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1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 328-332, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922351

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Rapid decompressive craniectomy (DC) was the most effective method for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) with cerebral hernia, but the mortality and disability rate is still high. We suspected that hematoma puncture drainage (PD) + DC may improve the therapeutic effect and thus compared the combined surgery with DC alone.@*METHODS@#From December 2013 to July 2019, patients with HICH from Linzhi, Tibet and Honghe, Yunnan Province were retrospectively analyzed. The selection criteria were as follows: (1) altitude ≥1500 m; (2) HICH patients with cerebral hernia; (3) Glascow coma scale score of 4-8 and time from onset to admission ≤3 h; (4) good liver and kidney function; and (5) complete case data. The included patients were divided into DC group and PD + DC group. The patients were followed up for 6 months. The outcome was assessed by Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score, Kaplan-Meier survival curve and correlation between time from admission to operation and prognosis. A good outcome was defined as independent (GOS score, 4-5) and poor outcome defined as dependent (GOS score, 3-1). All data analyses were performed using SPSS 19, and comparison between two groups was conducted using separate t-tests or Chi-square tests.@*RESULTS@#A total of 65 patients was included. The age ranged 34-90 years (mean, 63.00 ± 14.04 years). Among them, 31 patients had the operation of PD + DC, whereas 34 patients underwent DC. The two groups had no significant difference in the basic characteristics. After 6 months of follow-up, in the PD + DC group there were 8 death, 4 vegetative state, 4 severe disability (GOS score 1-3, poor outcome 51.6 %); 8 moderate disability, and 7 good recovery (GOS score 4-5, good outcome 48.4 %); while in the DC group the result was 15 death, 6 vegetative state, 5 severe disability (poor outcome 76.5 %), 4 moderate disability and 4 good recovery (good outcome 23.5 %). The GOS score and good outcome were significantly less in DC group than in PD + DC group (Z = -1.993, p = 0.046; χ@*CONCLUSION@#PD + DC treatment can improve the good outcomes better than DC treatment for HICH with cerebral hernia at a high altitude.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Altitude , China , Decompressive Craniectomy , Drainage , Encephalocele/surgery , Hematoma , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive/surgery , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(6): 349-355, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131709

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occurs in a subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke and early decompressive craniectomy (DC) is one of its treatments. Objective: To investigate the functional outcome of patients with malignant ischemic stroke treated with decompressive craniectomy at a neurological emergency center in Northeastern Brazil. Methods: Prospective cohort study, in which 25 patients were divided into two groups: those undergoing surgical treatment with DC and those who continued to receive standard conservative treatment (CT). Functionality was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at follow-up after six months. Results: A favorable outcome (mRS≤3) was observed in 37.5% of the DC patients and 29.4% of CT patients (p=0.42). Fewer patients who underwent surgical treatment died (25%), compared to those treated conservatively (52.8%); however, with no statistical significance. Nonetheless, the proportion of patients with moderate to severe disability (mRS 4‒5) was higher in the surgical group (37.5%) than in the non-surgical group (17.7%). Conclusion: In absolute values, superiority in the effectiveness of DC over CT was perceived, showing that the reduction in mortality was at the expense of increased disability.


RESUMO Introdução: O infarto maligno da artéria cerebral média (ACM) ocorre em um subgrupo de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico e a craniectomia descompressiva (CD) precoce é um de seus tratamentos. Objetivo: Investigar o desfecho funcional de pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico maligno submetidos à craniectomia descompressiva em um centro de emergência neurológica do nordeste do Brasil. Métodos: Nesta coorte prospectiva, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico com craniectomia descompressiva (CD) e aqueles que mantiveram tratamento conservador (TC) padrão. A funcionalidade foi avaliada por meio da Escala de Rankin modificada (ERm) ao final de seis meses de seguimento. Resultados: Evidenciou-se desfecho favorável (ERm≤3) em 37,5% dos pacientes craniectomizados e em 29,4% dos pacientes não craniectomizados (p=0,42). A mortalidade foi menor no grupo de pacientes que se submeteram a tratamento cirúrgico (25%) do que entre aqueles tratados conservadoramente (52,8%), porém sem significância estatística. Por outro lado, a proporção de pacientes com incapacidade moderada a grave (ERm 4‒5) foi maior no grupo cirúrgico (37,5%) do que no grupo não cirúrgico (17,7%). Conclusão: Em valores absolutos, percebeu-se superioridade na eficácia do tratamento cirúrgico sobre o conservador, mostrando que a redução de mortalidade se dá à custa de aumento da incapacidade funcional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/surgery , Decompressive Craniectomy , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging
3.
Fisioter. Bras ; 21(1): 39-48, mar 8, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282569

