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6.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292127

ABSTRACT

Resumo Historicamente, o papel do ecocardiograma de estresse físico no manejo da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica tem sido negligenciado na prática clínica, de acordo com a análise das diretrizes do American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association de 2002, que recomendavam cautela no uso dessa metodologia, em portadores de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, devido ao risco de possível ocorrência tanto de arritmia cardíaca, como de colapso hemodinâmico no esforço. Atualmente, o estresse físico na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica integra a avaliação rotineira de pacientes sintomáticos com ou sem gradiente da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo < 50 mmHg, em repouso. Para este grupo, é um método seguro e confiável para medir o gradiente da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo durante o esforço e sólido diferenciador de pacientes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica não obstrutivos (gradiente ausente, tanto em repouso quanto no esforço) daqueles com gradientes lábeis (gradiente ausente no repouso e presente no esforço). Portanto, na avaliação da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica, o estresse físico é igualmente útil na quantificação do grau de regurgitação mitral, nas alterações da contratilidade segmentar do ventrículo esquerdo e na avaliação da função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo, diante do esforço, sendo capaz de predizer o futuro desenvolvimento de sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca. O método é também importante na determinação das diferentes estratégias de tratamento para cada paciente, desde a miomectomia cirúrgica ou a ablação septal alcoólica, para aqueles com gradiente lábil, com sintomas limitantes e refratários ao tratamento medicamentoso versus transplante cardíaco para aqueles sem gradiente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/congenital , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial , Heart Failure/complications , Mitral Valve , Stress, Physiological , Vibration/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Ergometry/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Echocardiography, Stress/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Ablation Techniques
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(5): 927-935, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1142266

ABSTRACT

Resumo A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) é a doença cardíaca de origem genética mais comum, cuja principal característica consiste na hipertrofia ventricular esquerda que acontece na ausência de outras patologias que desencadeiam tal alteração. A CMH pode se apresentar desde formas assintomáticas até manifestações de morte cardíaca súbita e de insuficiência cardíaca refratária. Métodos de imagem contemporâneos de alta resolução e escores clínicos mais acurados vêm sendo utilizados e desenvolvidos no sentido de propiciar uma avaliação prognóstica e funcional mais adequada, bem como possibilitar a estratificação dos casos de maior gravidade. Nesta revisão, serão abordados esses aspectos, entre outros tópicos clássicos inerentes ao estudo dessa doença.


Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease with a genetic origin, and its main characteristic is left ventricular hypertrophy that occurs in the absence of other conditions that trigger this change. HCM may present from asymptomatic forms to manifestations of sudden cardiac death and severe heart failure. Contemporary high-resolution imaging methods and more accurate clinical scores have been used and developed to provide a prognostic assessment and adequate functional assessments, as well as to allow for the stratification of clinical severity. These aspects will be addressed in this review, along with other classic topics inherent to the study of this disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure , Prognosis , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
8.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 341-346, Jul.-Sep. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131053

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Analizar el comportamiento de posibles causas predisponentes de muerte súbita (MS) intrahospitalaria luego de un infarto agudo de miocardio (IMA) en registros cubanos. Material y método: Se realizó una búsqueda de registros clínicos de pacientes con IMA en Cuba en las bases de datos de revistas nacionales, Scientific Library On-line (ScieLO) y Medline. Se priorizaron los artículos publicados desde 2016 para ser incluidos. Se definió como muerte súbita aquélla secundaria a arritmias ventriculares malignas (TV y FV), así como los pacientes con rotura cardíaca y actividad eléctrica sin pulso o asistolia como forma de presentación. Con posterioridad se evaluó la relación de este parámetro con la aparición de muerte súbita en 710 pacientes del Registro de Síndromes Coronarios Agudos (RESCUE). Resultados: En el contexto extrahospitalario, más de la mitad de las muertes súbitas cardíacas son secundarias a un infarto agudo de miocardio. En el hospital, la mortalidad en Cuba por IMA es homogénea. Sólo los centros con intervencionismo coronario escapan a este fenómeno. Aunque no del todo letales, las arritmias ventriculares malignas se relacionan con un peor pronóstico y su prevalencia no es homogénea en los registros revisados. Conclusiones: La muerte súbita luego de infarto agudo de miocardio será aún en Cuba una de las principales causas de muerte en los pacientes de fase aguda.


