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1.
Medicina UPB ; 41(1): 3-11, mar. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362378

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: este estudio busca describir los individuos evaluados por sobredosis de acetaminofén entre 2019 y 2020 en un centro de referencia de trasplante hepático en Colombia. Metodología: estudio derivado del análisis secundario de historias clínicas entre el 1.º de enero de 2019 y el 31 de diciembre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión abarcan individuos con ingestión aguda y voluntaria de dosis tóxicas de acetaminofén (>4 g/día). Resultados: sesenta y tres casos, 68% mujeres, 67% menores de 18 años y 54% estudiantes. Reportó historia personal de enfermedad psiquiátrica el 60% y el 35% al menos un intento de suicidio previo. La mediana de dosis de acetaminofén fue 15g, 46% refirieron co-ingesta de otras sustancias y 13% estaba bajo efecto de sustancias psicoactivas. El 57% tenía la intención clara de suicidarse, así como 81% vomitó antes de acudir al servicio de urgencias, 22% recibió medidas de descontaminación y 10% no recibió N - acetilcisteína. Quince individuos desarrollaron lesión hepática aguda, nueve con criterios de severidad. Conclusiones: la población era predominantemente joven, la historia de enfermedad psiquiátrica fue muy prevalente y la mayoría refirieron un evento vital que explicara el comportamiento impulsivo de consumo. Ninguno desarrolló criterios para trasplante hepático, lo cual podría explicarse por la edad de los individuos, los episodios de vómito temprano, y la ausencia de enfermedad hepática crónica o de consumo de sustancias hepatotóxicas.


Objective: this study aims to describe patients with overdose intake of acetaminophen between 2019 and 2020 at a reference center for liver transplantation in Colombia. Methodology: study derived from a secondary analysis of the clinical records between January 1st, 2019, to December 31st, 2020. Inclusion criteria were individuals with voluntary acute ingestion of toxic doses of acetaminophen (>4 g/day). Results: sixty-three cases, 68% women, 67% <18-year-old, and 54% students. 60% had personal history of psychiatric illness and 35% reported at least one previous suicide attempt. The median dose of acetaminophen was 15g, 46% referred to co-ingestion with other substances and 13% were under the effect of any psychoactive substance. 57% had a clear intention of suicide. 81% vomited before the arrival to the emergency room, 22% received decontamination intervention with gastric lavage or activated charcoal, and 10% did not receive any dose of N-Acetylcysteine. Fifteen individuals developed an acute liver injury, nine with severity criteria. Conclusions: the population was predominantly young, the personal history of psychiatric disease was highly prevalent, and most of the cases referred a vital event that explains the impulsive behavior in acetaminophen consumption. None developed criteria for liver transplantation, and this could be explained by the young age of the individuals, the episodes of early vomiting, and the absence of chronic liver disease or hepatotoxic substance consumption.


Objetivo:este estudo busca descrever os indivíduos avaliados por sobredose de acetaminofen entre 2019 e 2020 num centro de referência de transplante hepático na Colômbia. Metodologia: estudo derivado da análise secundário de histórias clínicas entre o dia 1.º de janeiro de 2019 e 31 de dezembro de 2020. Os critérios de inclusão abrangem indivíduos com ingestão aguda e voluntária de dose tóxicas de acetaminofen (>4 g/dia).Resultados:sessenta e três casos, 68% mulheres, 67% menores de 18 anos e 54% estudantes. Reportou história pessoal de doença psiquiátrica, 60% e 35% pelo menos uma tentativa de suicídio prévio. A média de dose de acetaminofen foi de 15g, 46% referiram com ingestão de outras sustâncias e 13% estava sob efeito de sustâncias psicoativas. 57% tinham a intenção clara de suicidar-se, assim como 81% vomitou antes de acudir ao serviço de urgências, 22% receberam medidas de descontaminação e 10% não recebeu N - acetilcisteína. Quinze indivíduos desenvolveram lesão hepática aguda, nove com critérios de severidade. Conclusões: a população era predominantemente jovem, a história de doençapsiquiátrica foi muito prevalente e a maioria referiram um evento vital que explicasse o comportamento impulsivo de consumo. Nenhum desenvolveu critérios para transplantehepático, o qual se poderia explicar pela idade dos indivíduos, os episódios de vómito precoce, e a ausência de doença hepática crónica ou de consumo de sustâncias hepatotóxicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acetaminophen , Acetylcysteine , Suicide, Attempted , Vomiting, Anticipatory , Charcoal , Decontamination , Emergency Service, Hospital , Dosage , Gastric Lavage , Liver Diseases , Mental Disorders
2.
Medicina (Ribeirão Preto) ; 54(1)jul, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353668