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A craniectomia descompressiva (CD) é o procedimento cirúrgico capaz de reduzir a mortalidade em pacientes com edema cerebral secundário a um AVE maligno, porém não garante a recuperação funcional. Objetivo: Descrever o perfil clínico e funcional de pacientes submetidos a CD durante o tempo de internação hospitalar. Métodos: Estudo transversal realizado em uma Unidade de Acidente Vascular Cerebral (U-AVC) no período de setembro de 2018 a março de 2019. Coletaram-se dados sociodemográficos, estudo detalhado dos prontuários e dados referentes à funcionalidade, incapacidade e alcances funcionais por meio de questionários e avaliação física e neurológica. Resultados: A amostra foi composta por 21 participantes. A maioria do sexo masculino, idade média de 55±10 anos, casados, baixa escolaridade, exerciam algum tipo de atividade remunerada com renda de um a dois salários mínimos. Os fatores de risco mais prevalentes foram hipertensão arterial sistêmica, tabagismo, etilismo, sedentarismo e sobrepeso. Durante o período de internação hospitalar, a maioria dos pacientes evoluiu com altos índices de incapacidade e baixos níveis de independência e funcionalidade cognitiva e motora. Conclusão: Além de apresentarem combinações de diferentes fatores de risco relacionados ao desenvolvimento de AVE, a maioria dos pacientes avaliados apresentaram altos índices de incapacidade e baixos níveis de independência e funcionalidade, necessitando de assistência máxima ou total para realizar a maioria de suas atividades de vida diária. (AU)


Introduction: Decompression craniectomy (DC) is a surgical procedure that can reduce mortality in patients with cerebral edema secondary to malignant stroke, but does not guarantee functional recovery. Objective: To describe the clinical and functional profile of patients undergoing DC during their hospital stay. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in a Stroke Unit from September 2018 to March 2019. Sociodemographic data, detailed study of medical records, and data on functionality, disability and functional range were collected through questionnaires and physical and neurological evaluation. Results: The sample consisted of 21 participants. Most were male, mean age 55 ±10 years, married, with low education, had paid activity with income of one to two minimum wages. The most prevalent risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, physical inactivity and overweight. During hospitalization, most patients evolved with high levels of disability and low levels of independence and cognitive and motor functionality. Conclusion: In addition to presenting combinations of different risk factors related to the development of stroke, most of the patients evaluated had high levels of disability and low levels of independence and functionality, requiring maximum or total assistance to develop most of their daily living activities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke , Decompressive Craniectomy , Physical Therapy Modalities , Independent Living
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(6): 1457-1470, oct.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094142

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La hipertensión intracraneal influye negativamente en el pronóstico del traumatismo craneoencefálico grave y del infarto maligno de la arteria cerebral media. La craniectomía descompresiva constituye una opción de tratamiento. Con esta revisión se persigue valorar las controversias de la craniectomía descompresiva en el tratamiento de la hipertensión endocraneana. Para lo cual se realizó una exhaustiva revisión de la literatura donde se tuvieron en cuenta diversos estudios multicéntricos y multinacionales que plasmaron aspectos polémicos acerca de la utilización de este proceder neuroquirúrgico como terapia en el manejo de la hipertensión endocraneana refractaria a tratamiento conservador. Se concluye que la craniectomía descompresiva se considera beneficiosa en el infarto maligno de la arteria cerebral media, mientras que en el trauma craneoencefálico grave su utilidad es controvertida (AU).


