expression levels of these differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa. The prognostic value of the differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. GO functional enrichment analysis was performed using Fun-Rich software, and the STRING database was exploited to establish a PPI network for the differentially expressed genes.@*RESULTS@#A total of 45119 differentially expressed genes were identified from GSE100935 microarray data. Analysis with UALCAN showed an obvious high expression of EXD3 gene in gastric cancer, and survival analysis suggested that a high expression level of EXD3 was associated with a poorer prognosis of the patients with gastric cancer. GO functional enrichment analysis found that the differentially expressed genes in gastric cancer were involved mainly in the regulation of nucleotide metabolism and the activity of transcription factors in the cancer cells.@*CONCLUSIONS@#EXD3 may be a potential oncogene in gastric cancer possibly in relation to DNA damage repair. The up-regulation of EXD3 plays an important role in the development and prognosis of gastric cancer, and may serve as an important indicator for prognostic evaluation of the patients.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Databases, Genetic , Exonucleases , Genetics , Gastric Mucosa , Chemistry , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Neoplasm Proteins , Genetics , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms , Genetics , Mortality
9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1420-1429, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs involved in different cancers, including lung cancer. Here, we aim to investigate the expression profiles of circulating miRNAs and their roles contributed to the progress of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The levels of circulating miRNA in lung cancer patients were investigated by miRNAs assay. Then we predicted the target genes of aberrantly expressing miRNAs by searching genetic databases. Based on the A549 cells transfected with miR-1246 mimics or miR-1246 inhibitor,we further measured the roles of miR-1246 involving in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion capacities of lung cancer cells in vitro. Finally, we detected the effects of miR-1246 on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin pathway by immunofluorescence and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: We identified that 14 miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in the serum of lung cancer patients. Among them, miR-1246 was the most up-regulated. The cell assays indicated that miR-1246 significantly increased the migration and invasion capabilities of A549 lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, immunofluorescence analysis revealed that miR-1246 promoted EMT process of A549 cells accompanying with decreasing E-cadherin expression, while increasing vimentin and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression. Furthermore, an online tool predicated that miR-1246 might bind to 3′-untranslated region of GSK-3β, which was confirmed by overexpression and knockdown of miR-1246 assays. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the study illustrates that miR-1246 regulates Wnt/β-catenin pathway through targeting GSK-3β/β-catenin, which partly contributing to tumor metastasis. MiR-1246 may play an essential role in the diagnosis and therapeutic of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cadherins , Databases, Genetic , Diagnosis , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Glycogen Synthase , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Lung Neoplasms , MicroRNAs , Neoplasm Metastasis , RNA, Small Untranslated , Transforming Growth Factors , Vimentin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762598

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D hydroxylation-deficient rickets type 1A (VDDR1A, OMIM 264700) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder. Pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene lead to loss of 1α-hydroxylase activity. We report the case of a 22-month-old toddler who presented with growth retardation and delayed development. The patient exhibited the typical laboratory findings of VDDR1A, including hypocalcemia (calcium: 5.2 mg/dL), elevated serum level of alkaline phosphatase (2,600 U/L), elevated serum level of intact-parathyroid hormone (238 pg/mL), low 1,25(OH)₂D₃ level (11.2 pg/mL), and normal 25(OH)D₃ level (40.7 ng/mL). His height and weight were 76.5 cm and 9.5 kg, respectively (both <3rd percentile). The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development II indicated significantly delayed development (mental development index <50, psychomotor development index <50). The patient was a compound heterozygous for two novel pathogenic variants in the CYP27B1 gene: c.57_69del (p.Glu20Profs*2) and c.171dupG (p.Leu58Alafs*275), inherited from his mother and father, respectively. The patient showed remarkable improvement after treatment with calcitriol and calcium carbonate.


Subject(s)
25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Calcitriol , Calcium Carbonate , Databases, Genetic , Fathers , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Infant , Mothers , Rickets , Vitamin D , Vitamins , Weights and Measures
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764507

ABSTRACT

Smith-Kingsmore syndrome (SKS; OMIM 616638), also known as macrocephaly-intellectual disability-neurodevelopmental disorder-small thorax syndrome (MINDS; ORPHA 457485), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, the prevalence of which is not known. It is caused by a heterozygous germline mutation in MTOR (OMIM 601231). Ten different MTOR germline mutations in 27 individuals have been reported in the medical literature to date. These were all gain-of-function missense variants, and about half of the 27 individuals had c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. Here, I report for the first time a Korean patient with the heterozygous germline mutation c.5395G>A p.(Glu1799Lys) in MTOR. It was found to be a de novo mutation, which was identified by whole-exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The patient showed typical clinical features of SKS, including macrocephaly/megalencephaly; moderate intellectual disability; seizures; behavioral problems; and facial dysmorphic features of curly hair, frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, and hypertelorism.