Abstract Objective: To analyze possible predisposing causes of in hospital sudden cardiac death (SCD) after an acute myocardial infarction (IMA) in Cuban registries. Material and methods: A search of clinical records of patients with IMA in Cuba was performed in the databases of national journals, Scientific Library On-line and Medline. Those articles published since 2016 were prioritized for inclusion. Sudden death is defined as that secondary to malignant ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation) as well as patients with cardiac rupture with pulseless electrical activity or asystole as a form of presentation. Subsequently, the relationship of this parameter with the occurrence of sudden death was evaluated in 710 patients from the Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (RESCUE). Results: In the out-of-hospital setting, more than half of SCD are secondary to an IMA. Once in the hospital, mortality in Cuba from IMA is homogeneous. Only centers with coronary interventionism escape this phenomenon. Although not totally lethal, the presence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias is associated with a worse prognosis and its prevalence is not homogeneous in the reviewed records. Conclusions: Sudden death after IMA will continue to be one of the main causes of death of patients in the acute phase in Cuba.


Subject(s)
Humans , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Ventricular Fibrillation/mortality , Ventricular Fibrillation/epidemiology , Registries , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Cuba , Hospitals , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(2): 197-204, ago., 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131297

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A estratificação de risco para morte súbita (MS) na cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) baseia-se em algoritmos distintos propostos pela diretriz norte-americana, ACCF/AHA 2011 e europeia, ESC 2014. Objetivo Analisar o modelo ESC 2014 na determinação do risco de MS e indicação de cardiodesfibrilador implantável (CDI) em prevenção primária na CMH por meio de confrontação com a normativa norte-americana. Métodos Foi avaliada uma coorte de pacientes com CMH, calculado o escore ESC HCM-Risk-SCD e analisada a concordância dos critérios de indicação de CDI entre as duas diretrizes pelo coeficiente de Kappa. O nível de significância adotado nas análises estatísticas foi de 5%. Resultados Em 90 pacientes consecutivos, seguidos por 6±3 anos, o escore calculado foi de 3,2±2,5%. Os preditores que mais contribuíram para o cálculo nas faixas de baixo (1,88% [1,42-2,67]), médio (5,17% [4,89-5,70]) e alto risco (7,82% [7,06-9,19]) foram espessura parietal máxima do ventrículo esquerdo (1,60% [1,25-2,02] ; 3,20% [3,18-3,36] ; 4,46% [4,07-5,09]), diâmetro do átrio esquerdo (0,97% [0,83-1,21]; 1,86% [1,67-2,40]; 2,48% [2,21-3,51]) e idade (-0,91% [0,8-1,13]; -1,90% [1,12-2,03]; -2,34% [1,49-2,73]). O modelo europeu reduziu as recomendações de CDI em 32 (36%) pacientes. Entre os 43 (48%) em classe IIa pela ACCF/AHA , 8 (18%) migraram para IIb e 24 (56%) para III. Baixa concordância foi identificada entre as duas sistematizações, Kappa = 0,355, p = 0,0001. Dos 8 (9%) pacientes com MS ou choque apropriado, 4 (50%) atingiram indicação IIa pela ACCF/AHA , mas nenhum pela ESC . Conclusão Baixa concordância foi identificada entre as diretrizes analisadas. O novo modelo reduziu as indicações de CDI, notadamente em classe IIa, mas deixou desprotegida a totalidade de pacientes com MS ou choque apropriado. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):197-204)


Abstract Background Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is based on different algorithms proposed by the 2011 ACCF/AHA and 2014 ESC guidelines. Objective To analyze the 2014 ESC model for SCD risk stratification and primary prevention ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) in HCM in comparison to the North American guideline. Methods An HCM cohort was evaluated and the ESC HCM-Risk SCD score was calculated. Agreement of ICD recommendations criteria between the two guidelines was analyzed with Kappa coefficient. P<0.05 was adopted for the statistical analysis. Results In 90 consecutive patients followed for 6±3 years, the mean calculated ESC risk score was 3.2±2.5%. The risk predictors that have mainly contributed to the score calculation in the low (1.88% [1.42-2.67]), intermediate (5.17% [4.89-5.70]) and high-risk (7.82% [7.06-9.19]) categories were: maximal left ventricular wall thickness (1.60% [1.25-2.02]; 3.20% [3.18-3.36]; 4.46% [4.07-5.09]), left atrial diameter (0.97% [0.83-1.21]; 1.86% [1.67-2.40]; 2.48% [2.21-3.51]) and age (-0.91% [0.8-1.13]; -1.90% [1.12-2.03]; -2.34% [1.49-2.73]). The European model decreased the ICD recommendations in 32 (36%) patients. Among the 43 (48%) individuals with class IIa recommendation under the 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline, 8 (18%) were downgraded to class IIb and 24 (56%) to class III. Low agreement was found between the two systems: Kappa=0.355 and p=0.0001. In 8 (9%) patients with SCD or appropriate shock, 4 (50%) met class IIa indication with the 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline, but none achieved this class of recommendation with the 2014 ESC model. Conclusion Low agreement was found between the two strategies. The novel ESC model decreased the ICD recommendations, especially in those with class IIa recommendation, but left unprotected all patients with SCD or appropriate shock. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(2):197-204)