SUMMARY Intracranial hypertension negatively influences the prognosis of severe craniaencephalic trauma and malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery. Decompressive craniotomy is a treatment option. The aim of this review is to assess the controversies of decompressive craniotomy in the treatment of intracranial hypertension. For this purpose, an exhaustive review of the literature was carried out, taking into account several multicentric and multinational studies revealing controversial aspects on the use of this neurosurgical procedure as therapy in the management of intracranial hypertension refractory to conservative treatment. It is concluded that decompressive craniotomy is considered beneficial in the malignant infarction of the middle cerebral artery, while in the case of severe craniaencephalic trauma its utility is controversial (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/surgery , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnosis , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/therapy , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Survivorship
6.
Zagazig univ. med. j ; 25(3): 291-297, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1273850

ABSTRACT

Background: Many studies discussed the validity of hematoma evacuation versus conservative treatment, and little research discussed the role of decompressive craniectomy in the management of SICH. The purpose of the study is to discuss the role of decompressive craniectomy alone in selected cases of supratentorial SICH and comparing it with the reported results of best medical treatment in the literatures. Patients and methods; Fourteen patients harboring SICH with mass effect were operated in Zagazig University Hospitals by decompressive craniectomy from March 2015 to September 2017. Inclusion criteria were hypertensive supratentorial SICH with massive edema and midline shift and GCS score below 10. Wide decompressive craniotomy was performed together with duroplasty. Patients were followed for 6 months postoperatively using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Results: There was 14 patients, 9 males and 5 females with mean age 69.7 (range 56 to 81), 8 right and 6 left sided hematoma with mean GCS of 7 (range 4 to 10), preoperative midline shift ranged from 9 mm to 15 mm (mean 12.7). Early postoperative follow up showed improvement of GCS mean 11 (range 6 to 15) and midline shift mean 3 mm (range 1 to 9) in the first 24 hours. At 6 months, mortality rate was 2/14. GOS showed good outcome (mRS 0-4) in 10 patients and poor outcome (mRS 5-6) in 4 patients. Conclusion: Decompressive craniectomy with duroplasty is an effective method for management of supratentorial SICH and is better than the best medical treatment in selected cases


Subject(s)
Cerebral Hemorrhage/surgery , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Egypt , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763100

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old female visited emergency department for a sudden onset of headache with vomiting after management for abortion at local department. Neurological examination revealed drowsy mentality without focal neurological deficits. CT showed 3.2×3.4 cm hyperdense intraventricular mass with intraventricular hemorrhage. The intraventricular hemorrhage was found in lateral, 3rd, and 4th ventricles. MRI showed well enhancing intraventricular mass abutting choroid plexus in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle. CT angiography showed tortuous prominent arteries from choroidal artery in tumor. Her neurological status deteriorated to stupor and contralateral hemiparesis during planned preoperative workup. Urgent transtemporal and transcortical approach with decompressive craniectomy for removal of intraventricular meningioma with hemorrhage was done. Grossly total removal of ventricular mass was achieved. Pathological finding was meningotheliomatous meningioma of World Health Organization (WHO) grade I. The patient recovered to alert mentality and no motor deficit after intensive care for increased intracranial pressure. However, visual field defect was developed due to posterior cerebral artery territory infarction. The visual deficit did not resolve during follow up period. Lateral ventricular meningioma with spontaneous intraventricular hemorrhage in pregnant woman is very uncommon. We report a surgical case of lateral ventricular meningioma with rapid neurological deterioration for intraventricular hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Arteries , Choroid , Choroid Plexus , Critical Care , Decompressive Craniectomy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Fourth Ventricle , Headache , Hemorrhage , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Pressure , Lateral Ventricles , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Neurologic Examination , Paresis , Posterior Cerebral Artery , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Stupor , Visual Fields , Vomiting , World Health Organization
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1067-1073, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Bone flap resorption (BFR) after cranioplasty with an autologous bone flap (ABF) is well known. However, the prevalences and degrees of BFR remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate changes in ABFs following cranioplasty and to investigate factors related with BFR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients who underwent cranioplasty with frozen ABF between January 2007 and December 2016. Brain CT images of these patients were reconstructed to form three-dimensional (3D) images, and 3D images of ABF were separated using medical image editing software. ABF volumes on images were measured using 3D image editing software and were compared between images in the immediate postoperative period and at postoperative 12 months. Risk factors related with BFR were also analyzed. RESULTS: The volumes of bone flaps calculated from CT images immediately after cranioplasty ranged from 55.3 cm³ to 175 cm³. Remnant bone flap volumes at postoperative 12 months ranged from 14.2% to 102.5% of the original volume. Seventy-five patients (77.3%) had a BFR rate exceeding 10% at 12 months after cranioplasty, and 26 patients (26.8%) presented severe BFR over 40%. Ten patients (10.3%) underwent repeated cranioplasty due to severe BFR. The use of a 5-mm burr for central tack-up sutures was significantly associated with BFR (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Most ABFs after cranioplasty are absorbed. Thus, when using frozen ABF, patients should be adequately informed. To prevent BFR, making holes must be kept to a minimum during ABF grafting.