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Introdução: A cabine de segurança biológica (CBS) é um equipamento de proteção coletiva, utilizado para efe-tuar a contenção de aerossóis produzidos nos procedimentos laboratoriais. A CBS protege tanto os trabalhadores, quanto o material manipulado e o meio ambiente. Dispõe de lâmpadas de luz ultravioleta (UV) que possui ação germicida, alterando os ácidos nucleicos dos micro-organismos. Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a ação germicida da luz UV da CBS classe II, tipo A2, frente à cultura de duas espécies de bactérias com diferentes condições de exposição a luz UV. Material e Métodos: Para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa foram utilizadas as bactérias Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031, na concentração de 1,5x108 Unidades Formadoras de Colônias/ml (UFC/ml), que após a semeadura em biplacas de Petri foram expostas à luz UV em diferentes condições e tempos. Resultados: Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as espécies de bactérias apresentaram igual perfil de crescimento ou inibição quando submetidas às diferentes condições de exposição. As biplacas de Petri com as tampas abertas e protegidas ou não com embalagem de esterilização apresentaram, nos tempos 15 e 20 minutos, inibição bacteriana. Nas biplacas protegidas pelo papel alumínio e nas biplacas com a tampa fechada, independentemente do tempo e da condição, os micro-organismos apresentaram crescimento bacteriano. Conclusão: Com os resultados obtidos, sugere-se que a ação germicida da luz UV foi eficaz, garantindo a descontaminação adequada e assegurando a qualidade na biossegurança laboratoria. (AU)


ABSTRACT: Introduction: The biological safety cabinet (BSC) is a collective protective device used to hold aerosols produced in laboratory procedures. The BSC protects workers, material handling, and the environment. It relies on ultraviolet light (UV) lamps that have germicidal action, altering the nucleic acids of microorganisms. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the germicidal action of BSC class II type A2 UV light against the culture of two bacterial species with different conditions of exposure to UV light. Methods: For the research, the bacteria Sta-phylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 were used, at a concentration of 1.5x108Colony Forming Units/ml (CFU/ml), which were seeded in Petri biplates. Use UV light under different conditions and times. Results: The bacterial species showed the same growth or inhibition profile when subjected to different exposure conditions. Petri dishes with the cover open and protected or not with sterilization packaging showed bacterial inhibition at 15 and 20 minutes. The microorganisms in the biplates protected by the aluminum foil and in the biplates with the cover on, regardless of the time and condition, showed bacterial growth. Conclusion: With the results obtained, it is suggested that the germicidal action of UV light was effective, ensuring adequate decon-tamination and ensuring quality in laboratory biosafety. (AU)


Subject(s)
PUVA Therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Ultraviolet Rays , Bacterial Growth , Decontamination , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Anti-Infective Agents
3.
Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 16-28, Jan-Apr2021. Ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348158

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os acessos endodônticos minimamente invasivos (AEMI) surgiram com o intuito de, por meio da preservação de estrutura dentária, manter a resistência à fratura de dentes tratados endodonticamente. A partir do primeiro estudo, em 2010, vários trabalhos foram desenvolvidos buscando entender qual a influência dos AEMI na resistência à fratura de dentes tratados endodonticamente. No entanto, interferências coronárias causadas pelos AEMI poderiam prejudicar a realização dos procedimentos subsequentes à cavidade de acesso, como a localização, instrumentação, limpeza, descontaminação e obturação dos canais radiculares. Objetivo: Com base nessa premissa, a presente revisão teve como objetivo responder algumas perguntas para que o clínico entenda quais são as principais modalidades de AEMI, os impactos da sua abordagem no tratamento endodôntico e o verdadeiro papel do tratamento endodôntico na perda dos elementos dentários. Resultados: Considerando os dados disponíveis até o presente momento, faltam evidências robustas para apoiar a alegação de que os AEMIs preservem a resistência à fratura dos elementos tratados endodonticamente melhor do que nos dentes acessados de maneira tradicional. Além disso, cavidades de acesso minimamente invasivas podem interferir em outras etapas do tratamento endodôntico, podendo torná-lo imprevisível. Conclusão: Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que há uma falta de evidências que apoiem a utilização de cavidades de acesso minimamente invasivas na prática clínica de rotina e/ou no processo de formação de alunos de graduação e pós-graduação (AU).


Introduction: Minimally invasive access cavities emerged aiming to maintain the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth through the preservation of dental structure. Starting with the first study in 2010, several others were developed to evaluate the influence of minimally invasive access cavities in the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. However, the coronal interference caused by those access cavities could impair the subsequent procedures of root canal treatment, such as the location, instrumentation, cleaning, disinfection and filling of the root canals. Objective: Based on this premise, the aim of the present review was to answer some questions so that the clinician knows the main modalities of minimally invasive access cavities, the impacts of this approach and the real role of endodontic treatment in the tooth loss. Results: Considering the available data, there is a lack of robust evidence in literature to support the claim that the minimally invasive access cavities preserve the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth better than the traditional one. In addition, these access cavities can interfere in other stages of endodontic treatment, making it unpredictable. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that there is a lack of evidence to support the use of minimally invasive access cavities in routine clinical practice and/or in the process of training undergraduate and graduate students (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Obturation , Therapeutics/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontists , Students , Decontamination
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e003, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132743