Subject(s)
Databases, Genetic , Germ-Line Mutation , Hair , Humans , Hypertelorism , Intellectual Disability , Megalencephaly , Prevalence , Problem Behavior , Seizures , Thorax
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(11): e8950, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039256

ABSTRACT

Aortic dissection is characterized by the redirection of blood flow, which flows through an intimal tear into the aortic media. The purpose of this study was to find potential acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD)-related genes and molecular mechanisms by bioinformatics. The gene expression profiles of GSE52093 were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including 7 AAAD samples and 5 normal samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected between AAAD and normal samples. The functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis were conducted through the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery (DAVID). A protein-protein interaction network was established by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) software. The microRNAs (miRNAs) of these differentially expressed genes were predicted using <microRNA.org> database. Moreover, DEGs were analyzed in the comparative toxicogenomics (CTD) database to screen out the potential therapeutic small molecules. As a result, there were 172 DEGs identified in patients with AAAD. These DEGs were significantly enriched in 6 pathways, including cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, DNA replication, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and mineral absorption pathway. Notably, CDC20, CDK1, CHEK1, KIF20A, MCM10, PBK, PTTG1, RACGAP, and TOP2A were crucial genes with a high degree in the protein-protein interaction network. Furthermore, potential miRNAs (miR-301, miR-302 family, and miR-130 family) were identified. In addition, small molecules like azathioprine and zoledronic acid were identified to be potential drugs for AAAD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Computational Biology , Protein Interaction Mapping , Transcriptome/genetics , Aneurysm, Dissecting/genetics , Signal Transduction , Case-Control Studies , Acute Disease , Databases, Genetic
13.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 881-884, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775516

ABSTRACT

The advancement and popularization of molecular diagnostic techniques has challenged and redefined the traditional concept of genetic metabolic disease. Regardless of disease origin, all genetic defects that lead to hepatobiliary dysfunction or structural abnormalities are termed as genetic liver disorders. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a database consisting 693 genetic diseases with clear molecular mechanism of liver related phenotypes. Moreover, the effective measures to control infectious liver disease have strengthened the importance of research in the field of (adult and children) genetic liver disorders at home and abroad by well-recognized hepatologists. Notably, all patients with unexplained hepatopathy and multiple system diseases involving liver and gallbladder needs screening for genetic liver disorders, except for factors such as infection, immunity, drug-related, and anatomical abnormalities. We hope more patients with complicated liver disorders will benefit from definitive diagnosis and effective treatment in the near future with clear explanation of clinical phenotype, genotype, and metabolomics.


Subject(s)
Child , Databases, Genetic , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Genotype , Humans , Liver Diseases , Diagnosis , Genetics , Therapeutics , Phenotype
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772986

ABSTRACT

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) from back-splicing of exon(s) have been recently identified to be broadly expressed in eukaryotes, in tissue- and species-specific manners. Although functions of most circRNAs remain elusive, some circRNAs are shown to be functional in gene expression regulation and potentially relate to diseases. Due to their stability, circRNAs can also be used as biomarkers for diagnosis. Profiling circRNAs by integrating their expression among different samples thus provides molecular basis for further functional study of circRNAs and their potential application in clinic. Here, we report CIRCpedia v2, an updated database for comprehensive circRNA annotation from over 180 RNA-seq datasets across six different species. This atlas allows users to search, browse, and download circRNAs with expression features in various cell types/tissues, including disease samples. In addition, the updated database incorporates conservation analysis of circRNAs between humans and mice. Finally, the web interface also contains computational tools to compare circRNA expression among samples. CIRCpedia v2 is accessible at http://www.picb.ac.cn/rnomics/circpedia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Internet , Mice , Molecular Sequence Annotation , RNA , Genetics , User-Computer Interface
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772985

ABSTRACT

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that plays a vital role in gene expression and cell differentiation. The average DNA methylation level among a group of cells has been extensively documented. However, the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in DNA methylation, which reflects the differentiation of epigenetic status among cells, remains less investigated. Here we established a gold standard of the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in DNA methylation based on single-cell bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) data. With that, we optimized a computational pipeline for estimating the heterogeneity in DNA methylation from bulk BS-seq data. We further built HeteroMeth, a database for searching, browsing, visualizing, and downloading the data for heterogeneity in DNA methylation for a total of 141 samples in humans, mice, Arabidopsis, and rice. Three genes are used as examples to illustrate the power of HeteroMeth in the identification of unique features in DNA methylation. The optimization of the computational strategy and the construction of the database in this study complement the recent experimental attempts on single-cell DNA methylomes and will facilitate the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms underlying cell differentiation and embryonic development. HeteroMeth is publicly available at http://qianlab.genetics.ac.cn/HeteroMeth.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arabidopsis , Genetics , Cell Line , Computer Simulation , DNA Methylation , Genetics , Databases, Genetic , Entropy , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genome , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mice , Oryza , Genetics , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Single-Cell Analysis , User-Computer Interface
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772984

ABSTRACT

Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies in the world and occurs at particularly higher frequency in China. While several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of germline variants and whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing studies of somatic mutations in ESCC have been published, there is no comprehensive database publically available for this cancer. Here, we developed the Chinese Cancer Genomic Database-Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CCGD-ESCC) database, which contains the associations of 69,593 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with ESCC risk in 2022 cases and 2039 controls, survival time of 1006 ESCC patients (survival GWAS) and gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTL) in 94 ESCC patients. Moreover, this database also provides the associations between 8833 somatic mutations and survival time in 675 ESCC patients. Our user-friendly database is a resource useful for biologists and oncologists not only in identifying the associations of genetic variants or somatic mutations with the development and progression of ESCC but also in studying the underlying mechanisms for tumorigenesis of the cancer. CCGD-ESCC is freely accessible at http://db.cbi.pku.edu.cn/ccgd/ESCCdb.