Subject(s)
Autografts , Bone Resorption , Brain , Decompressive Craniectomy , Humans , Postoperative Period , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Skull , Sutures , Transplants
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant infarct cores were primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia. We evaluated the predictors for malignant progression and functional outcomes. METHODS: From January 2010 to March 2015 ischemic stroke patients with large vessel occlusion of the anterior circulation with infarct volume >82 mL on baseline diffusion weighted image (DWI) within 6 hours from onset, with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥15 were included. All patients were managed with intent for reperfusion and neurocritical care. Malignant progression was defined as clinical signs of progressive herniation. Predictive factors for malignant progression and outcomes of decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, 49 patients were included in the study. Among them, 33 (67.3%) could be managed with neurocritical care and malignant progression was observed in the remainder. Decompressive surgery was performed in nine patients (18.4%). Factors predictive of malignant progression were initial DWI volumes (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.02; P=0.046) and parenchymal hematoma (OR, 6.77; 95% CI, 1.50 to 30.53; P=0.013) on computed tomography taken at Day 1. Infarct volume of >210 mL predicted malignant progression with 56.3% sensitivity and 90.9% specificity. Among the malignant progressors, 77.7% resulted in grave outcomes even with DHC, while all patients who declined surgery died. CONCLUSION: Acute ischemic stroke patients with malignant cores between 82 to 209 mL can be primarily treated with neurocritical care based on reperfusion and hypothermia with feasible results. In patients undergoing surgical decompression due to malignant progression, the functional outcomes were not satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Critical Care , Decompression, Surgical , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diffusion , Hematoma , Humans , Hypothermia , Hypothermia, Induced , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739820

ABSTRACT

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is commonly performed in patients with intracranial hypertension or brain edema due to traumatic brain injury. Infrequently, neurologic deteriorations accompanied by sunken scalp may occur after DC. We report two patients with traumatic subdural hemorrhage who had neurologic deteriorations accompanied by sunken scalp after DC. Neurologic function improved dramatically in both patients after cranioplasty. Monitoring for neurologic deterioration after craniectomy is advised. For patients showing neurologic deficit with a sunken scalp, early cranioplasty should be considered.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Brain Injuries , Decompressive Craniectomy , Hematoma, Subdural , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Neurologic Manifestations , Scalp , Skin
11.
Rev. méd. (La Paz) ; 24(2): 49-52, Jul. Dic. 2018. Ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-987642

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El ictus no es solo una importante causa de muerte, sino de nuevas formas de vida, en relación a la discapacidad que produce. El infarto hemisférico que resulta usualmente de la oclusión aguda de la arteria carótida interna o cerebral media, representa un subgrupo devastador que comprende el 10% del ictus isquémico en general. El objetivo es relatar el caso de un paciente en quien se realizó craniectomía descompresiva, afortunadamente, con evolución favorable. Caso clínico: Paciente de 29 años, procedente y residente de la ciudad de La Paz, sin antecedentes personales patológicos relevantes, cuadro clínico de 8 horas de evolución caracterizado por alteración del estado de conciencia asociado a hemiplejia braquiocrural derecha, evidenciándose hipodensidad en hemisferio izquierdo a la tomografía simple de cerebro, se realiza craniectomía descompresiva, con evolución lenta del paciente durante 23 días, realizándose traqueostomía, con evolución posterior favorable, siendo dado de alta con nivel Rankin 4 y kinesioterapia intensiva.Discusión: El caso presenta varios datos importantes, tales como la edad del paciente, los hallazgos como hiperhomocisteinemia y alteración anatómica en arteria subclavia izquierda relacionados al evento isquémico, destacando la realización de craniectomía descompresiva, la cual es infrautilizada en nuestro medio y constituye sin duda una alternativa para salvar la vida y preservar la función en la medida de lo posible en los pacientes afectados de cuadros neurovasculares severos.