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The present study investigated the intracanal decontamination and apical extrusion of bacteria and debris from root canals instrumented with rotary and reciprocating systems (ProDesign Logic or ProDesign R), with different file diameters and using conventional syringe irrigation (CSI) or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). Eighty extracted mandibular premolars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis and randomly assigned to eight experimental groups according to the root canal instrumentation and irrigation technique employed (n = 10): G1: Prodesign Logic 25.06; G2: Prodesign R 25.06; G3 and G4 were instrumented with the same single-file systems, respectively, using 35.05 diameters and CSI. G5, G6, G7, and G8 were instrumented like the previous groups, but with PUI. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed microtubes. The weight of the empty microtube was subtracted from the final weight to establish the amount of extruded debris. Bacteria from root canals and extruded debris were collected for a microbiological evaluation of colony forming units (CFU/mL). For statistical analyses, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis followed by the Dunn's tests were used (α = 0.05). All instruments caused extrusion of debris. For irrigation techniques, PUI promoted greater debris and bacterial extrusion (p < 0.05). The CFU/mL count indicated that the instrumentation of the experimental groups were equally effective in the decontamination of the root canal (p > 0.05). The systems tested (regarding file diameter and kinematics) were associated with similar amounts of apically extruded debris and root canal decontamination. PUI was associated with greater debris and bacterial extrusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Preparation , Tooth Apex , Ultrasonics , Biomechanical Phenomena , Decontamination , Dental Pulp Cavity
5.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3475, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1341518

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare the efficacy of 80% (w/v) alcohol, rubbed for 30 and 60 seconds, in the manual processing of stainless-steel wash bowls, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent. Method: experimental study conducted in a hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, on 50 bowls randomly divided into two groups of 25 bowls each for interventions of 30 and 60 seconds of rubbing with 80% (w/v) alcohol. Results: based on the microbiological analyses collected, before and after the interventions for both groups, partial efficacy of the disinfectant was observed even when extending rubbing time. In both groups, there was a higher prevalence of survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with 14 strains that were resistant to carbapenems, being, specifically, 11 to imipenem and three to meropenem. Conclusion: stainless-steel bed wash bowls decontaminated for reuse by 80% (w/v) alcohol, after cleaning with running water and neutral detergent, showed to be reservoirs of hospital pathogens. The use of bed wash bowls for patients with intact skin would not have worrying consequences, but considering those with non-intact skin and the contamination of professionals' hands, the results in this study justify the search for other decontamination methods or the adoption of disposable bed baths.


Objetivo: comparar a eficácia do álcool 80% (p/v), friccionado por 30 e 60 segundos, no processamento manual de bacias de banho em aço inoxidável, após limpeza com água corrente e detergente neutro. Método: estudo experimental realizado em hospital do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com 50 bacias randomicamente distribuídas em dois grupos de 25, para as intervenções de 30 e 60 segundos de fricção com álcool 80% (p/v). Resultados: das análises microbiológicas coletadas, antes e após as intervenções para os dois grupos, verificou-se eficácia parcial do desinfetante, mesmo ampliando o tempo de fricção. Em ambos os grupos, observou-se maior prevalência de sobrevida de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14 cepas resistentes a carbapenens, especificamente, 11 ao imipenen e três ao meropenen. Conclusão: bacias de banho no leito em aço inoxidável, descontaminadas para reuso com álcool 80% (p/v), após limpeza com água corrente e detergente neutro, apresentam-se como reservatórios de patógenos hospitalares. O uso das bacias de banho no leito para pacientes com pele íntegra não teria consequências preocupantes, mas para aqueles com pele não íntegra e pensando na contaminação das mãos dos profissionais, os resultados dessa pesquisa justificam a busca de outros métodos de descontaminação ou a adoção de banho de leito descartável.


Objetivo: comparar la eficacia del alcohol al 80% (p/v), frotado durante 30 y 60 segundos, en el proceso de descontaminación manual de palanganas de baño de acero inoxidable, después de lavarlas con agua corriente y detergente neutro. Método: estudio experimental realizado en un hospital del estado de São Paulo, Brasil, con 50 palanganas divididas aleatoriamente en dos grupos de 25, para intervenciones de 30 y 60 segundos de frotamiento con alcohol al 80% (p/v). Resultados: los análisis microbiológicos recolectados, antes y después de las intervenciones para ambos grupos, demostraron efectividad parcial del desinfectante, incluso cuando se extendió el tiempo de fricción. En ambos grupos, se observó una mayor prevalencia de supervivencia de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 14 cepas resistentes a carbapenemas, específicamente 11 a imipenem y tres a meropenem. Conclusión: las palanganas de baño de cama de acero inoxidable, descontaminadas para su reutilización con alcohol al 80% (p/v), después del lavado con agua corriente y detergente neutro, actúan como reservorios de patógenos hospitalarios. El uso de las palanganas de baño de cama no tendría consecuencias preocupantes para pacientes con la piel íntegra, pero para aquellos cuya piel no conserva su integridad y pensando en la contaminación de las manos de los profesionales, los resultados de esta investigación justifican la búsqueda de otros métodos de descontaminación o la adopción del baño de cama desechable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stainless Steel , Brazil , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Ethanol
6.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 410-414, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138056