Subject(s)
Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Genetics , China , Epidemiology , Databases, Genetic , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Genetics , User-Computer Interface
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772983

ABSTRACT

Tumor-specific neoantigens have attracted much attention since they can be used as biomarkers to predict therapeutic effects of immune checkpoint blockade therapy and as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we developed a comprehensive tumor-specific neoantigen database (TSNAdb v1.0), based on pan-cancer immunogenomic analyses of somatic mutation data and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele information for 16 tumor types with 7748 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and The Cancer Immunome Atlas (TCIA). We predicted binding affinities between mutant/wild-type peptides and HLA class I molecules by NetMHCpan v2.8/v4.0, and presented detailed information of 3,707,562/1,146,961 potential neoantigens generated by somatic mutations of all tumor samples. Moreover, we employed recurrent mutations in combination with highly frequent HLA alleles to predict potential shared neoantigens across tumor patients, which would facilitate the discovery of putative targets for neoantigen-based cancer immunotherapy. TSNAdb is freely available at http://biopharm.zju.edu.cn/tsnadb.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Metabolism , Data Analysis , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mutation , Genetics , Neoplasms , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Genetics , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms , Genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772981

ABSTRACT

High-throughput transcriptomics technologies have been widely used to study plant transcriptional reprogramming during the process of plant defense responses, and a large quantity of gene expression data have been accumulated in public repositories. However, utilization of these data is often hampered by the lack of standard metadata annotation. In this study, we curated 2444 public pathogenesis-related gene expression samples from the model plant Arabidopsis and three major crops (maize, rice, and wheat). We organized the data into a user-friendly database termed as PlaD. Currently, PlaD contains three key features. First, it provides large-scale curated data related to plant defense responses, including gene expression and gene functional annotation data. Second, it provides the visualization of condition-specific expression profiles. Third, it allows users to search co-regulated genes under the infections of various pathogens. Using PlaD, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis to explore the global landscape of gene expression in the curated data. We found that only a small fraction of genes were differentially expressed under multiple conditions, which might be explained by their tendency of having more network connections and shorter network distances in gene networks. Collectively, we hope that PlaD can serve as an important and comprehensive knowledgebase to the community of plant sciences, providing insightful clues to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant immune responses. PlaD is freely available at http://systbio.cau.edu.cn/plad/index.php or http://zzdlab.com/plad/index.php.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis , Genetics , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Plant , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Genetics , Oryza , Genetics , Plant Immunity , Genetics , Plants , Genetics , Microbiology , Transcriptome , Genetics , Triticum , Genetics , User-Computer Interface , Zea mays , Genetics
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772980

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly heterogeneous in nature and has been one of the most common cancer types worldwide. To ensure repeatability of identified gene expression patterns and comprehensively annotate the transcriptomes of HCC, we carefully curated 15 public HCC expression datasets that cover around 4000 clinical samples and developed the database HCCDB to serve as a one-stop online resource for exploring HCC gene expression with user-friendly interfaces. The global differential gene expression landscape of HCC was established by analyzing the consistently differentially expressed genes across multiple datasets. Moreover, a 4D metric was proposed to fully characterize the expression pattern of each gene by integrating data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of gene expression patterns in HCC, HCCDB also provides links to third-party databases on drug, proteomics, and literatures, and graphically displays the results from computational analyses, including differential expression analysis, tissue-specific and tumor-specific expression analysis, survival analysis, and co-expression analysis. HCCDB is freely accessible at http://lifeome.net/database/hccdb.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Genetics , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Liver Neoplasms , Genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719106

ABSTRACT

Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a hereditary disorder characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. A mutation of the TRPS1 gene leads to TRPS type I or type III. A 20-year-old male patient visited our neurologic department with chronic fatigue. He presented with short stature, sparse hair, pear-shaped nose, and brachydactyly. Radiologic study showed short metacarpals, metatarsals with cone-shaped epiphyses, hypoplastic femur and hip joint. Panel sequencing for OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) listed genes revealed a de novo heterozygous frameshift mutation of c.1801_1802delGA (p.Arg601Lysfs*3) of exon 4 of the TRPS1 gene. The diagnosis of TRPS can be challenging due to the rarity and variable phenotype of the disease, clinicians should be aware of its characteristic clinical features that will lead a higher rate of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Brachydactyly , Databases, Genetic , Diagnosis , Epiphyses , Exons , Fatigue , Femur , Frameshift Mutation , Hair , Hip Joint , Humans , Male , Metacarpal Bones , Metatarsal Bones , Nose , Phenotype , Wills , Young Adult
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