Subject(s)
Decompressive Craniectomy
12.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(12): 812-815, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983861

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Decompressive craniectomy (DC) reduces mortality and improves outcome in patients with massive brain infarctions. The role of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring following DC for stroke has not been well established. Methods: We evaluated 14 patients admitted to a tertiary hospital with malignant middle cerebral artery infarctions, from October 2010 to February 2015, who underwent DC and had ICP monitoring. Patients with and without episodes of ICP elevation were compared. Results: Fourteen patients were submitted to DC and had ICP monitoring following the procedure during the period. Ten patients (71.4%) had at least one episode of sustained elevated ICP in the first seven days after surgery. Maximal ICP levels had no correlation with age, time to hemicraniectomy or Glasgow Coma Scores at admission, but had a trend toward correlation with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission (p = 0.1). Ventriculitis occurred in 21.4% of the patients. Conclusions: High ICP episodes and ventriculitis were common in patients following hemicraniectomy for malignant middle cerebral artery strokes. Therefore, the implications of ICP and benefits of the procedure should be firmly established.


RESUMO Craniectomia descompressiva (CD) reduz a mortalidade e melhora o desfecho em pacientes com infartos malignos de artéria cerebral média (ACM). O papel da monitorização da pressão intracraniana (PIC) após CD para infartos malignos de ACM não está bem estabelecido. Métodos: Avaliamos pacientes consecutivos internados em um hospital terciário com infartos malignos de ACM de outubro/2010 a fevereiro/2015 tratados com CD e submetidos à monitorização da PIC. Foram comparados pacientes com e sem episódios de elevação de PIC. Resultados: Quatorze pacientes (idade média 49,0 ± 12,4 anos, 42,9% do sexo masculino) foram avaliados. Dez pacientes (71,4%) tiveram pelo menos um episódio de elevação da PIC nos primeiros sete dias após a cirurgia. A PIC máxima média foi de 26,71 ± 11,64 mmHg. Os níveis máximos de PIC não apresentaram correlação com a idade, o tempo de hemicraniectomia ou com a pontuação na Escala de Coma de Glasgow na admissão, mas houve tendência a ser correlacionada com a pontuação da National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale na admissão (p = 0,1). Ventriculite ocorreu em 21,4% dos pacientes. Conclusões: Os episódios de aumento da PIC foram comuns em pacientes tratados com CD por infarto maligno de MCA e ventriculite foi evento adverso frequente nesses pacientes. Portanto, as implicações da monitorização da PIC sobre o resultado funcional, bem como os riscos e benefícios do procedimento, devem ser melhor estabelecidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Glasgow Coma Scale , Retrospective Studies , Decompressive Craniectomy/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(4): 282-285, ago. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-954995

ABSTRACT

El síndrome del trefinado o craniectomizado abarca manifestaciones neurológicas asociadas a la depresión del flap cutáneo y se distingue del síndrome postraumático por su reversibilidad con el tratamiento reparador del defecto craneano. El coma no es una forma habitual de presentación. Comunicamos un caso de presentación atípica en un hombre de 36 años de edad con antecedente de craniectomía descompresiva, que presentó un cuadro de deterioro neurológico profundo atribuible al síndrome del trefinado, el cual revirtió tras la craneoplastía. En la fisiopatología del síndrome intervienen trastornos cerebrovasculares, metabólicos, hidrodinámicos del líquido cefalorraquídeo e hiperdinamismo de las estructuras encefálicas. El gold standard terapéutico es la craneoplastía. Se requieren estudios de mayor peso estadístico para determinar el tiempo quirúrgico apropiado.