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications , Defibrillators, Implantable , Primary Prevention , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Risk Assessment
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 772-777, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139370

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of implantable cardiac devices in patients with sudden cardiac arrest has contributed to their survival. Aim: To determine the survival rate at 30 days and one year after hospital discharge of patients who had a cardiac arrest with subsequent placement of an implantable cardiac device. Material and Methods: Twenty-three patients older than 18 years who presented sudden extra-institutional or intra-institutional death with subsequent implantation of an implantable cardiac device and whose survival was recorded at 30 days and one year, were included. A univariate analysis was performed. Results: Eighteen patients had an extra institutional cardiac arrest. All patients were discharged alive. We could not ascertain the health status of one patient at follow-up. Twenty-one patients had a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) of 1 at discharge. One patient died of a stroke within 30 days and one patient died due to an arrhythmic electrical storm one year later. Twenty patients survived at least one year after hospital discharge. Conclusions: Survival at 30 days and one year, was high in patients with sudden death or cardiac arrest who required intracardiac devices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Defibrillators, Implantable , Heart Arrest/therapy , Patient Discharge , Time Factors , Survival Rate , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology
11.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(2): 183-189, Apr.-Jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131029

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden death (SD) continue to be a global public health problem, although the true incidence is unknown, it is estimated that they are responsible for 30% of cardiac origin mortality and may represent 20% of total mortality in adults. Unfortunately, the majority of cases occur in the general population, at the out-of-hospital level, in homes and in people who were not known to have heart disease. Although the majority of SCA victims are considered to be of cardiac origin and more frequent ischemic, it is not possible to rule out other causes only with the clinical diagnosis. Autopsy, histological, and toxicological studies are necessary in all victims of SCA and SD to determine the precise cause of death; when these studies are carried out, causes of non-cardiac origin have been found in up to 40% of victims. The type of arrhythmia responsible for an episode of SCA and SD has changed over the years, now asystole and pulseless electrical activity are detected more frequently than ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. These and other aspects that we consider important in the current behavior of SCA and SD are analyzed in this article.


Resumen El paro cardíaco súbito (PCS) y la muerte súbita (MS) continúan siendo un problema de salud pública mundial; aunque su verdadera incidencia se desconoce, se calcula que producen el 30% de la mortalidad de origen cardíaco y pueden representar el 20% de la mortalidad total en los adultos. Desafortunadamente, la mayor parte de los casos se presenta en la población general, de forma extrahospitalaria, en los hogares y en personas que no se conocían portadoras de cardiopatía. Aunque se considera que la mayoría de las víctimas de PCS es de origen cardíaco, y que es más frecuente el isquémico, no es posible descartar otras causas sólo con el diagnóstico clínico. Son necesarios la necropsia y los estudios histológicos y toxicológicos en todas las víctimas de PCS y MS para determinar la causa precisa de la muerte; cuando estos estudios se efectúan se han encontrado causas de origen no cardíaco hasta en 40% de las personas. El tipo de arritmia causante de un episodio de PCS y MS ha cambiado a través de los años; ahora se detectan con mayor frecuencia asistolia y actividad eléctrica sin pulso (AESP) que la fibrilación ventricular (FV) o la taquicardia ventricular sin pulso (TVSP). Estos y otros aspectos de importancia en el comportamiento actual del PCS y la MS se analizan en este artículo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Global Health , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Autopsy , Public Health , Incidence , Cause of Death , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology
12.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(4): e2019113, Oct.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1024144

ABSTRACT

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy used to be regarded as a rare untreatable cause of sudden death in young male athletes. This report is the case of a middle-aged female patient with hereditary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy masked by superimposed pericarditis and revealed by autopsy. This case report illustrates how co-morbidity can hide a crucial diagnosis. This case report also illustrates the value of autopsy disclosing a familial disease that is increasingly recognized and dramatically more treatable than a few decades ago. Sudden death due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has become preventable, if the diagnosis is made soon enough. The lessons for patient care from this case include the importance of not missing the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in female patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial/pathology , Delayed Diagnosis/prevention & control , Pericarditis/pathology , Autopsy , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Fatal Outcome
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 38-47, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002422