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate different decontaminants for tendon grafts, proposing an antiseptic protocol for contaminated grafts. Methods A total of 25 patients were tissue donors for the study. Each participant donated a 2.5-cm tendon sample, which was divided into 5 fragments with 5 mm each during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. The collected material was divided into 5 groups, totaling 125 samples. In total, four fragments of each patient were placed on the operating room floor for one minute for contamination, simulating the fall of the graft on the floor during surgery. The other fragment was immediately placed in a sterile container (group 1). One of the contaminated fragments was placed in the sterile container without being previously immersed in decontaminating solution (group 2). The remaining fragments were immersed for ten minutes in decontaminating solution: 0.5% chlorhexidine (group 3), 0.9% saline (group 4) and 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (group 5), and, after this time, they were individually placed in a sterile container. The samples from the 5 groups were submitted to microbiological examination. Results Bacteria were detected in 26% of the total samples in the microbiological tests, and in group 1 there was no growth of microorganisms. In group 2, bacterial growth was observed in 16 samples. Considering the evaluation of test groups 3, 4 and 5, the percentage of decontamination was higher than the growth of microorganisms in the respective cultures. Conclusion The protocol suggested by the study showed that intraoperative graft decontamination is possible.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar diferentes descontaminantes para enxertos de tendões, propondo um protocolo de antissepsia para o enxerto contaminado. Métodos Um total de 25 pacientes foram doadores de tecido para o estudo. Cada participante doou uma amostra de 2,5 cm de tendão, a qual foi dividida em 5 fragmentos de 5 mm durante cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA). O material coletado foi dividido em 5 grupos, totalizando 125 amostras. Ao todo, quatro fragmentos de cada paciente foram colocados sobre o piso da sala cirúrgica, durante um minuto, para contaminação, simulando a queda do enxerto no chão durante o ato operatório. O outro fragmento foi, imediatamente, colocado em um recipiente esterilizado (grupo 1). Um dos fragmentos contaminados foi colocado no recipiente esterilizado sem ser previamente imerso em solução descontaminante (grupo 2). Os demais fragmentos foram imersos, por dez minutos, em solução descontaminante: clorexidina 0,5% (grupo 3), soro fisiológico 0,9% (grupo 4) e ortoftaldeído 0,55% (grupo 5), e, após esse tempo, foram colocados individualmente em um recipiente esterilizado. As amostras dos 5 grupos foram submetidas a exame microbiológico. Resultados Houve detecção de bactérias em 26% do total de amostras nos testes microbiológicos, sendo que no grupo 1 não houve crescimento de micro-organismos. No grupo 2, observou-se crescimento bacteriano em 16 amostras. Avaliando-se os grupos de teste 3, 4 e 5, o percentual de descontaminação foi superior ao crescimento de micro-organismos nas respectivas culturas. Conclusão O protocolo sugerido pelo estudo mostrou que é possível a descontaminação transoperatória do enxerto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Operating Rooms , Tendons , Tissue Donors , Chlorhexidine , Antisepsis , Decontamination , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Determination , Transplants , Autografts
7.
Guatemala; MSPAS. IGR; 22 may 2020. 4 p. tab.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1097626

ABSTRACT

Fecha de actualización: 22 de mayo 2020. Disponer procedimientos para la adecuada descontaminación de los vehículos de emergencias que transportan pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Ambulances , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Security Measures/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786597

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MnO₂-diatom microbubbler (DM) on the surface of prosthetic materials as a mouthwash by comparing the biofilm removal effect with those previously used as a mouthwash in dental clinic.MATERIALS AND METHODS: DM was fabricated by doping manganese dioxide nanosheets to the diatom cylinder surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of DM and to analyze the composition of doped MnO₂. Stereomicroscope was used to observe the reaction of DM in 3% hydrogen peroxide. Non-precious metal alloys, zirconia and resin specimens were prepared to evaluate the effect of biofilm removal on the surface of prosthetic materials. And then Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms were formed on the specimens. When 3% hydrogen peroxide solution and DM were treated on the biofilms, the decontamination effect was compared with chlorhexidine gluconate and 3% hydrogen peroxide solution by crystal violet staining.RESULTS: Manganese dioxide was found on the surface of the diatom cylinder, and it was found to produce bubble of oxygen gas when added to 3% hydrogen peroxide. For all materials used in the experiments, biofilms of the DM-treated groups got effectively removed compared to the groups used with chlorhexidine gluconate or 3% hydrogen peroxide alone.CONCLUSION: MnO₂-diatom microbubbler can remove bacterial membranes on the surface of prosthetic materials more effectively than conventional mouthwashes.


Subject(s)
Alloys , Biofilms , Chlorhexidine , Decontamination , Dental Clinics , Dental Plaque , Diatoms , Gentian Violet , Hydrogen Peroxide , In Vitro Techniques , Manganese , Membranes , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Mouthwashes , Oral Hygiene , Oxygen , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans
9.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 49: e20200075, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1251980