The syndrome of the trephined or craniectomized is commonly referred as neurological manifestations associated to skin flap depression and reversible after craneoplasty, which allows its differentiation from post-traumatic syndrome. We present the case of a male patient, 36 years old, with history of decompressive craniectomy. He evolved with sudden neurological worsening associated to syndrome of the trephined and recovery after craneoplasty. Physiopathology of the syndrome involves cerebrovascular, metabolic and cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamic disturbances as well as parenchymal hyperdynamic mechanisms. Cranioplasty is the gold standard treatment. Still, studies with statistical power are needed to assess correct surgical timing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Trephining/adverse effects , Coma/etiology , Decompressive Craniectomy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Syndrome , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coma/diagnostic imaging
14.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(4): 257-264, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888383

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Decompressive craniectomy is a procedure required in some cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This manuscript evaluates the direct costs and outcomes of decompressive craniectomy for TBI in a developing country and describes the epidemiological profile. Methods: A retrospective study was performed using a five-year neurosurgical database, taking a sample of patients with TBI who underwent decompressive craniectomy. Several variables were considered and a formula was developed for calculating the total cost. Results: Most patients had multiple brain lesions and the majority (69.0%) developed an infectious complication. The general mortality index was 68.8%. The total cost was R$ 2,116,960.22 (US$ 661,550.06) and the mean patient cost was R$ 66,155.00 (US$ 20,673.44). Conclusions: Decompressive craniectomy for TBI is an expensive procedure that is also associated with high morbidity and mortality. This was the first study performed in a developing country that aimed to evaluate the direct costs. Prevention measures should be a priority.


RESUMO Introdução: A craniectomia descompressiva (CD) é procedimento necessário em alguns casos de trauma cranioencefálico (TCE). Este manuscrito objetiva avaliar os custos diretos e desfechos da CD no TCE em um país em desenvolvimento e descrever o perfil epidemiológico. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo foi realizado usando banco de dados neurocirúrgico de cinco anos, considerando amostra de pacientes com TCE que realizaram CD. Algumas variáveis foram analisadas e foi desenvolvida uma fórmula para cálculo do custo total. Resultados: A maioria dos pacientes teve múltiplas lesões intracranianas, sendo que 69.0% evoluíram com algum tipo de complicação infecciosa. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 68,8%. O custo total foi R$ 2.116.960,22 (US$ 653,216.00) e o custo médio por paciente foi R$ 66.155,00 (US$ 20,415.00). Conclusões: CD no TCE é um procedimento caro e associado á alta morbidade e mortalidade. Este foi o primeiro estudo realizado em um país em desenvolvimento com o objetivo de avaliar os custos diretos. Medidas de prevenção devem ser priorizadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Decompressive Craniectomy/economics , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/surgery , Brazil , Glasgow Coma Scale , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Decompressive Craniectomy/statistics & numerical data , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/economics
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(1): 144-158, ene.-feb. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-902276

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se revisó la literatura existente sobre la Malformación de Chiari Tipo I en el adulto, haciendo énfasis en su diagnóstico imagenológico y tratamiento médico-quirúrgico. La malformación de Chiari es una enfermedad poco frecuente. Representa entre el 1 y el 4 % de todas las patologías neuroquirúrgicas. El diagnóstico se realiza meses y hasta años después de comenzada la sintomatología y se confirma en el 100 % de los casos con resonancia magnética de cráneo. El tratamiento es quirúrgico en los pacientes sintomáticos, siendo controversial en aquellos oligosintomáticos o con diagnóstico casual. La cirugía siempre debe realizarse con el apoyo de monitoreo neurofisiológico, que puede ser determinante en la técnica quirúrgica a emplear. La mortalidad asociada a la cirugía es muy baja, oscilando entre el 0 y 0,5 % según la mayoría de las series. Lo más importante es la selección de los pacientes para el tratamiento quirúrgico. No debe asumirse una actitud expectante en espera de un deterioro neurológico que justifique la cirugía, cuando ésta se hace a tiempo los resultados son mejores y con un mínimo de complicaciones (AU).