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Reliable markers to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) remain elusive, but echocardiogram (ECG) parameters may help stratify patients. Given their roles as markers for myocardial dispersion especially in high risk populations such as those with Brugada syndrome, we hypothesized that the Tpeak to Tend (TpTe) interval and TpTe/QT are independent risk factors for SCD in ESRD. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on a cohort of patients with ESRD starting hemodialysis. Patients were US veterans who utilized the Veterans Affairs medical centers for health care. Average age of all participants was 66 years and the majority were males, consistent with a US veteran population. ECGs that were performed within 18 months of dialysis initiation were manually evaluated for TpTe and TpTe/QT. The primary outcomes were SCD and all-cause mortality, and these were assessed up to 5 years following dialysis initiation. Results: After exclusion criteria, 205 patients were identified, of whom 94 had a prolonged TpTe, and 61 had a prolonged TpTe/QT interval (not mutually exclusive). Overall mortality was 70.2% at 5 years and SCD was 15.2%. No significant difference was observed in the primary outcomes when examining TpTe (SCD: prolonged 16.0% vs. normal 14.4%, p=0.73; all-cause mortality: prolonged 55.3% vs. normal 47.7%, p=0.43). Likewise, no significant difference was found for TpTe/QT (SCD: prolonged 15.4% vs. normal 15.0%, p=0.51; all-cause mortality: prolonged 80.7% vs. normal 66.7%, p=0.39). Conclusions: In ESRD patients on hemodialysis, prolonged TpTe or TpTe/QT was not associated with a significant increase in SCD or all-cause mortality.


RESUMO Introdução: Marcadores confiáveis para predizer morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) em pacientes com doença renal terminal (DRT) permanecem elusivos, mas os parâmetros do ecocardiograma (ECG) podem ajudar a estratificar os pacientes. Devido a seus papéis como marcadores para a dispersão miocárdica, especialmente em populações de alto risco, como aquelas com síndrome de Brugada, nós hipotetizamos que o intervalo pico da onda T ao final da onda T (TpTe) e TpTe/QT são fatores de risco independentes para MSC na DRT. Métodos: Revisão retrospectiva do prontuário foi realizada em uma coorte de pacientes com DRT iniciando a hemodiálise. Os pacientes eram veteranos de guerra americanos que utilizavam os centros médicos do Veterans Affairs para atendimento médico. A idade média de todos os participantes foi de 66 anos e a maioria era do sexo masculino, consistente com uma população veterana dos EUA. ECGs que foram realizados dentro de 18 meses após o início da diálise, e foram avaliados manualmente para TpTe e TpTe/QT. Os desfechos primários foram MSC e mortalidade por todas as causas, e estes foram avaliados até 5 anos após o início da diálise. Resultados: Após o critério de exclusão, foram identificados 205 pacientes, dos quais 94 com TpTe prolongado e 61 com intervalo TpTe/QT prolongado (não mutuamente exclusivo). A mortalidade geral foi de 70,2% em 5 anos e a MSC foi de 15,2%. Nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada nos desfechos primários ao se avaliar o TpTe (MSC: prolongado 16,0% versus normal 14,4%, p = 0,73; mortalidade por todas as causas: prolongado 55,3% vs. normal 47,7%, p = 0,43). Da mesma forma, nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada para TpTe/QT (MSC: prolongado 15,4% vs. normal 15,0%, p = 0,51; mortalidade por todas as causas: prolongado 80,7% vs. normal 66,7%, p = 0,39). Conclusões: Em pacientes com insuficiência renal terminal em hemodiálise, TpTe ou TpTe/QT prolongados não foram associados a um aumento significativo da morte súbita ou mortalidade por todas as causas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Veterans , Comorbidity , Incidence , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Heart Rate , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(3): 281-289, Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989326

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with sudden death (SD). Myocardial fibrosis is reportedly correlated with SD. Objective: We performed a systematic review with meta-analysis, updating the risk markers (RMs) in HCM emphasizing myocardial fibrosis. Methods: We reviewed HCM studies that addressed severe arrhythmic outcomes and the certain RMs: SD family history, severe ventricular hypertrophy, unexplained syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) on 24-hour Holter monitoring, abnormal blood pressure response to exercise (ABPRE), myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in the MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. We used relative risks (RRs) as an effect measure and random models for the analysis. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Twenty-one studies were selected (14,901 patients aged 45 ± 16 years; men, 62.8%). Myocardial fibrosis was the major RISK MARKER (RR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.95-6.03). The other RMs, except for LVOTO, were also predictors: SD family history (RR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.39-2.20), severe ventricular hypertrophy (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.26-2.74), unexplained syncope (RR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.69-3.07), NSVT (RR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.29-3.41), and ABPRE (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.12-2.08). Conclusions: We confirmed the association of myocardial fibrosis and other RMs with severe arrhythmic outcomes in HCM and emphasize the need for new prediction models in managing these patients.