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Tratamentos têm sido propostos para a peri-implantite com o objetivo de descontaminar a superfície dos implantes, removendo microrganismos que podem estar associados à doença. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ação in vitro de diferentes métodos de aplicação de digluconato de clorexidina (CLX) na descontaminação de discos de titânio (Ti) com microtopografia e seu efeito físico-químico sobre a superfície. Material e método: Vinte discos de Ti foram expostos a inóculo de Escherichia coli por 24 horas. Foram distribuídos em quatro grupos de descontaminação (n=5): 1 - um minuto de exposição à solução de CLX 0,12%; 2 - dois minutos de exposição à solução de CLX 0,12%; 3 - esfregaço durante um minuto com gel de CLX 1%; 4 - esfregaço durante um minuto com gel de CLX 2%. O produto de cada disco foi diluído e plaqueado individualmente. Após 24 horas, realizou-se contagem das unidades de colônias formadas (UFC). Resultado: O grupo com o menor número de crescimento de UFC foi o grupo 4 (0,20±0,37), com apenas UFC em uma das amostras. Seguido do grupo 2 (0,40±0,73), grupo 1 (18,60±33,96). O grupo 3 apresentou as maiores quantidades de UFC (36,07±41,39). Em todas as amostras, foi possível observar uma diminuição estatisticamente significante da concentração superficial de Ti, assim como um aumento de oxigênio. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que o uso de CLX gel a 2% em superfícies de Ti com microtopografia contaminadas com E. coli propicia a eliminação das UFC e que sua aplicação resulta em diminuição do percentual de Ti e aumento do teor de O.


Introduction: Treatments have been proposed for peri-implantitis aiming to decontaminate the implants` surface removing microorganisms associated with the disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of application of chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX) in the decontamination of titanium (Ti) discs with microtopography and its chemical-physical effect on the surface. Material and method: Twenty Ti discs were exposed to the Escherichia coli inoculum for 24 hours. Distributed equally in 4 decontamination groups (n = 5): 1- one minute of exposure to the 0.12% CLX solution; 2- two minutes of exposure to the 0.12% CLX solution; 3- smear for 1 minute with 1% CLX gel; and 4- smearing for 1 minute with 2% CLX gel. The product was diluted and plated individually. After 24 hours, colony units formed (CFU) were counted. Result: The group with the lowest number of CFU growth was group 4 (0.20 ± 0.37) with only one CFU in one of the samples. Followed by group 2 (0.40 ± 0.73), group 1 (18.60 ± 33.96), and group 3, which presented the highest amounts of CFU (36.07 ± 41.39). In all samples it was possible to observe a statistically significant decrease in the surface concentration of Ti, as well as an increase in oxygen. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the use of 2% CLX gel on Ti surfaces with microtopography contaminated with E.coli allows the elimination of CFU, and that its application results in a decrease in the percentage of Ti and an increase in the content of O.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques , Chlorhexidine , Decontamination , Dental Implantation , Chemical Phenomena , Peri-Implantitis , Oxygen , Titanium , Escherichia coli
10.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 19: e48223, 20200000.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1119291

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the potential risk for related events, inherent to the decontamination process of storage area shelves. Method:Related events were recorded in a checklist, previously evaluated by specialists, through direct non-participant observation in 10 work shifts at a Central Sterile Services Department (CSSD) of a large public hospital in the Midwest Brazil. Results:Shelf decontamination was performed at 85 of 160 observed opportunities.The main risk actions for related events were: over handling of the package, up to 10 touches/product, with an average of 3.17 touches, most of them exceeding two touches/ product (58.8%); no hand hygiene before, during or after the procedure; improper handling/displacement of products and improper action in case of product fall on the floor (6.25%). Conclusion:The related events observed during the shelf decontamination process represent a risk for product sterility maintenance, suggesting the need for reflection/discussion about the decontamination frequency of this clean area.


Objetivo: Avaliar o risco potencial para ocorrência de eventos relacionados, inerente ao processo de descontaminação de prateleiras da área de armazenamento e distribuição. Método: A ocorrência de eventos relacionados foi registrada em checklist,previamente avaliado por especialistas, por meio de observação direta não participante em 10 turnos de trabalho em um Centro de Material e Esterilização de um hospital público de grande porte da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil.Resultados: A descontaminação das prateleiras foi realizada em 85 das 160 oportunidades observadas. As principais condutas de risco para eventos relacionados foram:excesso de toques na embalagem, até 10 toques/produto, com média de 3,17 toques, sendo a maioria superior a dois toques/produto (58,8%); não higienização das mãos antes, durante ou após o procedimento;manuseio/deslocamento inadequado dos produtos e conduta inapropriada em caso de queda do produto ao chão (6,25%). Conclusão:Os eventos relacionados observados, durante o processo de descontaminação de prateleiras, representam risco para a manutenção da esterilidade dos produtos,o que sugere a necessidade de uma reflexão/discussão sobre a frequência de descontaminação dessa área limpa.


Subject(s)
Decontamination , Health , Product Storage , Sterilization , Risk , Nursing , Product Packaging , Equipment and Supplies , Products Distribution , Good Distribution Practices , Materials , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, Public , Housekeeping
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the best strategy for pacifier disinfection methods. Material and Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to find all relevant articles published over the past 20 years, based on PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers extracted data independently by using a standardized form. The following factors were recorded: country of study, type of study, pacifier material, sample number, microorganisms analyzed, decontamination methods used, method accessibility and results found. Results: A total of 121 articles were obtained from all databases. The selected documents underwent a final screening, resulting in 8 articles. The method of disinfection analyzed by the literature were: 3.5% neutral detergent, apple cider vinegar 70% spray, boiling water during 15 minutes, sodium hypochlorite 2.5, hydrogen peroxide 70% spray, chlorhexidine 0.12%, Brushtox®, sterile water and microwave. Conclusion: Because of the broad methods for pacifier disinfection and different levels of accessibility to disinfectant agents, the pacifier consensus for decontamination remains unclear. Although the disinfection methods are diverse, the methods suggested to its disinfection were identified and described in this article.