ABSTRACT The existent literature on Type I Chiari Malformation in adults was reviewed, making emphasis in its imaging diagnosis and medico-surgical treatment. Chiari malformation is a few frequent disease. It represents between 1 % and 4 % of all the neurosurgery pathologies. The diagnosis is made up months and even years after the beginning of the symptoms and it is confirmed by cranial magnetic resonance in the 100 % of the cases. The treatment is surgical in symptomatic patients, and it is controversial in the oligosymptomatic ones and in those with casual diagnosis. The surgery should be performed with the support of neurophysiological monitoring that might be determinant in the surgical technique to use. The mortality associated to the surgery is low, ranging from 0 and 0.5 % in most of the series. The most important thing is the choice of the patients for the surgical treatment. The neurological deterioration should not be expected to justify the surgery; when the surgery is carried out on time the results are better and with the minimum of complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/surgery , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/diagnosis , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/etiology , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/physiopathology , Arnold-Chiari Malformation/diagnostic imaging , Syringomyelia , Cranial Fossa, Posterior/abnormalities , Decompressive Craniectomy , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Intracranial Hypertension , Hydrocephalus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Massive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and major infarction (MI) are devastating cerebral vascular diseases. Decompression craniectomy (DC) is a common treatment approach for these diseases and acceptable clinical results have been reported. Author experienced the postoperative intracranaial pressure (ICP) trend is somewhat different between the ICH and MI patients. In this study, we compare the ICP trend following DC and evaluate the clinical significance.METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients who underwent DC following massive ICH (81 cases) or MI (62 cases) were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was 56.3±14.3 (median=57, male : female=89 : 54). DC was applied using consistent criteria in both diseases patients; Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score less than 8 and a midline shift more than 6 mm on brain computed tomography. In all patients, ventricular puncture was done before the DC and ICP trends were monitored during and after the surgery. Outcome comparisons included the ictus to operation time (OP-time), postoperative ICP trend, favorable outcomes and mortality.RESULTS: Initial GCS (p=0.364) and initial ventricular ICP (p=0.783) were similar among the ICH and MI patients. The postoperative ICP of ICH patients were drop rapidly and maintained within physiological range if greater than 80% of the hematoma was removed. While in MI patients, the postoperative ICP were not drop rapidly and maintained above the physiologic range (MI=18.8 vs. ICH=13.6 mmHg, p=0.000). The OP-times were faster in ICH patients (ICH=7.3 vs. MI=40.9 hours, p=0.000) and the mortality rate was higher in MI patients (MI=37.1% vs. ICH=17.3%, p=0.007).CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that if greater than 80% of the hematoma was removed in ICH patients, the postoperative ICP rarely over the physiologic range. But in MI patients, the postoperative ICP was above the physiologic range for several days after the DC. Authors propose that DC is no need for the massive ICH patient if a significant portion of their hematoma is removed. But DC might be essential to improve the MI patients’ outcome and timely treatment decision.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Decompression , Decompressive Craniectomy , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Intracranial Pressure , Male , Mortality , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Vascular Diseases
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765226