Resumo Fundamento: A cardiomiopatia hipertrófica (CMH) está associada à morte súbita (MS). A fibrose miocárdica está supostamente correlacionada à MS. Objetivo: Realizamos uma revisão sistemática com metanálise, atualizando os marcadores de risco (MR) em CMH enfatizando a fibrose miocárdica. Métodos: Revisamos estudos de CMH que abordaram desfechos arrítmicos graves e certos MR: história familiar de MS, hipertrofia ventricular grave, síncope inexplicada, taquicardia ventricular não sustentada (TVNS) na monitorização com Holter de 24 horas, resposta anormal da pressão arterial ao exercício (ABPRE), fibrose miocárdica e obstrução da via de saída do ventrículo esquerdo (VSVE) nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO. Utilizamos os riscos relativos (RRs) como uma medida de efeito e modelos aleatórios para a análise. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em p < 0,05. Resultados: Vinte e um estudos foram selecionados (14.901 pacientes com idade de 45 ± 16 anos; homens, 62,8%). A fibrose miocárdica foi o principal MARCADOR DE RISCO (RR, 3,43; IC95%, 1,95-6,03). Os outros MR, exceto obstrução da VSVE, também foram preditores: história familiar de MS (RR, 1,75; IC95%, 1,39-2,20), hipertrofia ventricular grave (RR, 1,86; IC95%, 1,26-2,74), síncope inexplicada (RR, 2,27; IC95%, 1,69-3,07), TVNS (RR, 2,79; IC95%, 2,29-3,41) e ABPRE (RR, 1,53; IC95%, 1,12-2,08). Conclusões: Confirmamos a associação de fibrose miocárdica e outros MR com desfechos arrítmicos graves na CMH e enfatizamos a necessidade de novos modelos de previsão no manejo desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Observational Studies as Topic
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 306-312, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124152

ABSTRACT

Resumen Actualmente hay un porcentaje importante de autopsias que quedan sin un diag nóstico concluyente del fallecimiento, especialmente cuando este evento letal se produce súbitamente. El análisis genético se ha ido incorporando recientemente al campo de la medicina forense, sobre todo en aquellos pacientes que han fallecido de forma repentina, y donde no se identifica causa concluyente del fallecimiento tras una autopsia médico-legal completa. En estos casos las enfermedades eléctricas primarias son las principales responsables del fallecimiento. Hasta la fecha se han descrito más de 40 genes asociados a afecciones arritmogénicas causantes de muerte súbita cardiaca. Las principales enfermedades arritmogénicas son el síndrome de QT largo y la taquicardia ventricular; estudios genéticos post-mortem no solo permiten llevar a cabo un diagnóstico de la causa del fallecimiento, sino que también permiten una traslación clínica hacia los familiares, focalizado en la identificación precoz de individuos en riesgo de síncope, así como adopción de medidas terapéuticas personalizadas para la prevención de un episodio arrítmico letal.


Abstract Currently, there are a significant percentage of autopsies left without a conclusive diagnosis of death, especially when this lethal event occurs suddenly. Genetic analysis has been recently incorporated into the field of forensic medicine, especially in patients with sudden death and where no conclusive cause of death is identified after a complete medical- legal autopsy. Inherited arrhythmogenic diseases are the main cause of death in these cases. To date, more than 40 genes have been associated with arrhythmogenic disease, and causing sudden cardiac death has been described. The main arrhythmogenic diseases are Long QT Syndrome, Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia, Brugada Syndrome, and Short QT Syndrome. These post-mortem genetic studies, not only allow a diagnosis of the cause of death, but also allow a clinical translation in relatives, focusing on the early identification of individuals at risk of syncope, as well as adopting personalised therapeutic measures for the prevention of a lethal arrhythmic episode.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Autopsy/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/genetics , Syncope/etiology
16.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(4): 268-276, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124148

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y espectro de las enfermedades que predisponen la muerte súbita cardiaca en niños mexicanos e identificar los principales signos y síntomas tempranos que pueden permitir al personal de salud sospechar acerca de estas enfermedades y referir a los pacientes a un hospital de tercer nivel de manera temprana. Métodos: La incidencia, prevalencia y prevalencia de periodo, así como los primeros síntomas, los datos clínicos y el seguimiento, se describen en todos los niños con enfermedades que predisponen a la muerte súbita cardiaca en el Hospital Infantil de México. Resultados: Cincuenta y nueve pacientes de 8 ± 5 años, 40 con miocardiopatías y 19 con enfermedades arritmogénicas hereditarias. La prevalencia del periodo fue de 9.5/1,000 pacientes/año. Los primeros síntomas más comunes fueron disnea, palpitaciones y síncope. En 9 casos se encontró un patrón de herencia mendeliana. Tres pacientes fallecieron de muerte súbita cardiaca durante el periodo de estudio. Conclusión: Las enfermedades que predisponen a la muerte súbita cardiaca en los niños no son muy conocidas por la comunidad médica y general. Todo niño con disnea, palpitaciones y/o síncope debe referirse para la búsqueda intensiva de estas enfermedades. Una evaluación cardiológica completa en todos los miembros de la familia está indicada.


Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and spectrum of diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in Mexican children, and to identify the main early signs and symptoms that can enable the health personnel to suspect these diseases and to refer the patients to a tertiary hospital in a timely manner. Methods: Incidence, prevalence, and period prevalence, as well as early symptoms, clinical data, and follow-up were recorded on all children found with diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in The Children's Hospital of Mexico. Results: The study included 59 patients, with a mean age of 8 ± 5 years old, with 40 cardiomyopathies, and 19 with inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. The period prevalence was 9.5/1,000 patients/year. The most common early symptoms were dyspnoea, palpitations, and syncope. A Mendelian inheritance pattern was found in 9 cases. Three patients died of sudden cardiac death during the period of the study. Conclusion: Diseases that predispose to sudden cardiac death in children are not very well known by the general medical community. Every child with dyspnoea, palpitations and/or syncope, should be referred for the intensive search of these diseases. A complete cardiological evaluation in all members of the family is indicated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Syncope/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Follow-Up Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Mexico/epidemiology , Cardiomyopathies/complications
17.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 131(3): 4-13, Sept. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009216

ABSTRACT

Una de cada cinco muertes en adultos en países desarrollados se debe a causas cardiovasculares; la mitad de esas muertes se produce de forma súbita y un gran porcentaje en el ámbito extrahospitalario. Las medidas de prevención se dividen en: aquellas destinadas a prevenir en primer lugar que el evento de muerte súbita cardíaca suceda, y aquellas cuyo objetivo es actuar en el momento en que el evento de muerte súbita está sucediendo. Las primeras tienen como objetivo disminuir las principales causas de muerte súbita en países desarrollados: las cardiopatías estructurales (cuya principal causa es la enfermedad coronaria). En este sentido, con el fin de intentar paliar el desarrollo de una cardiopatía que predisponga a la aparición de arritmias fatales y la MSC, se implementan medidas de prevención primarias higiénico-dietéticas y farmacológicas (con el objetivo de disminuir y el controlar los factores de riesgo) y, en aquellos con enfermedad cardiovascular ya establecida, se implementan las estrategias secundarias farmacológicas y/o quirúrgicas (revascularización, reemplazo valvular, etc.). El segundo abordaje surge del hecho de que, a pesar de todas estas medidas, un gran número de pacientes presentará eventos arrítmicos en el ámbito extrahospitalario (MSCEH), ya sea porque aunque recibieron el tratamiento óptimo presentan aún un elevado riesgo de MSC, porque no fueron diagnosticados a tiempo o porque a pesar de haber hecho estudios complementarios el diagnóstico es muy dificultoso. Existen dos estrategias: la primera son los dispositivos de cardiodesfibrilación implantables (o, más recientes, los chalecos vestibles). Estos aparatos están indicados para una población seleccionada, sea por haber presentado ya un episodio de muerte súbita abortado, o por presentar una cardiopatía (estructural o genética) que predisponga a una mayor probabilidad de sufrir un evento. La segunda estrategia es la educación y el desarrollo de programas de salud pública que permitan capacitar a la población general en la realización de RCP y el uso de desfibriladores automáticos externos (DEAs), los cuales deberían estar disponibles en cualquier lugar público. Múltiples estudios demostraron que el acceso de la población general al aprendizaje de maniobras de RCP sencillas y pragmáticas y la presencia de DEAs se traduce en un gran aumento de sobrevida sin secuelas en víctimas de MSCEH. (AU)