Subject(s)
Sucking Behavior , Decontamination , Coronavirus , Pacifiers/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Brazil , Disinfection , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180573, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132185

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work reports the study of the potential application of Zn/TiO2 catalysts, obtained by the sol-gel method, in processes of environmental decontamination through the reactions of photodegradation of textile dye, followed by electrospray mass spectrometry. The catalysts synthesis was performed according to a 2² factorial design with repetition at the central point. The characterization techniques used were: N2 adsorption measurements (BET method), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (MEV/EDS), X-ray diffraction and point of zero charge (PZC). The photocatalytic tests were performed in batch in the presence of sunlight, and to evaluate the degradation kinetics study, a rapid direct injection electrospray mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) method has been developed. By the photocatalytic tests, the calcination temperature of 400 °C has shown the best results of discoloration for the reactive Orange-122 dye (99.76%) in a reaction time of 2h. The discoloration kinetics were a pseudo-first order, and a statistical analysis was performed to investigate the effects of the variables and to optimize the conditions of discoloration to the dye. After the reactional time of 2 h, an ion of m/z 441.5 was detected by ESI-MS, indicating that the photocatalytic process was effective for the degradation of the dye to secondary compounds.


Subject(s)
Azo Compounds/toxicity , Biodegradation, Environmental , Decontamination/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Environmental Restoration and Remediation/methods , Waste Water , Photochemistry , Textiles/toxicity , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Catalysis , Catalytic Domain , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Coloring Agents , Photobioreactors , Models, Theoretical
13.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2,supl): 1-10, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1100335

ABSTRACT

Viruses can spread to the environment, and it can be challenging to clear it. A direct approach to limit airborne transmission of pathogens in dental clinic offices is to inactivate viruses within a short time of their production and block the person-to-person transmission routes in dental clinics. For this, we can use chemical substances on surfaces and germicidal ultraviolet light (UV), typically at 254 nm, for complementary disinfection of surfaces and air contaminated by aerosols produced by high-speed handpiece or ultrasound scaler. Based on the literature review and the similarity of Sars-Cov-2 with other previously studied corovaviruses, COVID-19 is sensitive to UV irradiation that can break the genome of this virus, inactivating it. In our study, we performed the calculation of the time required to decontaminate a dental care room between each patient change. We can conclude that the use of UVC can be incorporated into the dental care routine to reduce cross contamination. (AU)


Os vírus podem se espalhar para o meio ambiente e pode ser um desafio eliminá-lo. Uma abordagem direta para limitar a transmissão aérea de patógenos nos consultórios de clínicas odontológicas é inativar os vírus o mais rápido possivel após sua produção e bloquear as rotas de transmissão de pessoa para pessoa nas clínicas odontológicas. Para isso, podemos usar substâncias químicas para limpar as superfícies e luz ultravioleta (UV) germicida (UV), normalmente a 254 nm, para desinfecção complementar de superfícies e ar contaminado por aerossóis produzidos pelo altarotação ou ultrassom periodontal. Com base na revisão de literatura e na semelhança do SarsCov-2 com outros corovavirus previamente estudados, o COVID-19 é sensível à irradiação UV que podem quebrar o genoma desse vírus, inativando-o. Em nosso estudo, realizamos o cálculo de tempo necessário para descontaminar uma sala de atendimento odontológico entre cada troca de paciente. Podemos concluir que a utilização de UVC pode ser incorporada à rotina de atendimento odontológico para reduzir a contaminação cruzada entre atendimentos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sterilization , Decontamination , Dentistry , Betacoronavirus
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(3): 310-315, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1114897

ABSTRACT

El SARS-CoV-2 es un tipo de coronavirus con un alto grado de contagio entre pacientes y personal de salud, por lo que ha provocado la emergencia sanitaria más grande de los últimos años. Los equipos de protección personal (EPP) tienen como indicación un único uso, sin embargo, la escasez de estos ha llevado a buscar métodos para descontaminarlos y reutilizarlos, asegurando su disponibilidad. La evidencia presenta múltiples procedimientos para descontaminar mascarillas con filtro respirador tipo N95 (MFR N95), pero el método ideal debe inactivar al patógeno, asegurar la integridad del filtro respirador, el ajuste de la mascarilla y la salud del personal que la utilizará. La descontaminación con peróxido de hidrógeno vaporizado, irradiación germicida ultravioleta e incubación con calor húmedo se presentan como los métodos más eficaces contra distintos patógenos. Ante la creciente demanda de EPP y MFR N95, se sugiere realizar más estudios clínicos, que evalúen la eficacia de los métodos de descontaminación específicamente contra SARS-CoV-2 y se generen protocolos que permitan reutilizar con total seguridad este vital elemento para el personal de salud.