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Massive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and major infarction (MI) are devastating cerebral vascular diseases. Decompression craniectomy (DC) is a common treatment approach for these diseases and acceptable clinical results have been reported. Author experienced the postoperative intracranaial pressure (ICP) trend is somewhat different between the ICH and MI patients. In this study, we compare the ICP trend following DC and evaluate the clinical significance. METHODS: One hundred forty-three patients who underwent DC following massive ICH (81 cases) or MI (62 cases) were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was 56.3±14.3 (median=57, male : female=89 : 54). DC was applied using consistent criteria in both diseases patients; Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score less than 8 and a midline shift more than 6 mm on brain computed tomography. In all patients, ventricular puncture was done before the DC and ICP trends were monitored during and after the surgery. Outcome comparisons included the ictus to operation time (OP-time), postoperative ICP trend, favorable outcomes and mortality. RESULTS: Initial GCS (p=0.364) and initial ventricular ICP (p=0.783) were similar among the ICH and MI patients. The postoperative ICP of ICH patients were drop rapidly and maintained within physiological range if greater than 80% of the hematoma was removed. While in MI patients, the postoperative ICP were not drop rapidly and maintained above the physiologic range (MI=18.8 vs. ICH=13.6 mmHg, p=0.000). The OP-times were faster in ICH patients (ICH=7.3 vs. MI=40.9 hours, p=0.000) and the mortality rate was higher in MI patients (MI=37.1% vs. ICH=17.3%, p=0.007). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that if greater than 80% of the hematoma was removed in ICH patients, the postoperative ICP rarely over the physiologic range. But in MI patients, the postoperative ICP was above the physiologic range for several days after the DC. Authors propose that DC is no need for the massive ICH patient if a significant portion of their hematoma is removed. But DC might be essential to improve the MI patients’ outcome and timely treatment decision.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Decompression , Decompressive Craniectomy , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Infarction , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Intracranial Pressure , Male , Mortality , Punctures , Retrospective Studies , Stroke , Vascular Diseases
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Temporal hollowing is inevitable after decompressive craniectomy. This complication affects self-perception and quality of life, and various techniques and materials have therefore been used to restore patients’ confidence. Autologous fat grafting in postoperative scar tissue has been considered challenging because of the hostile tissue environment. However, in this study, we demonstrate that autologous fat grafting can be a simple and safe treatment of choice, even for postoperative depressed temporal scar tissue. METHODS: Autologous fat grafting was performed in 13 patients from 2011 to 2016. Fat was harvested according to Coleman’s strategy, using a tumescent technique. Patient-reported outcomes were collected preoperatively and at 1-month and 1-year follow-ups. Photographs were taken at each visit. RESULTS: The thighs were the donor site in all cases for the first procedure. The median final volume of harvested fat was 29.4 mL (interquartile range [IQR], 24.0–32.8 mL). The median final volume of fat transferred into the temporal area was 4.9 mL on the right side (IQR, 2.5–7.1 mL) and 4.6 mL on the left side (IQR, 3.7–5.9 mL). There were no major complications. The patient-reported outcomes showed significantly improved self-perceptions at 1 month and at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite concerns about the survival of grafted fat in scar tissue, we advise autologous fat grafting for patients with temporal hollowing resulting from a previous craniectomy.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Cicatrix , Decompressive Craniectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lipectomy , Quality of Life , Self Concept , Thigh , Tissue Donors , Transplantation , Transplantation, Autologous , Transplants
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) often require surgical treatment. Among patients who primarily underwent craniotomy for the removal of hematoma, some consequently developed aggressive intracranial hypertension and brain edema, and required secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC). To avoid reoperation, we investigated factors which predict the requirement of DC by comparing groups of ASDH patients who did and did not require DC after craniotomy. METHODS: The 129 patients with ASDH who underwent craniotomy from September 2007 to September 2017 were reviewed. Among these patients, 19 patients who needed additional DC (group A) and 105 patients who underwent primary craniotomy only without reoperation (group B) were evaluated. A total of 17 preoperative and intraoperative factors were analyzed and compared statistically. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare these factors. RESULTS: Five factors showed significant differences between the two groups. They were the length of midline shifting to maximal subdural hematoma thickness ratio (magnetization transfer [MT] ratio) greater than 1 (p 1, IVH, and TICH on preoperative brain computed tomography images, intraoperative signs of intracranial hypertension, brain edema, and bleeding tendency were identified as factors indicating that DC would be required. The necessity for preemptive DC must be carefully considered in patients with such risk factors.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic , Craniotomy , Decompressive Craniectomy , Hematoma , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Acute , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Multivariate Analysis , Reoperation , Risk Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717718

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) to bone flap distance and clinical outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who underwent decompressive craniectomy (DC). METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records identified 255 adult patients who underwent DC with hematoma removal to treat TBI at our hospital from 2016 through 2017; of these, 68 patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent unilateral DC. The nearest SSS to bone flap distances were measured on postoperative brain computed tomography images, and patients were divided into groups A (distance ≥20 mm) and B (distance < 20 mm). The estimated blood loss (EBL) and operation time were evaluated using anesthesia records, and the time spent in an intensive care unit (ICU) was obtained by chart review. The clinical outcome was rated using the extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The male to female ratio was 15:2 and the mean subject age was 55.12 years (range, 18–79 years). The mean EBL and operation times were significantly different between groups A and B (EBL: 655.26 vs. 1803.33 mL, p < 0.001; operation time: 125.92 vs. 144.83 min, p < 0.001). The time spent in the ICU and GOS-E scores did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSION: We recommend that when DC is indicated due to TBI, an SSS to bone flap distance of at least 20 mm should be maintained, considering the EBL, operation time, and other outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia , Brain , Brain Injuries , Decompressive Craniectomy , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hematoma , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Medical Records , Retrospective Studies , Superior Sagittal Sinus , Trauma Centers
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