One of every five deaths in adults is due to cardiovascular causes, in developed countries, and half of these deaths will occur suddenly. A large percentage occur in the out of hospital setting, so measures to prevent it are divided into: those designed to prevent, in the first place, the sudden cardiac death event from happening and those whose purpose is to act when the sudden death event that has already occurred and it´s ongoing. The first aims to reduce the main causes of sudden death in developed countries: structural heart disease (with coronary heart disease as its main cause). In this regard, with the purpose to mitigate the development of a heart disease that predisposes the occurrence of fatal arrhythmias and SCD, we have primary prevention measures, like healthy life style conduct with or without pharmacological treatment, (whose objective is the reduction and control of cardiovascular risk factors) and, in those with cardiovascular disease already established, there is an implementation of pharmacological and / or surgical strategies (Revascularization, valve replacement, etc.). The second objective arises from the fact that, despite all these preventive and therapeutic measures, a large number of patients will present out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) either because although they received optimal treatment they still remain in high risk of SCD, even because they were not diagnosed on time, or because despite having complementary studies made the diagnosis is very difficult. There are two well strategies: the first are implantable cardio-defibrillation devices (or, more recently, wearable vests). These are indicated for a selected population, either because they have already presented an episode of sudden aborted death, or because they have heart disease (structural or genetic), which predisposes to a greater probability of suffering an event. The second strategy is the education and development of public health programs that enable the general population to be trained in CPR and the use of external automatic defibrillators. (AEDs) should be available in any public place. Multiple studies showed that access to the general population for learning simple and pragmatic CPR maneuvers and the presence of AEDs is making an impact on a significant increase in survival without consequences in OHCA victims. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Electric Countershock , Incidence , Cause of Death , Age Factors , Athletes
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(4): 544-554, ago. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959560

ABSTRACT

La Evaluación Preparticipativa (EPP) definida como "la supervisión de salud de individuos, previo a la práctica de la actividad física y/o deporte, que busca optimizar su participación deportiva segura y brindar una oportunidad para identificar los riesgos actuales y futuros de su salud y su calidad de vida" contempla la EPP Cardiovascular (EPPC), que tiene por objetivo la pesquiza de patologías cardio vasculares con riesgo de agravarse o presentar muerte súbita durante la práctica de ejercicio. Si bien existe amplio consenso internacional respecto a que la realización de la EPPC en jovenes deportistas es de utilidad, no existe consenso respecto a si esta debe ser realizada a toda la población pediátrica ni tampoco sobre cuál es la mejor estrategia a aplicar. En el presente trabajo se presenta la posición de las sociedades cientificas relacionadas al deporte, actividad fisica y salud infantil sobre la Evaluación Preparticipativa Cardiovascular Pediátrica.


The Preparticipation Physical Evaluation (PPE), defined as "the health supervision of individuals, prior to the practice of physical activity and/or sports, which seeks to optimize their safe participation in sports and provide an opportunity to identify current and future risks to their health and quality of life", inclu des the Cardiovascular assessment, which aims to screen cardiovascular pathologies with the risk of worsening or sudden death during exercise. Although there is broad international consensus that the use of Pediatric Cardiovascular PPE in young athletes is useful, there is no consensus on whether this should be used in the entire pediatric population or on which is the best strategy to apply. This article presents the position of the scientific societies related to sport, physical activity and child health on the Pediatric Cardiovascular PPE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Sports , Mass Screening/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Physical Examination , Algorithms , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Chile , Child Health , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Risk Assessment , Electrocardiography , Medical History Taking
19.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 524-531, June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950166

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The new European Society of Cardiology guidelines for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) define the estimation of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk as an integral part of clinical management. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is recommended (class IIa) when the risk is ≥ 6%. Objectives: To compare the SCD risk stratification according to the 2011 and 2014 recommendations for ICD implantation in patients with HCM. Methods: Retrospective study including 105 patients diagnosed with HCM. The indication for ICD was assessed using the 2011 and 2014 guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 19.0.0.2®. The tests performed were bilateral, considering the significance level of 5% (p < 0.05). Results: Regarding primary prevention, according to the 2011 ACCF/AHA recommendations, 39.0% of the patients had indication for ICD implantation (level of evidence IIa). Using the 2014 guidelines, only 12.4% of the patients had an indication for ICD implantation. Comparing the two risk stratification models for patients with HCM, we detected a significant reduction in the number of indications for ICD implantation (p < 0.001). Of the 41 patients classified as IIa according to the 2011 recommendations, 68.3% received a different classification according to the 2014 guidelines. Conclusion: Significant differences were found when comparing the SCD risk stratification for ICD implantation in the two guidelines. The current SCD risk score seems to identify many low-risk patients who are not candidates for ICD implantation. The use of this new score results in a significant reduction in the number of ICD implanted.