SARS-CoV-2 is a type of coronavirus with a high risk of contagion among patients and health care workers (HCW), being the cause of the largest health emergency in recent years. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) are indicated for a single use. However, shortage has led to research new methods to decontaminate and reuse them, ensuring its availability. Evidence presents multiple procedures to decontaminate Filtering Facepiece Respirators type N95 (FFR), despite this, the ideal treatment should inactivate the pathogen, to ensure filter integrity, mask adjustments and the safety of who use this elements. Decontamination methods as vaporized hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and moist heat are the most effective procedures against different pathogens. Facing the rising demand of PPE and FFR, it's suggested to conduct researches to evaluate decontamination methods efficacy, and specifically against SARS-CoV-2, to generate protocols in ways to let to HCW reuse FFR N95 totally safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices , Decontamination/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Disinfection , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Equipment Reuse , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Filtration , Betacoronavirus , Masks
16.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-9, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1122070

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of decontamination methods on shear bond strength of resin cement to translucent monolithic zirconia. Material and Methods: Eighty 4-mol yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal specimens were fabricated. All specimens were subjected to saliva contamination and divided into four groups (n = 20) according to the decontamination methods: 70% isopropanol (AL); zirclean (ZC); 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL); and no cleaning (NC). All specimens were bonded by using self-adhesive resin cement. Half of the specimens in each group (n = 10) were subjected to aging. All specimens were subjected to shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The data obtained were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by the HSD Tukey test (p < 0.05). Results: ANOVA test revealed a significant difference among the different decontamination methods (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among NaOCL, ZC, and AL groups as revealed by the HSD Tukey test (p > 0.05). The effect of aging was significantly different in all groups (p < 0.05); whereas, no significant difference was found in group ZC (p > 0.05). The (SEM) analysis showed mixed failures in all groups, except in group NC where only adhesive failure was observed. Conclusion: Saliva contamination during clinical evaluation significantly decreases the shear bond strength between self-adhesive resin cement and translucent monolithic zirconia. The cleaning methods have an impact on improving the bond strength between resin cement and translucent monolithic zirconia (AU)


Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito dos métodos de descontaminação na resistência ao cisalhamento entre cimento resinoso e zircônia monolítica translúcida. Material e métodos: Foram fabricados oitenta espécimes policristalinos de zircônia tetragonal estabilizada com ítria a 4 mol. Todas as amostras foram submetidas à contaminação salivar e divididas em quatro grupos (n = 20) de acordo com os métodos de descontaminação: isopropanol a 70% (AL); zircleano (ZC); Hipoclorito de sódio a 5,25% (NaOCL); e sem limpeza (NC). Todas as amostras foram cimentadas utilizando um cimento resinoso autoadesivo. Metade das amostras de cada grupo(n = 10) foram submetidas ao envelhecimento. Todas as amostras foram submetidas ao teste de resistência ao cisalhamento em uma máquina de teste universal. Os módulos de falha foram avaliados usando um microscópio eletrônico de varredura (MEV). Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente utilizando ANOVA de uma via, seguida pelo teste de HSD Tukey (p < 0,05). Resultados: O teste ANOVA revelou diferença significativa entre os diferentes métodos de descontaminação (p < 0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos NaOCl, ZC e AL, conforme revelado pelo teste HSD Tukey (p> 0,05). O efeito do envelhecimento foi significativamente diferente em todos os grupos (p < 0,05); enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no grupo ZC (p > 0,05). A análise (SEM) mostrou falhas mistas em todos os grupos, exceto no grupo NC, onde apenas foi observada falha adesiva. Conclusão: A contaminação por saliva durante a avaliação clínica diminui significativamente a resistência ao cisalhamento entre o cimento resinoso autoadesivo e a zircônia monolítica translúcida. Os métodos de limpeza têm um impacto na melhoria da resistência da união entre o cimento resinoso e a zircônia monolítica translúcida. (AU)


Subject(s)
Sodium Hypochlorite , Decontamination , Resin Cements , 2-Propanol , Shear Strength
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200335, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132212

ABSTRACT

Abstract The spread of Coronavirus is causing in the society all around the world a considerable degree of fear, worry and concern and particularly among healthcare workers that are at increased risk for infection. This paper gathers the strategy/guidelines to reduce the contamination in Intensive care unit (ICU) and in all the hospital environment. The ASHRAE and REHVA guidelines applied the UV-C Lamps, Pressure control filtration, Restroom actions and Humidity control to reduce the coronavirus disease (Covid-19) in ICU. The role of infection control in the design of hospitals is increasing every day. This paper highlights the role of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning minimizing the risk of infection from airborne transmission within the built environment through the application of best practices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Decontamination/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Indoor Air , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units/standards
18.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 60(3): 86-90, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146625