Resumo Fundamento: As recomendações de miocardiopatia hipertrófica (MCH) da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia aconselham a estimativa do risco de morte súbita cardíaca (MSC) como parte da avaliação clínica e decisão de implantação de cardioversor desfibrilador implantável (CDI). Objetivo: Comparar a estratificação de risco de MSC de acordo com as recomendações de 2011 e 2014. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 105 pacientes com diagnóstico de MCH. Avaliou-se a recomendação para implantação de CDI conforme as recomendações de 2011 e 2014. A análise estatística foi realizada usando o software SPSS versão 19.0.0.2®. Os testes realizados foram bilaterais, sendo considerado o nível de significância de 5% (p< 0,05). Resultados: Conforme as recomendações ACCF/AHA 2011, 39,0% dos pacientes tinham indicação para implantação de CDI (nível de evidência classe IIa). Conforme as recomendações de 2014, apenas 12,4% dos pacientes apresentam indicação classe IIa para implantação de CDI. Comparando os dois modelos de estratificação de risco de MSC em MCH, verificou-se uma redução significativa na proporção de pacientes com indicação para implantação de CDI (p < 0,001). Do total de 41 pacientes classificados como IIa segundo as recomendações de 2011, 68,3% deles recebeu uma classificação diferente em 2014. Conclusão: No estudo foram encontradas diferenças significativas quando comparados os métodos de estratificação de risco de MSC para implantação de CDI. O escore de risco atual parece identificar muitos pacientes de baixo risco, que não são candidatos à implantação de CDI. A utilização desse novo escore resulta numa redução significativa do número de CDI implantados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/mortality , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Defibrillators, Implantable/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Stroke Volume , Time Factors , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/etiology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/physiopathology , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology
20.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(5): 412-417, May 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950150

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Sudden cardiac death is the most frequent death mechanism in Chagas disease, responsible for 55% to 65% of the deaths of patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). The most often involved electrophysiological mechanisms are ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has a beneficial role in preventing sudden death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmias, and, thus the correct identification of patients at risk is required. The association of microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) with the appearance of ventricular arrhythmias has been assessed in different heart diseases. The role of MTWA is mostly unknown in patients with CCC. Objectives: To evaluate the association between MTWA and the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CCC. Method: This is a case-control study including patients with CCC and ICD, with history of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (case group), and patients with CCC and no history of those arrhythmias (control group). The MTWA test results were classified as negative and non-negative (positive and indeterminate). The significance level adopted was a = 0.05. Results: We recruited 96 patients, 45 cases (46.8%) and 51 controls (53.1%). The MTWA test was non-negative in 36/45 cases (80%) and 15/51 controls (29.4%) [OR = 9.60 (95%CI: 3.41 - 27.93)]. After adjustment for known confounding factors in a logistic regression model, the non-negative result continued to be associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias [OR = 5.17 (95%CI: 1.05 - 25.51)]. Conclusion: Patients with CCC and history of malignant ventricular arrhythmias more often have a non-negative MTWA test as compared to patients with no history of arrhythmia.


Resumo Fundamento: A morte súbita cardíaca é o mecanismo de morte mais comum na doença de Chagas, responsável pelo óbito de 55% a 65% dos pacientes com cardiomiopatia chagásica crônica (CCC). Os mecanismos mais frequentemente envolvidos são as taquiarritmias ventriculares. O cardioversor-desfibrilador implantável (CDI) apresenta impacto na redução da mortalidade por arritmias ventriculares e faz-se necessária a correta identificação de pacientes sob risco. A associação de microalternância de onda T (MTWA) com o aparecimento de arritmias ventriculares foi avaliada em diferentes cardiopatias através de um teste. O papel da MTWA na identificação de pacientes sob risco na CCC permanece incerto. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre MTWA e a ocorrência de arritmias ventriculares malignas na CCC. Método: Trata-se de um estudo caso-controle, que incluiu pacientes com CCC em uso de CDI, com história prévia de arritmias ventriculares malignas (casos) ou sem história prévia (controles). Os resultados do teste foram classificados em negativo e não negativo (positivo e indeterminado). O nível de significância foi a = 0,05. Resultado: Foram recrutados 96 pacientes, 45 no grupo caso (46,8%) e 51 no grupo controle (53,1%). O teste de MTWA apresentou resultado não negativo em 36/45 pacientes no grupo caso (80%) e 15/51 no grupo controle (29,4%), OR = 9,60 (IC95%: 3,41 - 27,93). Após ajuste para fatores de confusão num modelo de regressão logística, o resultado não negativo continuou associado à presença de arritmias ventriculares malignas, com OR = 5,17 (IC95%: 1,05 - 25,51). Conclusão: Na CCC, pacientes com história de arritmia ventricular maligna apresentam maior frequência de teste de MTWA não negativo quando comparados a pacientes sem ocorrência prévia de arritmias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Chagas Disease/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Survival Analysis , Risk Factors , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electrocardiography
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