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Encuestar a cirujanos de rodilla en Chile, sobre su conducta en contaminaciones accidentales del injerto, en reconstrucciones de ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA). MÉTODOS: Se realizó una encuesta anónima en relación a la incidencia, tratamiento y resultados clínicos de los injertos de LCA contaminados, a todos los médicos pertenecientes al área de traumatología y ortopedia asistentes al congreso Ateneo de rodilla 2015. RESULTADOS: Se encuestaron 54 médicos, 33 (61%) especialistas en cirugía de rodilla y 21 (39%) médicos en formación. De los cirujanos de rodilla, 15 (45%) reportaron al menos un caso de contaminación, de los cuales 12 (80%) informaron un único evento, 3 (20%) indicaron la eventualidad en 2, 3 y 5 ocasiones respectivamente, para un total de 22 injertos contaminados. De los cirujanos que reportaron injertos contaminados, 11 (73%) realizan 50 o más reconstrucciones al año. La decisión tomada en los casos de contaminación fue en 13 oportunidades (59%), lavar el injerto y utilizarlo de acuerdo al plan inicial; en 6 casos (27%), utilizar aloinjerto; en 2 ocasiones (9%), utilizar autoinjerto alternativo; y en 1 oportunidad (5%); triplicar el semitendinoso. Ninguno de los casos de contaminación reportó infecciones. CONCLUSIONES: En casos de una contaminación accidental, la mayoría de los cirujanos encuestados prefieren optar por la descontaminación del injerto y su utilización en la reconstrucción de acuerdo al plan inicial; para lo cual la clorhexidina y antibióticos sería la solución a usar de preferencia. NIVEL DE EVIDENCIA: Nivel V, opinión de experto.


OBJECTIVE: To survey knee surgeons who perform anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in Chile, about the management when ACL graft contamination occurs. METHODS: An anonymous survey was conducted to all physicians belonging to the area of traumatology and orthopedics who attended the 2015 annual Chilean Knee Society meeting. The survey questioned the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of ACL graft contaminations. RESULTS: Fifty-four physicians were surveyed, of which 33 (61%) where knee surgeons and 21 (39%) physicians in training. Of the 33 knee surgeons, 15 (45%) reported at least one contamination during their career. Of those 15, 12 (80%) had one event, and three surgeons (20%) informed having 2, 3, and 5 episodes respectively, for a total of 22 reported contaminated grafts. Of the surgeons who reported a contaminated graft, 11 (73%) performed 50 or more ACL reconstructions annually. In 13 opportunities (59%) the management for a contaminated graft was cleansing the graft and proceeding as planned. In 6 cases (27%) an allograft was used, in 2 occasions (9%) a different graft was harvested, and in 1 opportunity (5%) a semitendinosus graft triplication was performed. No infections in any of the contaminated grafts were reported. CONCLUSIONS: In case of accidental graft contamination during an ACL reconstruction, knee surgeons most often preferred disinfecting the graft and using it as the initial plan. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, expert opinion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Accidents , Equipment Contamination/statistics & numerical data , Transplants/microbiology , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods , Orthopedic Surgeons/psychology , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Sterilization/methods , Decontamination , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Allografts/microbiology , Autografts/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents
19.
South. Afr. j. crit. care (Online) ; 35(2): 43-47, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1272280

ABSTRACT

Background. The internal surfaces of pulse oximeter probes may be overlooked as hot spots for pathogenic microorganisms in an intensive care unit (ICU), thereby contributing to the high incidence of hospital-acquired infections. Objectives. To determine the growth and identification of microorganisms on pulse oximeter probes in the multidisciplinary ICU (MICU) at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and the burns ICU (BICU) at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, before and after decontamination. Methods. This was a cross-sectional, comparative and contextual study, using purposive sampling. Data were collected from the internal surfaces of 34 pulse oximeter probes in a MICU and BICU. Each pulse oximeter probe was swabbed before and after decontamination. The endemic microorganism profile for the two ICUs was obtained from a laboratory database. Results. Internal surfaces of 31 (91%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 - 0.98) pulse oximeter probes were contaminated with 9 different pathogenic microorganisms pre decontamination. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were endemic to both ICUs, and were the most-frequently isolated microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism endemic to both ICUs, isolated on the internal surfaces of only 2 pulse oximeter probes. Of the internal surfaces of pulse oximeter probes, 6 (18%; 95% CI 0.07 - 0.35) remained contaminated post decontamination, with a microorganism growth reduction of 80% (p=0.0001). Conclusion. The internal surfaces of pulse oximeter probes may serve as hot spots for an array of pathogens with the potential to cause infection and outbreaks in ICUs. Decontamination of the internal surfaces of pulse oximeter probes should be emphasised


Subject(s)
DNA Contamination , Decontamination , Intensive Care Units , South Africa
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787381

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate effect of saliva decontamination procedures on microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of 1-step self-etching adhesives to dentin of primary posterior teeth.63 sound primary-posterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups according to different kinds of 1-step self-etching adhesives: Scotchbond™ Universal Adhesive (SBU), All-Bond Universal® (ABU), and Tetric® N Bond Universal (TBU). Each group was randomly categorized into 7 subgroups: (I) application of adhesive without saliva contamination (control); (II – IV) contamination by saliva before photopolymerization; (V – VII) contamination by saliva after photopolymerization; (II, V) decontamination by drying; (III, VI) decontamination by washing and drying; (IV, VII) decontamination by washing, drying, and reapplication of adhesive. All samples were cut into the blocks. At least 15 blocks were tested for each subgroup.For SBU and ABU, the MTBS values of subgroups (I, IV, VII) were significantly higher than those of subgroups (II, III, V, VI). For TBU, the MTBS values of subgroups (I, IV) was significantly higher than those of subgroup (II, III, V, VI).The MTBS of 3 adhesives was reduced by saliva contamination. The adhesive strength on dentin of primary posterior teeth was restored by reapplication of the adhesives after washing and drying.


Subject(s)
Adhesives , Decontamination , Dentin , Saliva , Tooth
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